Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived
 Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology

      Maxine S. Thompson and R.V....
Gender Differences in Self-Esteem

   Consistent finding: boy’s self-esteem is
    higher than girl’s

   Girls are trea...
Research Questions:
   What social factors explain differences in self-esteem for
    middle school youth?

   Are there...
Self-Esteem : Process
   Reflected appraisal
     Cooley’s looking glass-self


   Social comparisons
     Festinger, ...
Explanations for Gender Differences in Self-
esteem
   Gender-based socialization
       Gender roles and gender stereot...
Differential Treatment
   Understand the link between social categories
    and discriminatory behavior (McKown and
    W...
Hypotheses:
   .


       Adolescent females have lower self-esteem than males.

   Traditional gender ideology has a n...
Sample: Middle School in the Southeast
Model                       1         2        3         4           5           6           7
Variable Name
Social Charac...
Summary
   Perceived discrimination is the pathway by which gender
    differences emerge

   Relationships or significa...
Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived
 Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology

               Maxine S. Thompson...
Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology
Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology
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Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology

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Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology

  1. 1. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology Maxine S. Thompson and R.V. Rikard North Carolina State University Maxine_Thompson@ncsu.edu rvrikard@ncsu.edu
  2. 2. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem  Consistent finding: boy’s self-esteem is higher than girl’s  Girls are treated differently in every context: family, school, and peer interactions  Middle school is an important transitioning point
  3. 3. Research Questions:  What social factors explain differences in self-esteem for middle school youth?  Are there gender differences in self-esteem when other social factors are controlled?  Does perceived gender discrimination moderate or mediate the association between gender and self-esteem?
  4. 4. Self-Esteem : Process  Reflected appraisal  Cooley’s looking glass-self  Social comparisons  Festinger, (1954)  Peers, Family and Teachers  Significant others  Sources of reflected appraisals and social comparisons
  5. 5. Explanations for Gender Differences in Self- esteem  Gender-based socialization  Gender roles and gender stereotypes  Peer interactions  Borderwork and boundary maintenance strategies  Physical maturation differences  Friendships – relational for girls and companionship for boys  Parent interactions  Parental conflict  Teacher-student interactions  Gendered interactions  Gendered expectations
  6. 6. Differential Treatment  Understand the link between social categories and discriminatory behavior (McKown and Weinstein 2003; Brown and Bigler 2005)  Recognize gender discrimination and fairness (Brown and Bigler 2004)  Contextualized teacher behavior and gender discrimination (Brown and Bigler 2004)
  7. 7. Hypotheses:  .  Adolescent females have lower self-esteem than males.  Traditional gender ideology has a negative relationship with self-esteem; while physical attractiveness has a direct positive association with self-esteem.  Peer stress, marginalized peer status, family stress, and teacher stress have direct negative associations with self- esteem; moreover, the strength of each of the relationships decreases by relational proximity.  The relationship between gender, gender ideology, physical attractiveness and self-esteem is mediated by gender discrimination net of other variables in the model.
  8. 8. Sample: Middle School in the Southeast
  9. 9. Model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Name Social Characteristics Black Race .024 .085 .087 .044 .033 .055 .093 Other Ethnic Minority -.007 .005 .016 -.011 -.021 -.019 -.008 Female Gender -.118* -.113* -.134* -.141** -.117* -.121* -.056 Age -.161** -.135* -.135* -.163** -.147** -.132** -.147** Family Characteristics Two parent household .147* .142* .070 .038 .037 -.004 Mother Supervisor -.019 -.026 .008 .009 .017 .046 Father Supervisor -.011 -.012 .014 .016 .006 .043 Gender Belief Gender Ideology -.136* -.065 -.045 -.041 -.055 Attraction .125* .183** .176*** .189*** .172** Stressors Peer Stress -.279**** -.238**** -.197** -.151** Marginalized Peer Status -.252**** -.239*** -.226**** -.214**** Family Stress -.153** -.129* -.105~ Teacher Stress -.122* -.088 Gender Discrimination -.285**** F Statistics 2.640* 2.260* 2.640** 8.260**** 8.300*** 8.020**** 9.950*** 2 R .036 .053 .079 .251 .269 .278 .341 2 adj R .022 .030 .051 .220 .236 .243 .307
  10. 10. Summary  Perceived discrimination is the pathway by which gender differences emerge  Relationships or significant others have strong impact on self esteem. Peers are more important than family or teachers  Attraction is positively related to self esteem  Younger middles school students have higher self-esteem than older students.
  11. 11. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Perceived Gender Discrimination and Gender Ideology Maxine S. Thompson and RV Rikard North Carolina State University Maxine_Thompson@ncsu.edu

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