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Cholera
By: Romy W.
What is Cholera?
Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio
cholerae bacteria
Where does it hit?
Vibrio cholerae rapidly multiply once ingested and attack the small intestine. Toxins
from the bacteria penetrate the cells of the intestinal wall and prevent water
absorption.
If left untreated Cholera can also lead to kidney failure
How do you know it's Cholera?
People infected with Cholera present with:
● Profuse watery diarrhea, sometimes called “rice water” stool
● Vomiting
● Thirst
● Leg cramps
● Restlessness or irritability
How do you know it's Cholera?
Healthcare professionals should look for signs of dehydration in their patients. This
includes:
● Elevated heart rate
● Loss of skin elasticity
● Dry mucous membranes
● Low blood pressure
People with severe Cholera can develop severe dehydration which can result in kidney
failure. If left untreated severe dehydration can lead to shock, coma, and death within
hours.
How do you get Cholera?
Cholera is contracted by ingesting food or water
contaminated with the Vibrio cholerae bacteria.
It is also possible to encounter naturally occurring
bacteria through shellfish that is undercooked or raw.
If you’re around an individual infected with Cholera it is
possible to become infected through contact with fecal
matter as large numbers of bacteria are shed in stool.
Large scale epidemics are often caused by fecal
contamination in water supplies or contaminated food
sold on large scales like street vendors.

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Cholera Romy W. (3).pptx

  • 2. What is Cholera? Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria
  • 3. Where does it hit? Vibrio cholerae rapidly multiply once ingested and attack the small intestine. Toxins from the bacteria penetrate the cells of the intestinal wall and prevent water absorption. If left untreated Cholera can also lead to kidney failure
  • 4. How do you know it's Cholera? People infected with Cholera present with: ● Profuse watery diarrhea, sometimes called “rice water” stool ● Vomiting ● Thirst ● Leg cramps ● Restlessness or irritability
  • 5. How do you know it's Cholera? Healthcare professionals should look for signs of dehydration in their patients. This includes: ● Elevated heart rate ● Loss of skin elasticity ● Dry mucous membranes ● Low blood pressure People with severe Cholera can develop severe dehydration which can result in kidney failure. If left untreated severe dehydration can lead to shock, coma, and death within hours.
  • 6. How do you get Cholera? Cholera is contracted by ingesting food or water contaminated with the Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It is also possible to encounter naturally occurring bacteria through shellfish that is undercooked or raw. If you’re around an individual infected with Cholera it is possible to become infected through contact with fecal matter as large numbers of bacteria are shed in stool. Large scale epidemics are often caused by fecal contamination in water supplies or contaminated food sold on large scales like street vendors.
  • 7. Treatment Plan Most people that contract Cholera experience no symptoms or very mild symptoms. Only 10% of cases become severe and if they receive swift medical intervention will be cured. The main treatment for Cholera is Rehydration Therapy where fluids and salts are promptly restored to the patient either orally or intravenously. In severe cases Antibiotic Treatment is used which reduces the fluids needed and speeds recovery. There is also a Zinc treatment proven effective in children.
  • 8. Cholera in Canada Cholera is a very rare disease in Canada with around 1 case a year being reported. Most of the cases reported in Canada are from individuals that have traveled to areas where Cholera is more prevalent. There is naturally occurring Vibrio cholerae bacteria in the coastal waters worldwide including BC but it rarely results in severe cases. The last epidemic outbreak of Cholera in Canada occurred in 1881 in Halifax. Cholera is considered a “reportable disease” meaning that it is reported to provincial or federal governments depending on the severity of the case.
  • 9. Cholera and the Funeral Industry Cholera is not considered a disease that needs extra precautions when it comes to health and safety. With the use of normal disinfection and PPE it will not be communicable. When someone has passed from Cholera it is usually from severe dehydration that was left untreated. This can result in severe emaciation and sunken features especially the eyes. With severe dehydration that has been left untreated kidney failure is also possible which could result in jaundice.
  • 10. How Cholera affects those left behind If someone passes from Cholera in Canada it may come as quite a shock to the family as it is considered a treatable disease that is easily cured with medical intervention. Cholera is endemic in places without access to clean drinking water or sanitation practices so there may be some stigma associated with the death. It may be seen as an issue only dealt with in third world countries. There may be some confusion from the family as to why appropriate medical treatment wasn’t sought out in time to prevent the individual passing away. There may also be some fear of transmission as well as many people aren’t fully aware of how Cholera is spread.