Societieshave always been shapedmore by the natureof the media by which men communicate than by the contentof the communication.Marshall McLuhan – a communications theorist,a professor of English literature, a literary critic, a rhetorician- Coined the term MEDIACanadianeducator, philosopher, and scholar
The world is changing and we may have to change the way we communicateOxford Junior Dictionary: Words put in: Blackberry, Blog, broadband, MP3 player, voicemail, attachment, database, export, chatroom, bullet point, cut and paste, analogue
What is Business WritingThe Writer In YouAudience Analysis & ReadabilityDocument & OrganizationPrinciples of Modern BusinessWritingCommon ErrorWriting TipsCollaboration & Information Sharing ToolsEmail Writing & EtiquetteConfidentiality & Legal LiabilityDisplaying Data & Using Visuals
"In your business writing, you must choose among boredom, shouting and seduction. Which do you choose?” The Wizard of Ads, Roy H. Williams
It’s neither academic nor informal. It differs from technical writing, creative writing, and journalism.
At its best, it’s conversational without being chatty, accessible without being too familiar, clear without being overly simplistic, professional without being stuffy.
DialoguesSocial CuesPerceptionsImpersonal/ depersonalization of the other(inflection, emphasis, volume, pitch, tone, pace, rhythm and use of silences)Writing vs. F-t-F CommunicationBody LanguageVocal CuesInability to read facial expressions or body language (kinesis)Misinterpreting the use and meaning of pitch (vocalics)Misunderstanding the use of personal space (proxemics)Impersonal/ depersonalization of the other
Easier to communicate with people who understand written English but don’t speak it wellFuture referenceEasily distributedCarbon copiesLegal and binding
Organizations are not making optimal use of business writingFew are trained to write about the complex issues that characterize business Spin Doctoring and CorporateDoublespeakLacks Tone,Organization, Coherence,& DesignDoublespeak is language deliberately constructed to disguise its actual meaning, such as euphemisms. Employees, customers and investors are increasingly demanding clear communication and organizations unable to comply run the risk of alienating these crucial allies. Writing is not an arcane form of art, but a skill like leadership that matures with training and experience. Writing talent helps, but good writing is essentially built on thorough preparation and disciplined execution. This means that anyone can learn to write at a reasonable level of proficiency.
Communication is really all anyone ever gets paid for ultimately...and if you cannot effectively communicate...you will PAY ... not get paid.A lot of companies lose opportunities because of ineffective communication!
The writer IN YouWords are the clothes that thoughts wear – SamuelButler 19th-century novelist, Butler made prose translations of The Iliad and The Odyssey which remain in use to this day.So tell me, your thoughts and I will pick the clothes.As an individual how do you dress, to portray yourself.
The sad truth is, we assume since its been written, then it has been communicated.“The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished.”George Bernard Shaw
“you had me from hello”getting people to read your materialthey get the message you want them to getOMG – Oh My GodWTF – What the F----
What you write and how you write could reflect a positive or negative imageSloppy and/or poorly written communications could be perceived as a lack of caring
The Medium is the Message
Language enables intelligence to move from thing to thing with greater ease and speed and less involvement.
We should be all three, in this listed order.
"If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head.If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.” Nelson Mandela
Analysis- Who is the audience?Understanding- What is the audience's knowledge of the subject?Demographics- What is their age, gender, education background etc.?Interest- Why are they reading your document?Environment- Where will this document be sent/viewed?Needs- What are the audience's needs associated with your document topic?Customization- What specific needs/interests should you the writer address relating to the specific audience?Expectations- What does the audience expect to learn from your document? The audience should walk away having their initial questions answered and explainedAnalysis/Understanding: Defining the background of the audience aids the writer in determining what information is already understood and what information needs to be included. More information may need to be included so that the audience can understand and reach the conclusion that your document intends.Demographics/Interest/Environment: Demographic characteristics of the audience can help determine the style and content of a document. Age groups, areas of residence, gender, and political preferences for example, are some of the characteristics to focus on. Paying attention to these aspects of the audience can also help sidestep any offensive remarks or topics that the audience would not relate to or appreciate.Needs/Customization: If there is more than one audience, you can write sections specifically pertaining to the corresponding audiences, or write in one particular fashion that applies across the board. Similarly, if there is a wide variability in the audience, cater to the majority--write to the majority of the people that will be reading the document. References to other sources with alternative information may need to be included to aid the minority of the readers.
More than one audience.For example, it may be seen by technical people (experts and technicians) and administrative people (executives).You can either write all the sections so that all the audiences of your document can understand them (not an easy task), or you can write each section strictly for the audience that would be interested in it, using headings and section introductions to alert your audience about where to go and what to stay out of in the report.Wide variability in an audience.You may realize that, although you have an audience that fits into only one category, there is a wide variability in its background.This is a tough one; if you write to the lowest common denominator of reader, you're likely to end up with a cumbersome, tedious, book-like thing that will turn off the majority of readers. But if you don't write to that lowest level, you lose that segment of your readers.What to do? Most writers go for the majority of readers and sacrifice that minority that needs more help.Others put the supplemental information in appendixes or insert cross-references to beginners' books.Unknown AudienceThe most difficult situation to face as a writer is the unknown audience. The obvious advice is to spend whatever time or resources you need in order to find out all you can about your audience's background. This should be part of your background research as you prepare any report. However, despite your best efforts, there still may be times when you find that you must write to an unknown audience.Given such circumstances, some writers follow a strategy of assuming that the unknown audience is a hostile audience, meaning that the audience needs an extra effort from the writer to follow and accept the writer's ideas.The burden is therefore on the writer to present more than sufficient evidence to the audience.The writer must organize the evidence in the most convincing way.The writer needs to adopt a tone that is neutral and unbiased toward the subject under discussion so that the audience finds him/her open-minded, fair, and considerate.These strategies are likely to improve the chances of holding the attention of both the hostile and the unknown audiences.
In order to create the sense of urgency needed to get your target readers to take the action that you want them to take, you need to understand their needs and wants, and you need to address them with the proper level of formality. Together, these two steps—understanding what’s likely to motivate your readers and identifying the appropriate level of formality—enable you to write to your specific audienceMBTIs16 Types:Introversion/extroversionSensing/intuitionFeeling/thinkingPerceiving/judgingOpportunistsThe Opportunists are optimistic, real world tacticians. They like practical, hands-on experience – not theory and big ideas.Communicating with Opportunists, you’ll need to focus on short-term benefits, tangible actionand give a real sense of what the product will do for them day-in, day-out.ControllersControllers are traditional in their worldview.Very organized and sensible, they always follow through on their promises.Like the Opportunists they prefer concrete, tangible things.Communicating with Controllers means focusing on the process, on how sensible actions lead to benefits.It’s all about evolution, not revolution.PeacemakersThese are the people people. Peacemakers are skilled diplomats always putting people first.They are passionate and emotional – the idealist group.For Peacemakers, it’s always about what’s right more than it is about what’s true.Communicating with them must always stress the human benefits (although it’s more about the ideas than the practicalities).StrategistsThe Strategists are the rational dreamers.They love new ideas and experimentation (although they are also pretty skeptical).Communicating with Strategists is all about the idea. You need to inspire them with the theory and paint a vision of the future.Keep it to the broad, big picture stuff. And watch out, they change their minds very easily when something better comes along.
Most people are a mixture of all four personality typesMost people also tend to demonstrate the attributes of one or another of the personality types in various environments and gravitate to jobs that suit their personality.Knowing someone’s job can help you identify their personality type.Following are words and phrases that are likely to motivate each personality type.AccommodatorLikes people but prefers small groupsKind, gentle, calm, methodical, and prudentAre caretakers and tend to work in jobs that allow them to be helpersOptimistSunny in spirit, impulsive, dramatic, fun, articulate, emotional, and sensitive. Optimists are party animals.Creative and tend to work in jobs that allow them to interact with a lot of people and use their creative flair.ProducerThe Producer is impatient, focused, ambitious, goal oriented, competitive, and intolerant of people’s foibles. Producers are terrific problem-solvers. They are doers and tend to work in jobs that allow them to work toward a clearly understood goal.Data CollectorThe Data Collector is independent, self-reliant, rational, curious, systematic, and self-contained. Data Collectors love research. They are fact oriented and tend to work in jobs that require attention to detail.
RANK - it asks that you evaluate what, in your world, is held in high esteem.Some people value celebrity, age, education, status, accomplishment, job titles, and so on.The more you perceive that you’re above your readers (using whatever standards you select), the higher your score.
The Matrix of Persuasion allows you to analyze your overall writing assignment.Two variables are contrasted:Is your target audience on your side or not on your side?Do they know you? Do they like you? Are they predisposed in your favor? Or are they not?Do your readers have the requisite resources or are they constrained?Do they have the requisite time, authority, interest, motivation, money, or whatever resources are needed to do what you’re hoping they will do? Or are there constraints that you’ll need to help them overcome?
If people would remember that they are writing to be read (and thus understood) we'd be able to spend more time getting things done, and less time lost in translation.Readability is the measure of how easy it is to read and comprehend a document.
Scores between 8 and 12 indicate an educational reading and comprehension level equivalent to High School, whilst a score of 17 indicates a level equivalent to a university graduate.
Find the average length of sentences in words in a passage (that is, divide the number of words by the number of complete sentences). For example, if the passage has 134 words and seven complete sentences, the average sentence length is 19 words. In the same passage, find the percentage of polysyllabic words (words with more than two syllables). That is, divide the number of words with more than two syllables by the number of total words in the passage. For example, if the same passage has 15 polysyllabic words, then the percentage (15 divided by 134) is 11.Do not count as polysyllabic words that are combinations of short easy words like bookkeeper or butterfly.Do not count verb forms that are made polysyllabic by the addition of -ed or -es (like "created" or "trespasses").Don't count words that are capitalized.Don't count proper nouns (for example, Djibouti), familiar jargon or compound words, or common suffixes such as -es, -ed, or -ing as a syllable.Add the results of 1. and 2. Taking the above example, 19 + 11 = 30.Multiply the sum by 0.4. Taking the above example, 30 X 0.4 = 12. The passage has a level of difficulty requiring at least a 12th-grade reading skill.
An elevator summary is a summary that can be given to a colleague or employer in the short time it takes to get from the ground floor to the third floor on an elevator. It has the bare essentials of the message.Keep your executive summary short—one to two pages for the first 25 pages of proposal text and an additional page for each 50 pages thereafterLetters and MemosAgendas, MoMReports: Technical, Sales, ProgressUser Guides & ManualsProposals & Business PlansRequests: RFI, RFP, RFQLegal Documents: Contracts, NDAs, MOUs, LOIPromotional Material: Company Profile, Brochures, Flyers, Administrative: Policies & Regulations, Employee ContractsAcademic Documents: Research (scientific) manuscriptsWhite Papers Digital: E-mails, Blogs, μ-Blogs ,Newsletters, IM, SMS
Document Commonalities: Except Emails!Reports should include: ToC & Outline, Executive & Intro, Body, Conclusion, Bibliography, AppendicesKeep your executive summary short—one to two pages for the first 25 pages of proposal text and an additional page for each 50 pages thereafterEmail vs letter – ElevatorAn elevator summary is a summary that can be given to a colleague or employer in the short time it takes to get from the ground floor to the third floor on an elevator. It has the bare essentials of the message.
For Reports & Briefs:Subject: What do you plan to do/accomplishObjectives: What do you hope to do/accomplishPresent Situation: Describe the current issues or problemsProposal: What would improve the present situation? How do you plan to fund the project? How will the project be managed?Advantages: What improvements will result from the implementation of this project?Disadvantages: What are the negatives to implementing the project?) Name two and use "however" to explainAgreement: What do you need to move forward? What are the time parameters? Who must approve the project - or give the go-ahead and how should notice be given?The PAIBOC model (pronounced “payback”) provides definitive strategies for selecting communication modesand composing messages. Prompting readers to consider Purpose, Audiences, Information, Benefits, Objections,and Context, this innovative acronym helps students analyze and craft messages from the recipient’s viewpoint. By applying the PAIBOC model, students learn to listen, speak, and write for results.
Considered "perhaps the 20th century's best chronicler of English culture,“ known for “Animal Farm”Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.Never use a long word where a short one will do.If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.Never use the passive where you can use the active. The active voice allows your communication to be: Concise - Dynamic – Personal - Direct, even forcefulNever use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
ConsiderationConcretenessCourtesyBe creative: use different formats (vs. straight narrative) to communicate your message. Q & A format, graphics, Idea lists, etc. Sometimes hand signals were needed when the wind and the sea drowned out our ability to hear. 1. Completeness2. Conciseness3. Consideration4. Concreteness5. Clarity6. Courtesy7. Correctness
Answer all questions asked.Check for the MAGIC five Ws and H.Give something extra, when desirable.Complete: Check to be sure that your message is complete. Have you included all the information you need to ensure that the other person can do a complete job or make a reasonable decision?
Shorten or omit wordy expressions. - True facts: a fact is always true. Include only relevant statements.Avoid unnecessary repetition, long sentences, expletives (fillers), abstract subjects, and passive verbs.Relative Pronouns(1) This is a house. Jack built this house.(2) This is the house that Jack built.Concise: If you want your messages to be read by busy people, make them brief. Say what you need to say, and say no more (while maintaining goodwill, of course). Remove all words phrases and sentences that serve no purpose. You can also eliminate wordiness by substituting one word for wordy, overused expressions.True facts: a fact is always true. First conceived/ initially conceived/ originally conceived: You can only conceive something once.Possible….may. We sometimes say or write that something is both possible and may happen. It is possible it may rain this weekend.Instead: It is possible it will rain this weekend. Or: It may rain this weekend. Different: This is a word that is often not needed.There are 124 different airline routes across Australia. Instead: There are 124 airline routes across Australia.
Four Corners of Interpersonal Relationships:Empathy – Rapport – Tact - SympathyFocus on "you" instead of "I" and "we."Empathy Index, count number of REFERENCESTake an interest in the reader, show how the reader will benefit.Apply integrity and ethics.Avoid negative words.These words either deny—for example, no, do not, refuse, and stop—or convey unhappy or unpleasant associations—for example, unfortunately, unable to, cannot, mistake, problem, error, damage, loss, and failure.When you need to present negative information, soften its effects by superimposing a positive picture on a negative one.Stress what something is rather than what it is not.emphasize what the firm or product can and will do rather than what it cannot.open with action rather than apology or explanation.Avoid negative words such as FAIL, IMPOSSIBLE, NOT, and UNFORTUNATELY. Prefer positive words such as BENEFIT, PROGRESS, SUCCESS and VALUABLE.Emphasize positive, pleasant facts.Give more space to good news and less to bad news.Place good news in positions of high emphasisPlace bad news in secondary position
Use specific facts and figures.Choose vivid, image-building words.Precise Nouns instead of Adjectives. "a large, impressive house" we could say "a mansion"Avoid relative words, indefinite phrases, and abstract words.Put action in your verbs.UseTransitional words & phrases.Concrete: You have a choice in your writing to use concrete (specific) or abstract (vague) words. They both have a place in business writing. However, concrete terms are typically more accurate and, in some cases, more believable.Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.Coherent: Messages need to “hang together.” Ideas need to flow from one to the next through smooth transitions. You can achieve this by outlining your messages, writing simple sentences and focusing each paragraph on one idea. You can also improve the coherence of your message through connecting words and phrases, parallel structure, and guide posts.
Action verbs can be used in continuous tensesStative verbs can not be used in continuous tenseshttp://www.writeexpress.com/action-verbs.htmlVerbs Showing Thought or OpinionsknowbelieveunderstandrecognizeVerbs Showing PossessionhaveownbelongpossessVerbs Showing SenseshearsmellseefeelVerbs Showing Emotionlovehatewant need
Coherence or ConcretenessTransitions indicate relations,whether within a sentence, paragraph, or paper.This list illustrates "relationships" between ideas,followed by words and phrases that can connect themAddition:also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarlyConsequence:accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, whereforeGeneralizing:as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usuallyExemplifying:chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such asIllustration:for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case
Words, like glasses, obscure everything they do not make clear. – Joseph JoubertWhen something can be read without effort, great effort has gone into its writing. - Enrique JardielPoncelaDon't try to overawe your audience with protracted, anomalous lexicon. – Chris Amorosino
Clarity : Apply the KISS formula—“Keep it Short and Simple.”Albert Einstein's maxim that "everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler."Leonardo Da Vinci's "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication"Antoine de Saint Exupéry's"It seems that perfection is reached not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away".
Courteous: Your message should be positive—building goodwill and focused upon the reader. Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle.Apologize good-naturedly.Use words and phrases that set a positive tone.Make the reply easy.Avoid gender specific language and always use proper titles.Words such as stewardess, waiter or waitress, actor and actress have been changed to a gender-neutral format: flight attendant, server, actor.There are also sexist words that are not job titles but relate to a group of people: mankind, the average man, manned, all men. In exchange, words such as people, average person, staffed, and all people should be used.In technical writing, “ensure that the reception desk is manned 24 hours” should be replaced with “staffed 24 hours.”Chairperson or Chair,SpokespersonFor example, the sentence:Prior to giving a patient medications, make sure that you verify his/her name by checking their identification bracelet.Change the wording to:Prior to giving a patient medication, make sure to verify their names by checking the identification bracelet.
Words that sound alike or nearly alike but have different meaningsTake Care of Homophones: Phonetics/Fanatics,Amoral/Immoral, Discreet/Discrete, Elicit/Illicit, Decent/Descent/Dissent, Verification/Validation, ante-/anti- Ante is a prefix meaning “before” or “in front of.” Anti is a prefix meaning “hostile to” or “against.”e.g. anteroom, antecedent antiwar, antipathyUse the right level of language.Include only accurate facts, words, and figures.Maintain acceptable writing mechanics.Choose nondiscriminatory expressions.Apply all other pertinent C qualities.Correct: Correctness in writing includes spelling, grammar, punctuation, and format.
MGMT501 Business Writing
Business Writing<br />MGMT 501<br />Dr. Ahmad Bassit<br />Rehab Wahsh<br />
Societieshave always been shaped<br />more by the natureof the media by which men communicate <br />than by the contentof the communication.<br />Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore<br />The Medium is the Message, Random House (1967)<br />
Agenda<br />What Is Business Writing<br />The Writer In You<br />Audience Analysis & Readability<br />Documents & Organization<br />Principles of Business Writing <br />Common Errors<br />Writing Tips<br />Collaboration & Information Sharing Tools<br />Email Etiquette<br />Secrecy & Legal liabilities<br />
What IS Business Writing<br />"In your business writing, you must choose among boredom, shouting and seduction. Which do you choose?” <br />- The Wizard of Ads, Roy H. Williams<br />
Business Writing<br />IS Neither<br />Academic Nor Informal <br />It differs from technical writing, creative writing, and journalism.<br />
Business Writing at its best, <br />IS <br />conversational without being chatty<br />accessiblewithout being too familiar<br />clear without being overly simplistic<br />professional without being stuffy<br />
Unfortunately …<br />Organizations are not making optimal use of business writing<br />Few are trained to write about the complex issues that characterize business <br />spin doctoring and CorporateDoublespeak <br />Lacks Tone,<br />Organization, <br />Coherence,& Design<br />
Common Problems in Writing<br />Weak verbs <br />Superfluous words <br /> Long sentences<br /> Legal and financial terms<br /> Unreadable design and layout<br /> Numerous defined terms<br /> Abstract words<br />Unnecessary details<br />Passive voice<br />James O’Rourke<br />
Communication is really all anyone ever gets paid for ultimately...<br />and if you cannot effectively communicate...<br />you will PAY <br />... NOT get paid.<br />- Doug Firebaugh<br />
Words are the clothes that thoughts wear <br />– Samuel Butler<br />The writer IN You<br />
“The greatest problem in communication is the illusionthat it has been accomplished.”<br />George Bernard Shaw <br />
Communicating Effectively<br />"Effective" means getting people to read your material in the first place; <br />and in the second place, it means that they get the message you want them to get.<br />
"If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.” <br />Nelson Mandela <br />Audience analysis<br />
AUDIENCE<br />nalysis - Who is the audience?<br />nderstanding - What is their knowledge of the subject?<br />emographics - What is their age, gender, education background etc.?<br />nterest - Why are they reading your document?<br />nvironment - Where will this document be sent/viewed?<br />xpectations- What do they expect to learn from your document? They should walk away having their initial questions answered and explained<br />eeds - What are the audience's needs associated with your document topic?<br />ustomization- What specific needs/interests should you address?<br />
But it can <br />get complicated<br />Mixed Audience Types<br />Wide Variability Within Audience<br />Unknown Audiences<br />Issues of <br />Collaborative Writing<br />
e.g. of Personality Types<br />Impatient, focused, ambitious, goal oriented, competitive, and intolerant of people’s foibles. Terrific problem-solvers. <br />They are doers and tend to work in jobs that allow them to work toward a clearly understood goal.<br />Independent, self-reliant, rational, curious, systematic, and self-contained. Loves research. <br />Fact oriented and tend to work in jobs that require attention to detail.<br />Sunny in spirit, impulsive, dramatic, fun, articulate, emotional, and sensitive. Optimists are party animals.<br />Creative and tend to work in jobs that allow them to interact with a lot of people and use their creative flair.<br />Likes people but prefers small groups<br />Kind, gentle, calm, methodical, and prudent.<br />Are caretakers and tend to work in jobs that allow them to be helpers<br />
Formality Index<br />1. Do you know your target reader(s) well & personally?<br />2. Are they below you in “rank”?<br />3. Is the subject of your communication good news?<br />Format – Email vs. Letter <br />Tone – Dear Mr. Jones vs. Dear Richard<br />Style – Chief Executive Officer vs. CEO<br />Maybe, sort of, sometimes, or kind of<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />1<br />10<br />absolutely not or never <br />absolutely yes or always<br />
Matrix of Persuasion<br />On Your Side <br />• benefits matter<br />• longer copy needed<br />• facts only <br />• short copy okay <br />No/Few <br />Constraints <br />Constraints<br />• rarely worthwhile<br />• Q&A <br />• longer copy needed<br />Not On Your Side<br />
If people would remember that they are writing to be read(and thus understood) we'd be able to spend more time getting things done, and less time lost in translation.<br />readability<br />
Gunning-Fog Index<br />Measureswriting clarity<br />Calculates the number of years of schooling required to read and understand the written material.<br />The lower the score your material receives, the broader your potential audience reach.<br />
Gunning-Fog Index Process<br />NOTE: Don't over-use the Fog Index. Use it only occasionally to spot-check your writing.<br />
SOPPADA<br />ubject- What do you plan to accomplish<br />bjective - What do you hope to accomplish<br />resent - What are the current issues or problems<br />roposal – What would improve the present situation<br />dvantages– What advantages will result from the proposed<br />isadvantages - What disadvantages will result from the proposed needs associated with your document topic?<br />ction- What do you need to move forward<br />
George Orwell's Rules"Politics and the English Language"<br />Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.<br />Never use a long word where a short one will do.<br />If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.<br />Never use the passive where you can use the active.<br />Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.<br />Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.<br />
Clarity of writing indicates precision of mind<br />PRINCIPLES of Modern business Writing<br />
Completeness<br />Answer all questions asked<br />Check for the MAGIC Ws and an H.<br />Give something extra, when desirable<br />
Conciseness<br />The most valuable of all talents is that of never using twowords when one will do. - Thomas Jefferson <br />Shorten or omit wordy expressions.<br />Include only relevant statements.<br />The best way to be boring is to leave nothing out. - Voltaire<br />Avoid repetition, long sentences, relative pronouns, expletives, abstract subjects, and passive verbs.<br />"I never write metropolis … because I can get the same price for city. I never write policeman, because I can get the same money for cop." – Mark Twain.<br />
U.S. Declaration <br />of Independence<br />440 words<br />
Inference</li></ul>Take an interest in the reader, show how the reader will benefit.<br />Count references to yourself/Company (US)<br />Apply integrity & ethics.<br />Emphasize positive, pleasant facts.<br />Exclude “We” from Counts.<br />US–THEM > 0<br />(The higher the more reader focused)<br />Avoid negative words.<br />
Concreteness<br />Use specific facts and figures.<br />Facts are interesting but insight is persuasive. – Anon.<br />Choose vivid, image-building words.<br />Words convey; illustrations convince. – Anon.<br />Avoid relative words, indefinite phrases, and abstract words.<br />"The adjective is the enemy of the noun." – Voltaire.<br />Precise Nouns instead of Adjectives. <br />"a large, impressive house" <br />we could say "a mansion"<br />Put action in your verbs.<br />UseTransitional words & phrases.<br />
Concreteness – use Transitions<br />Addition:<br />also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, in addition<br />Consequence:accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason<br />Generalizing:as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, ordinarily, usually<br />Exemplifying:chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely<br />Illustration:for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, in this case<br />
Clarity<br />Words, like glasses, obscure everything they do not make clear. – Joseph Joubert<br />Choose short, familiar, conversational words.<br />Construct effectivesentences and paragraphs.<br />When something can be read without effort, great effort has gone into its writing. <br /> - Enrique JardielPoncela<br />Achieve appropriate readability.<br />Avoid unfamiliar words, abbreviations, slangor jargon.<br />Don't try to overawe your audience with protracted, anomalous lexicon. – Chris Amorosino<br />
Less is more.<br />What you say is <br />more important than <br />how much you say. <br />Albert Einstein's maxim that "everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler."<br />Leonardo Da Vinci's "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication"<br />Antoine de Saint Exupéry's"It seems that perfection is reached not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away".<br />
Courtesy<br />Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.<br />Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle.<br />Grant & apologize good-naturedly.<br />Use words and phrases that set a positive tone.<br />Make the reply easy.<br />Avoid gender specific language and always use proper titles.<br />
Correctness<br />Use the right level of language.<br />Include only accurate facts, words, and figures.<br />Maintain Acceptable writing mechanics.<br />Choose nondiscriminatory expressions.<br />Apply all other pertinent C qualities.<br />