The sea cannot be fenced, visual backdrop for this presentation
In other words, as the Borderlands metaphor is universalized to discuss the complex identities of all people, it becomes difficult to recognize the particular struggles that come with internal conflicts between subaltern and dominant cultures.
Interestingly, identification with the community can occur even when students do not share key characteristics like race with the clients; having a border dweller identity may allow students to understand aspects of oppression even if the type of otherization is different. For example, Henry narrates the experience of a white, low-income student who made connections between class-based discrimination she had experienced at the university and the obstacles her ESL service-learning partners faced; these affinities fostered empathy even though the social borders she and her service-learning partners struggled against were not the same (Henry 58). However, Anzaldua’s frame of the Borderlandspushes a more complex analysis: border dwellers also face dissonance within “home” communities; belonging in two (or more) places, they belong nowhere fully.
Lee– Middle Class Latino
IARSLCE 2012: Borderlands Theory in Service-Learning Research
Borderlands Theory in Service-Learning Research: Remapping the Metaphor Rachael Wendler, University of Arizona firstname.lastname@example.org IARSLCE 2012
Taylor, J. (2002). Metaphors we serve by: Investigating the conceptual metaphors framing national and community service and service-learning. • Conceptual metaphors “structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). • Service is Citizenship; Service is War; Service is Business • Taylor’s suggestion: Service is Borderlands
Service-Learning as Borderlands? Butin, 2005; Chesler, Ford, Galura, & Chareneau, 2011; Delgado Bernal, Aleman & Garavito, 2001; Hayes & Cuban, 1997; Keith, 1998; Taylor, 2002; Williams & Van Cleave, 2011.
Mapping Metaphors SERVICE-LEARNING IS WAR Source: War Target: Service-Learning Soldiers Students General Teacher Community Members as Enemy? Fellow Soldiers? Innocent Civilians? Captains?
Mapping Metaphors SERVICE-LEARNING IS BORDER CROSSINGSource: Borderlands Target: Service-Learning TheoryBorder Crossers All Students?
• Psychological, Spiritual, Sexual Borderlands• Chicana identity and oppression• Challenges of mediating between home and dominant cultures• Resisting binaries• Genre-blurring
“The prohibited and forbidden are its [the Borderlands’] inhabitants. Losatravesados live here: the squint-eyed, the perverse, the queer, thetroublesome, the mongrel, the mulatto, the half-breed, the half dead; inshort, those who cross over, pass over, or go through the confines of the‘normal’” (pp. 25-26).
Giroux and McLaren’s Border Pedagogy“First, the category of border signals a recognition ofthose epistemological, political, cultural, and socialmargins that structure the language of history, power,and difference . . . Second, it also speaks to the need tocreate pedagogical conditions in which students becomeborder crossers in order to understand otherness in itsown terms . . . Third, border pedagogy makes visible thehistorically and socially constructed strengths andlimitations of those places and borders we inherit andthat frame our discourses and social relations.”(Giroux,1992, p. 28)
C. Alejandra Elenas: Stretchingthe Borderlands frame to apply toall students “raises theproblematic of appropriation anderasure of difference” (1997,para. 30).
Erasure of Difference?• “…university tutors left campus and entered places in the community and community agencies that they ordinarily would never go” (Hayes & Cuban, 1997, p. 75)• “Crossing these physical borders…exposed tutors to the effects of poverty and racism on individual lives” (Hayes & Cuban, 1997, p. 75)• “Challenging students’ prior homogenous experiences, the agencies and sites in which community service learning students work and learn typically serve populations marked by racial and economic disadvantage” (Chesler et al., 2011, p. 342)
Border Students: a fluid category incorporating students who,for reasons such as ethnicity, class, or language, feel the service site is just as much—or more— home than the university. Hybrid Identities
Belonging at the Service Site• Sites are Comfortable: “home away from home” (Lee, 2005, p. 6); “more comfortable at their service sites than on campus” (Green, 2001, p. 25).• Identification with Clients: “I was once one of them” (Delgado Bernal, Aleman, & Garavito, 2001, p. 575); “I have something in common … with them because *we’re+ minorities, most of [us] are from low-income families, and most of them *would be+ first generation in college” (Lee, 2005, p. 6).• Stronger Service (McCollum, 2003; Green, 2001): “There is a sense of validity in what I have to say. I am not pretending to understand, I do understand” (Shadduck-Hernandez, 2006, p. 30).
Not Belonging at Service Site• Intersectionality: “I knew my advice only ran so deep because of the differences between our lives” (Lee, 2005, p. 6)• Internalized Racism: “a black woman . . .opened the door . . . I knew she was wondering who I was. If her mind could tell this story, she was probably thinking, ‘Who is this young black girl . . .That’s all it takes, that split second for one member of the black race to doubt the other. I knew this is what she was thinking by her facial expression and how it changed when Elsa’s white face came into view of the doorway, and all of a sudden this 40-year-old woman seemed welcoming.” (Green, 2001, p. 23)
University Affiliation: “One of the classes said, oh, didyour parents buy you a BMW for Christmas and are youfrom New Jersey? I was like, no what, no. . . . I wanted tobe, I am just like you I am not your typical Bucknell student. . . . It kind of made me feel like. . . I dont fit inanywhere. Like you see Bucknell students as this, and I amnot that.” (Henry, 2005, p. 57)
Not Belonging at the University• Culture Shock: (Yeh, 2010)• Service as “White”: (Gilbride-Brown, 2011; Coles, 1999)• Curriculum to help privileged students understand privilege: “This isn’t written for me” (Wendler, 2010).• Exhaustion at Educating Dominant Students: “I do more service in this class than I ever do at my site” (Mitchell & Donahue, 2009); “Sometimes I get real tired of hearing White people talk about the conditions of Black people” (Tatum, 1992, p. 7); (Chesler et al., 2011).• Anger: Personal experiences placed in larger context of inequality (Tatum, 1992).
Belonging at the Universityce-Learning Class as “Safe Space”: (Delgado-Bernal, Aleman, &vito, 2001; Gilbride-Brown, 2011; Shadduck-Hernandez, 2006).
Recommendations for Teaching • Acknowledge hybrid identities • Encourage “divergent thinking” • Create spaces for border students to reflect together • Be aware of emotional demands involved in border identity development • Allow choice in service site selection • Include readings about organic intellectuals
Recommendations for Research• Consider remapping the metaphor• Acknowledge hybrid identities• Deepen research into border student experiences• Utilize asset-based epistemologies (la facultad)