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Lubricant Sampling
• Oil analysis using valves and gravity
• Drop tube sampling
• Retrofit sampling mini-mess
• Importance...
Grease Sampling
• Historically during disassembly following failure
• Using “popsicle stick”, screwdriver, cable ties
• Sa...
Motor Operated Valves (MOV)
• EPRI method using
plastic tubing at gears
• Grease removed and
visually inspected
• Kits mad...
Grease sampling devices
• Maintain purge function with little/no backpressure
when threaded into machine
• Can be attached...
Sampling Techniques
• MOV Gearbox
1 2 3 4 5
• Electric Motor Bearing
1 2 3 4 5
• Pillow Block Bearing
1 2 3 4
Sampler Effectiveness
MOV Test Stand-EPRI Project
•Actuators filled with in-service grease
•Cycled forward and backward
•Produced video of greas...
Wear monitoring
• Hall effect sensor counts total ferrous debris
level of sample, not the variable amount
through the body...
Wear Evaluation
Wind Turbine Lubricant Monitoring
11
Wind Turbine grease sampling and analysis
• 2-year project conducted with DONG Energy and
Vattenfall, two largest offshore...
Wind Main Bearing Sampling
• Grease flow dependent on
temperature, bearing
movement
• Grease Thief & T-handle
used to capt...
ASTM Standard Development
• Incorporation of grease sampling research
• Inclusion of historical methods for sampling
with ...
Scope and Terminology (ASTM D7718)
• Inservice grease samples, various components
• Requirements for multiple samples
• “P...
General Procedures (ASTM D7718)
• cleanliness of sampling tools
• homogeneity of samples
• uniformity and design of the sa...
Active Sampling
• Introducing a device to the surface or inside of a
machine
• “Stinger probe” allows for the positioning ...
Active Sampling
• T-handle Coring with active
or passive sampler
• Spatula and syringe on
pillow block
• Syringe and tubin...
Passive Sampling
• Threaded or attached to machine
• Normal or initiated purging of reservoir displaces
into sampler
• Mus...
Failure Analysis
• Proper handling of
specimen
• Separation of external
dirt/debris
• Removal of shields and seals
• Extra...
Cautions and Concerns
• Use of plastic tubing may not properly suction
all representative grease, point of sampling may
va...
Acceptance and Use
• D7718 is basis for AWEA Recommended Practices for
wind turbine sampling
– 812 Grease Sampling - Main ...
Next Steps
• Development of ASTM Standard for Grease Analysis
– Integrated Tester section of ASTM with a balloted Work Ite...
Analysis Techniques
Sample is received. fdM+ is run Die extrusion is performed and substrate is made
Two strips are used t...
Die Extrusion Analyzer
Grease Consistency – Back Bearings in a USA
Wind Farm: Outliers in Yellow
Optical Spectroscopy
•Optical spectroscopy quantifies the appearance of grease
•Grease aging, contaminants, mixtures, chem...
FdM Wear Levels across Wind Farm
28
3-D Sampling, OEM repair shop
3-D sampling
Trends of moisture in bearings
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Moisture,ppm
314 Front
314 Rear
319 Front
319 Rear
Gr...
Wear levels in Robot fleet-comparison
ASTM D7718 Sampling Standard (topic presented at OilDoc2015)
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ASTM D7718 Sampling Standard (topic presented at OilDoc2015)

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An overview of the methods outlined in ASTM D7718. Topic to be presented to attendees at the OilDoc2015 Conference held in Rosenheim, Bavaria, Germany on January 29, 2015.

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ASTM D7718 Sampling Standard (topic presented at OilDoc2015)

  1. 1. Lubricant Sampling • Oil analysis using valves and gravity • Drop tube sampling • Retrofit sampling mini-mess • Importance of sample location • Drop tube point of sample uncertain Image from Noria Corporation
  2. 2. Grease Sampling • Historically during disassembly following failure • Using “popsicle stick”, screwdriver, cable ties • Samples only available near access points, ports • “Grab Sample” has similar limitations to “Drop Tube Sampling” • ASTM Grease subcommittee initiates working group to develop sampling standard, 2009 • Projects initiated in USA and Denmark to test effectiveness of grease sampling in 2010, 2012
  3. 3. Motor Operated Valves (MOV) • EPRI method using plastic tubing at gears • Grease removed and visually inspected • Kits made utilizing known consistency greases for comparison to obtained sample • Questionable samples; very subjective analysis Photos: Bolt, et. al. Machinery Lubrication Magazine. May 2003
  4. 4. Grease sampling devices • Maintain purge function with little/no backpressure when threaded into machine • Can be attached to T-handle for precise sample location adjacent to internal gears • Design to optimize the analysis process
  5. 5. Sampling Techniques • MOV Gearbox 1 2 3 4 5 • Electric Motor Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 • Pillow Block Bearing 1 2 3 4
  6. 6. Sampler Effectiveness
  7. 7. MOV Test Stand-EPRI Project •Actuators filled with in-service grease •Cycled forward and backward •Produced video of grease flow •Data on consistency of wear levels
  8. 8. Wear monitoring • Hall effect sensor counts total ferrous debris level of sample, not the variable amount through the body of grease Method Average Standard Deviation Relative Standard Deviation fdM+ 277 ppm 7 2.53 DR- 205 46 22.44 RDE 57 ppm 16 28.07 Method Average Standard Deviation Relative Standard Deviation fdM+ 277 ppm 7 2.53 DR- 205 46 22.44 RDE 57 ppm 16 28.07
  9. 9. Wear Evaluation
  10. 10. Wind Turbine Lubricant Monitoring 11
  11. 11. Wind Turbine grease sampling and analysis • 2-year project conducted with DONG Energy and Vattenfall, two largest offshore wind operators in the world • Dr. Kim Esbensen, internationally recognized expert in Theory of Sampling (TOS), Denmark • Rich Wurzbach, MRG Labs, inventor of Grease Thief • Systematic evaluation of grease heterogeneity, sampling methodology, and analysis validity and repeatability for wind turbine main bearings in on-shore and off-shore applications • Results published at OilDoc, LUBMAT, and AWEA Richard Wurzbach– OilDoc Conference 2015
  12. 12. Wind Main Bearing Sampling • Grease flow dependent on temperature, bearing movement • Grease Thief & T-handle used to capture flowing grease • Revised T-handle developed for Denmark Off-shore Wind Research Project 13
  13. 13. ASTM Standard Development • Incorporation of grease sampling research • Inclusion of historical methods for sampling with considerations and limitations • Failed component sampling, care in obtaining sample or multiple samples • Use of tubing, adequacy of suction alone, possibility of peripheral grease sampling • Inclusion of new technologies for active and passive sampling Richard Wurzbach– OilDoc Conference 2015
  14. 14. Scope and Terminology (ASTM D7718) • Inservice grease samples, various components • Requirements for multiple samples • “Passive” and “Active” sampling • “Actuate” to take core samples • Hazards and Cautions Active Grease-Sampling Device (shown as Fig. 1 in ASTM D7718)Passive Grease-Sampling Device (shown as Fig. 3 in ASTM D7718)
  15. 15. General Procedures (ASTM D7718) • cleanliness of sampling tools • homogeneity of samples • uniformity and design of the sampling devices • operator training and knowledge of equipment being • shipping considerations and sample labelling • containers and protective sleeves to prevent leakage and co-mixing of samples
  16. 16. Active Sampling • Introducing a device to the surface or inside of a machine • “Stinger probe” allows for the positioning of the device adjacent to target surface • Use of an extending handle to reach set depth within machine • Use of tubing to extract sample, possibly with suction • Use of spatula or soft tool to extract from accessible surface (pillow block, open gear)
  17. 17. Active Sampling • T-handle Coring with active or passive sampler • Spatula and syringe on pillow block • Syringe and tubine on slewing bearing “Taking a sample” from Rothe Erde “Grease Sampling Set” instructions
  18. 18. Passive Sampling • Threaded or attached to machine • Normal or initiated purging of reservoir displaces into sampler • Must have provision for proper purge; overgreasing must be avoided • Sample prevents contamination from surroundings during purge
  19. 19. Failure Analysis • Proper handling of specimen • Separation of external dirt/debris • Removal of shields and seals • Extraction of grease sample; need for multiple samples • Correlation to observed conditions, history and metallurgy
  20. 20. Cautions and Concerns • Use of plastic tubing may not properly suction all representative grease, point of sampling may vary, as in oil “drop-tube” sampling • Samples must be taken from “live-zone” in the machine, understanding of flow dynamics important • Sample must be properly labeled and protected during shipment • Quantity must be sufficient for required tests
  21. 21. Acceptance and Use • D7718 is basis for AWEA Recommended Practices for wind turbine sampling – 812 Grease Sampling - Main Bearing – 813 Grease Sampling - Generator Bearing – 814 Grease Sampling - Pitch Bearing – 815 Grease Analysis • Used by largest operators in Danish Offshore Wind industry • Published by US Nuclear Industry in “Effective Grease Practices” NMAC Guideline • Analysis utilized by labs in Europe, Asia, North America • Sampling kits used on six continents around the globe
  22. 22. Next Steps • Development of ASTM Standard for Grease Analysis – Integrated Tester section of ASTM with a balloted Work Item –Currently in Interlaboratory Study (ILS) in US labs for precision statement – Laboratories in Asia, Europe and North America to participate in development of methods • Development of “Slim” version of sampler to access rail locomotive wheel bearings, wind bearings • Mini-lab development for “In-Sampler” Analysis, including ferrous debris, colorimetry • Real-time particle counting in grease processed between two samplers • Major lubricant manufacturers worldwide utilizing for support of customer base
  23. 23. Analysis Techniques Sample is received. fdM+ is run Die extrusion is performed and substrate is made Two strips are used to make a dilution to run RDE/ICP. One Strip is used for FT-IR. One Strip is Dissolved in Green RULER solution to run RULER. 24
  24. 24. Die Extrusion Analyzer
  25. 25. Grease Consistency – Back Bearings in a USA Wind Farm: Outliers in Yellow
  26. 26. Optical Spectroscopy •Optical spectroscopy quantifies the appearance of grease •Grease aging, contaminants, mixtures, chemometrics 27
  27. 27. FdM Wear Levels across Wind Farm 28
  28. 28. 3-D Sampling, OEM repair shop
  29. 29. 3-D sampling
  30. 30. Trends of moisture in bearings 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Moisture,ppm 314 Front 314 Rear 319 Front 319 Rear Grease type: SKF LGWM1 • Thickener: Li • Base oil: Mineral oil • Viscosity @ 40C: 200 cSt • NLGI-class: 1
  31. 31. Wear levels in Robot fleet-comparison

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