1• The presentations cover the objectives found in theopening of each chapter.• All chapter objectives are listed in the b...
Guide to TCP/IPFourth EditionChapter 1:Introducing TCP/IP
Objectives• Describe TCP/IP’s origins and history• Explain the process by which TCP/IP standardsand other documents, calle...
Objectives (cont’d.)• Describe the Open Systems Interconnectionnetwork reference model, often used tocharacterize network ...
5What is TCP/IP?• Large collection of networking protocols andservices• Two key protocols– Transmission Control Protocol (...
6The Origins and History of TCP/IP• 1969– Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) fundedresearch for packet-switched netw...
7TCP/IP’s Design Goals• To withstand a potential nuclear strike• To permit different computer systems tocommunicate easily...
TCP/IP Chronology• 1978– Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)• 1983– Defense Communications Agency took overoperation of ARP...
TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 1989– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 100,000• 1990– World Wide Web is born at Centre E...
TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 1993– InterNIC is chartered• 1994– Online junk mail begins to proliferate• 1995– Netscape laun...
TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 2000– Love Letter worm infects over one million PCs• 2001– Number of hosts on the Internet bre...
TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 2005– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 250 million• 2008– Number of hosts on the Interne...
13Who “Owns” TCP/IP?• TCP/IP– Falls squarely into the public domain– Funded with public monies since its inception– Owned ...
Standards Groups That OverseeTCP/IP• Internet Society (ISOC)• Internet Architecture Board (IAB)• Internet Engineering Task...
IPv4 and IPv6• IPv4– Established mid- to late-1980s– Uses 32-bit addresses (around four billion distinctnetwork addresses)...
TCP/IP Standards and RFCs• Request For Comments (RFCs)– Provide documentation to understand, implement,and use TCP/IP prot...
OSI Reference Model Overview• OSI reference model– A network reference model– Formally known as ISO/OSI– Designed to repla...
Breaking Networking into Layers• Divide and conquer approach– Separates networking hardware concerns fromthose related to ...
Models Break Networking into Layers(contd.)• Key points about networking– Individual layers work together on pairs of comp...
The ISO/OSI Network ReferenceModel Layers20Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserv...
How Protocol Layers Behave• Layers– Exist to encapsulate or isolate specific types offunctionality– Provide services to th...
Physical Layer• Includes the physical transmission medium• Job is to activate, maintain, and deactivate networkconnections...
Data Link Layer• Situated between the Physical layer and theNetwork layer in the reference model• Job is to– Enable reliab...
Network Layer• Handles logical addresses associated withindividual machines on a network• Uses addressing information to– ...
Transport Layer• Ensures reliable end-to-end transmission of PDUs• Includes end-to-end error-detection and error-recovery•...
Session Layer• Defines mechanisms to:– Permit senders and receivers to request that aconversation start or stop– Keep a co...
Presentation Layer• Handles transforming data from:– Generic, network-oriented forms of expression tomore specific, platfo...
28Application Layer• Defines an interface that applications can use torequest network services• Defines a set of access co...
The TCP/IP Networking Model• Design model that describes TCP/IP differssomewhat from OSI reference model• Transport layers...
30The TCP/IP Networking Model(cont’d.)Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
31TCP/IP Network Access Layer• Includes Ethernet, token ring, and wireless mediadevices• Includes WAN and connection-manag...
32TCP/IP Network Access LayerProtocols• PPP– Most important TCP/IP Network Access layerprotocol• PPPoE (“PPP over Ethernet...
TCP/IP Internet Layer Functions• Handle routing between machines across multiplenetworks• Three primary tasks– MTU fragmen...
TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols• Protocols include:– Internet Protocol (IP)– Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)– Pac...
TCP/IP Transport Layer Functions• Functions– Reliable delivery of data from sender to receiver– Segmentation of outgoing m...
TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols• Two TCP/IP Transport layer protocols– The transmission Control Protocol (TCP)• Connectio...
37TCP/IP Application Layer• Also known as the Process layer• TCP/IP services depend on:– Special “listener process,” calle...
TCP/IP Protocols, Services, Sockets,And Ports• Multiplexing– Combining various sources of outgoing data into asingle outpu...
TCP/IP Protocol Numbers39Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
TCP/IP Port Numbers• TCP/IP application processes– Sometimes called network services– Identified by port numbers• Source p...
TCP/IP Sockets• Well-known or registered ports– Represent preassigned port numbers• Socket address (or socket)– The combin...
Data Encapsulation In TCP/IP• At each layer in the TCP/IP protocol stack– Outgoing data is packaged and identified for del...
43Protocol Analysis• Protocol analysis is the process of:– Tapping into the network communications system– Capturing packe...
44Useful Roles for Protocol Analysis• Used to troubleshoot network communications• Used to test networks– Passive– Active•...
45Protocol Analyzer Elements• Elements include:– Promiscuous mode card and driver– Packet filters– Trace buffer– Decodes– ...
Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)• Figure 1-3 is watermarked and needs to beinserted here46Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Co...
Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)47Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)48Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
49Placing a Protocol Analyzer on aNetwork• Protocol analyzer– Captures packets that it can see on the network• On network ...
50Placing a Protocol Analyzer on aNetworkIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Summary• TCP/IP design goals– To support multiple, packet-switched pathwaysthrough the network– To permit dissimilar compu...
Summary (contd.)• Initial implementations of TCP/IP– Funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency• TCP/IP remains in the pu...
Summary (contd.)• ISO/OSI network reference model– Breaks networking into seven distinct layers• TCP/IP uses a variety of ...
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  1. 1. 1• The presentations cover the objectives found in theopening of each chapter.• All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning ofeach presentation.• You may customize the presentations to fit yourclass needs.• Some figures from the chapters are included. Acomplete set of images from the book can be foundon the Instructor Resources disc.About the Presentations
  2. 2. Guide to TCP/IPFourth EditionChapter 1:Introducing TCP/IP
  3. 3. Objectives• Describe TCP/IP’s origins and history• Explain the process by which TCP/IP standardsand other documents, called Requests forComments (RFCs), are created, debated, andformalized (where appropriate)• Describe the “huge difference” between IPv4 andIPv6 and explain why a switch to IPv6 is bothnecessary and inevitableIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. Objectives (cont’d.)• Describe the Open Systems Interconnectionnetwork reference model, often used tocharacterize network protocols and services, andhow it relates to TCP/IP’s own internal networkingmodel• Define the terms involved and explain how TCP/IPprotocols, sockets, and ports are identified• Describe data encapsulation and how it relates tothe four layers of the TCP/IP protocol stack• Describe and apply the basic practices andprinciples that underlie network protocol analysis4Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. 5What is TCP/IP?• Large collection of networking protocols andservices• Two key protocols– Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)• Reliable delivery of messages– Internet Protocol (IP)• Manages the routing of network transmissionsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. 6The Origins and History of TCP/IP• 1969– Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) fundedresearch for packet-switched networking– ARPANET• Network built as a result of this project• In a packet-switched network– Sender and receiver are identified by unique networkaddresses– Packets are not required to follow the same path intransitIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. 7TCP/IP’s Design Goals• To withstand a potential nuclear strike• To permit different computer systems tocommunicate easily• To interconnect systems across long distancesIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. TCP/IP Chronology• 1978– Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)• 1983– Defense Communications Agency took overoperation of ARPANET• 1986– NSF launches high-speed network (NSFNET)• 1987– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 10,0008Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 1989– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 100,000• 1990– World Wide Web is born at Centre EuropeanResearche Nucleaire (CERN)• 1991– Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) is formed• 1992– Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered9Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 1993– InterNIC is chartered• 1994– Online junk mail begins to proliferate• 1995– Netscape launches Netscape Navigator• 1996– Microsoft launches Internet Explorer Web browser• 1997– 31 million registered domain names10Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 2000– Love Letter worm infects over one million PCs• 2001– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 150 million– Sircam virus and Code Red worm infect thousands• 2002– 204 million Internet hosts• 2003– Public Interest Registry becomes .org registryoperator11Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. TCP/IP Chronology (contd.)• 2005– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 250 million• 2008– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks 600 million• 2009– Number of hosts on the Internet breaks one billion– Number of Chinese users surpasses the number ofU.S. users12Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. 13Who “Owns” TCP/IP?• TCP/IP– Falls squarely into the public domain– Funded with public monies since its inception– Owned by everybody and nobodyIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Standards Groups That OverseeTCP/IP• Internet Society (ISOC)• Internet Architecture Board (IAB)• Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)• Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)• Internet Corporation for Assigned Names andNumbers (ICANN)14Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. IPv4 and IPv6• IPv4– Established mid- to late-1980s– Uses 32-bit addresses (around four billion distinctnetwork addresses)– Entire address space now occupied• IPv6– Supports 128-bit addresses– Address space roughly 8 * 1028 larger than IPv4space15Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. TCP/IP Standards and RFCs• Request For Comments (RFCs)– Provide documentation to understand, implement,and use TCP/IP protocols• Index for all RFCs available at:– www.faqs.org/rfcs/• RFC 2026– Describes how a RFC is created16Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. OSI Reference Model Overview• OSI reference model– A network reference model– Formally known as ISO/OSI– Designed to replace TCP/IP– Standard way to explain how networks operate– TCP/IP is the open standard protocol suite of choice17Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Breaking Networking into Layers• Divide and conquer approach– Separates networking hardware concerns fromthose related to networking software• Key points about networking– Easier to solve problems when broken into series ofsmaller problems– Layers operate independently of one another– Changes to one layer need not affect other layers18Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Models Break Networking into Layers(contd.)• Key points about networking– Individual layers work together on pairs of computers– Different expertise is needed at each layer– Layers in a network implementation work together tocreate a general solution– Network protocols usually map into one or morelayers– TCP/IP is designed around a layered model19Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. The ISO/OSI Network ReferenceModel Layers20Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. How Protocol Layers Behave• Layers– Exist to encapsulate or isolate specific types offunctionality– Provide services to the layer above– Deliver data to or accept data from the layer below• Protocol Data Units (PDUs)– Include “envelope information” in the form of specificheaders and trailers21Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Physical Layer• Includes the physical transmission medium• Job is to activate, maintain, and deactivate networkconnections• Manages communications with the networkmedium going down the protocol stack• Handles conversion of outgoing data22Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Data Link Layer• Situated between the Physical layer and theNetwork layer in the reference model• Job is to– Enable reliable transmission of data through thePhysical layer at the sending end– Check reliability at the receiving end• Manages point-to-point transmission across thenetworking medium23Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Network Layer• Handles logical addresses associated withindividual machines on a network• Uses addressing information to– Determine how to send a PDU• Embodies notion of multiple simultaneousconnections between different IP addresses• Flexible enough to– Recognize and use multiple routes between asender and a receiver24Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Transport Layer• Ensures reliable end-to-end transmission of PDUs• Includes end-to-end error-detection and error-recovery• Segmentation– Involves cutting up a big message into a numberedsequence of chunks, called segments• PDUs used at the Transport layer are calledsegments, or data segments25Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Session Layer• Defines mechanisms to:– Permit senders and receivers to request that aconversation start or stop– Keep a conversation going even when traffic maynot otherwise flow between the parties involved• Checkpoints– Define the last point up to which successfulcommunications are known to have occurred26Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Presentation Layer• Handles transforming data from:– Generic, network-oriented forms of expression tomore specific, platform-oriented forms of expression• A redirector or network shell– Special computer facility that resides here• Can supply special data-handling functions forapplications27Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. 28Application Layer• Defines an interface that applications can use torequest network services• Defines a set of access controls over the network• PDUs– Generically called Application PDUsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. The TCP/IP Networking Model• Design model that describes TCP/IP differssomewhat from OSI reference model• Transport layers for both models map togetherquite well as does the– Network layer from the OSI reference model and theInternet layer from the TCP/IP model29Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. 30The TCP/IP Networking Model(cont’d.)Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. 31TCP/IP Network Access Layer• Includes Ethernet, token ring, and wireless mediadevices• Includes WAN and connection-managementprotocols• The IEEE standards for networking apply– Including the IEEE 802 family of standardsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. 32TCP/IP Network Access LayerProtocols• PPP– Most important TCP/IP Network Access layerprotocol• PPPoE (“PPP over Ethernet” )– Widely used on Ethernet networks or those withEthernet-like characteristics• Other non-TCP/IP protocol suites:– High-level Data Link Control (HDLC)– Frame relay– Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. TCP/IP Internet Layer Functions• Handle routing between machines across multiplenetworks• Three primary tasks– MTU fragmentation– Addressing– Routing33Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols• Protocols include:– Internet Protocol (IP)– Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)– Packet Internetwork Groper (PING)– Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)– Reverse ARP (RARP)– Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)– Routing Information Protocol (RIP)– Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)– Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)34Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. TCP/IP Transport Layer Functions• Functions– Reliable delivery of data from sender to receiver– Segmentation of outgoing messages and theirreassembly prior to delivery to the Application layer• Hosts– Devices that operate on the Internet35Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  36. 36. TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols• Two TCP/IP Transport layer protocols– The transmission Control Protocol (TCP)• Connection-oriented– The User Datagram Protocol (UDP)• Connectionless• UDP– Transmits data in a “best-effort delivery”– Does no follow-up checking on its receipt36Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  37. 37. 37TCP/IP Application Layer• Also known as the Process layer• TCP/IP services depend on:– Special “listener process,” called a daemon• Operates on a server to handle incoming userrequests for specific services– Each TCP/IP service has an associated port addressIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  38. 38. TCP/IP Protocols, Services, Sockets,And Ports• Multiplexing– Combining various sources of outgoing data into asingle output data stream• Demultiplexing– Breaking up an incoming data stream so separateportions may be delivered to the correct applications• Well-known protocols– Assign a series of numbers to represent a sizablecollection of TCP/IP-based network services38Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 39. TCP/IP Protocol Numbers39Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  40. 40. TCP/IP Port Numbers• TCP/IP application processes– Sometimes called network services– Identified by port numbers• Source port number– Identifies the process that sent the data• Destination port number– Identifies the process to receive that data40Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  41. 41. TCP/IP Sockets• Well-known or registered ports– Represent preassigned port numbers• Socket address (or socket)– The combination of a particular IP address and adynamically assigned port address41Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  42. 42. Data Encapsulation In TCP/IP• At each layer in the TCP/IP protocol stack– Outgoing data is packaged and identified for deliveryto the layer underneath• Header (or packet header)– PDU’s own particular opening component– Identifies the protocol in use, the sender, and theintended recipient• Trailer (or packet trailer)– Provides data integrity checks for the payload42Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  43. 43. 43Protocol Analysis• Protocol analysis is the process of:– Tapping into the network communications system– Capturing packets– Gathering network statistics– Decoding packets• Protocol analyzer– “Eavesdrops” on network communicationsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  44. 44. 44Useful Roles for Protocol Analysis• Used to troubleshoot network communications• Used to test networks– Passive– Active• Gather trends on network performance• Analyzers available for variety of platformsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  45. 45. 45Protocol Analyzer Elements• Elements include:– Promiscuous mode card and driver– Packet filters– Trace buffer– Decodes– Alarms– StatisticsIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  46. 46. Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)• Figure 1-3 is watermarked and needs to beinserted here46Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  47. 47. Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)47Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  48. 48. Protocol Analyzer Elements (cont’d.)48Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  49. 49. 49Placing a Protocol Analyzer on aNetwork• Protocol analyzer– Captures packets that it can see on the network• On network connected with hubs– You can place analyzer anywhere on the network• Options for analyzing switched networks– Hubbing out– Port redirection– Remote Monitoring (RMON)Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  50. 50. 50Placing a Protocol Analyzer on aNetworkIntroducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  51. 51. Summary• TCP/IP design goals– To support multiple, packet-switched pathwaysthrough the network– To permit dissimilar computer systems to easilyexchange data– To offer robust, reliable delivery services for bothshort- and long-haul communications– To provide comprehensive network access withglobal scope51Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  52. 52. Summary (contd.)• Initial implementations of TCP/IP– Funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency• TCP/IP remains in the public domain• As Standard RFCs go through approval processthey begin as Proposed Standard documents• Best Current Practice (BCP)– An informational (non-standard) RFC• IPv6 supports an enormous number of networkaddresses52Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  53. 53. Summary (contd.)• ISO/OSI network reference model– Breaks networking into seven distinct layers• TCP/IP uses a variety of encapsulation techniquesat its various layers to– Label the type of data contained in the contents, orpayloads, of its PDUs• Protocol analysis– Network interface inspects all traffic moving across asegment of network medium53Introducing TCP/IP © 2013 Course Technology/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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