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  1. 1. The Renaissance 1450-1600 1
  2. 2. Intellectual movement  “Rebirth” Dates: ca. 1450  (depending on country) to 1600 Rediscovery of and inspiration from Ancient Greece and Rome 2
  3. 3. Renaissance Historical Milestones:1453 Ottomans take Constantinople1455 Guteneberg Bible is published1492 "Columbus sails the Ocean Blue”1500 Italian Madrigals appear1517 Martin Luther started the Reformation1562 Counter-Reformation was started by Pius IV. All instrumentation is eliminated except for organ All secular elements removed such as folk songs Harmony was nearly abandoned. (Palestrina)1573 First meeting of the Florentine Camerata (Opera)1583 Gregorian Calendar established1588 Spanish Armada defeated. 3
  4. 4. “Age of humanism, optimism, and reform”• The secular takes a stronger role in the arts• Individual assumes greater importance in society• Humans are the measure of all things• The exploration of the physical (outer) world• The beginning of “science” as we define it (empiricism)• Artists now receives acknowledgement for their works 4
  5. 5. Music in European Society• Printed Music— receives wide dissemination• Generally participatory: – many people of various social classes made music, both singing and playing instruments, in the homes in social entertainments and in large scale entertainments• There were also many professional musicians and composers Music in Your Life 5
  6. 6. Renaissance Painting• Raphael: The School of Athens (1508-11)(at the Vatican Palace, in the Stanaza della Segnatura-four rooms of Raphael)Called the “perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the High Renaissance” (Janson) 6
  7. 7. NOTE: The two central figures are Aristotle (withhand to heaven) and Plato (with palm to ground) QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Other famous classical philosophers and scientists areabout (Socrates, Alexander the Great, Diogenes;Euclid is at lower right)Note use of perspective, and classical setting Full Description 7
  8. 8. Renaissance Architecture• Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome (various designers, dome designed by Michelangelo) 8
  9. 9. Music in Your Life 9
  10. 10. Music in Your Life 10
  11. 11. Music in Your Life 11
  12. 12. Renaissance Architecture• Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome (designed by Michelangelo) 12
  13. 13. Music in Your Life 13
  14. 14. Renaissance ArchitecturePalazzo Farnese Rome (partially designed by Michelangelo) 14
  15. 15. Music in Your Life 15
  16. 16. Motet 4 to 6 independent lines• French for “little word”• Might have different texts in each vocal line –One voice (generally tenor) sings the Cantus Firmus –Along with mass, becomes main form of religious music in Renaissance –Giovanni Perluigi Da Palestrina : Canticum Canticorum 16
  17. 17. The Reformation 1517, Martin Luther Christian church separates Two divisions: Catholic ProtestantLiturgy remained Congregational singing the same Development of the Rome plans a Lutheran Chorale counter attack THE CALVINISTIC.htm Psalm singing Music in Your Life 17
  18. 18. Church of England– 1534, Church of England– “Anglican”– Service is in vernacular – • Anthem counterpart to Latin motet • Counter Reformation 18
  19. 19. Listening Example• “If Ye Love Me”, by Tallis Scholars• Anthem by Thomas Tallis (c. 1510-1586)• Anglican liturgy• listen 19
  20. 20. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)• Counter Reformation• “Gloria” from Missa Benedicta es• Polyphonic setting of the second part of the Ordinary of the Mass by Giovanni Palestrina – Counterpoint – Imitative counterpoint 20
  21. 21. Secular Music: The Madrigal• Secular Italian literary form• vernacular• Vocal chamber music – Metrical and lively – England, Italy and France – Social gatherings, court settings 21
  22. 22. – listenMusic in Your Life 22
  23. 23. French Chanson• Passereau ( 1508-1547) “Il est bel et bon”, 1534listen 23
  24. 24. Instrumental Music• Instrumental music is mostly (but not always) for dancing• Double vocal parts – Modeled after vocal style• By 16th c. composed music• Dance music – Consort – “family” of same instrument – Broken Consort—an odd man out 24
  25. 25. John Dowland (1563-1626)• First collection of songs for lute and voice• One of few English composers famous throughout Europe 25
  26. 26. The LuteMusic in Your Life 26
  27. 27. Renaissance Instrumentarium• Strings: Viol family:The viol family existed from very small to very large – usually 6 or 7 strings; fretted; “c” holes 27
  28. 28. moderndoublebass(veryclose to aviol inthedesign ofthe body) bass viola da gamba Music in Your Life 28
  29. 29. Left: cello –Note the sharpshoulders, fourstrings, no frets,“f” holesRight: viola daGamba (a viol) –Sloped shoulders,seven strings,with frets, “c” holes Music in Your Life 29
  30. 30. Viol• Detail ofPegbox andscroll Music in Your Life 30
  31. 31. Early Keyboards• Harpsichord• Virginal 31
  32. 32. Instrumentarium• Families of wind instruments 32
  33. 33. Instrumentarium• Shawms 33
  34. 34. Instrumentarium• Recorders Music in Your Life 34
  35. 35. Birth of Opera• Begins in Italy (Firenze)• Italian word--“work”• Musical dramas produced by amateurs• Florentine Camerata 1600• societies to write and produce musical works• Greek/Roman mythology 35
  36. 36. First masterpiece Claudio Monteverdi of opera (1567-1643) transitional composer listen L’Orfeo 1607 36