Ubiquitous computing is the method of enhancing
computer use by making many computers available
throughout the physical environment, but making
them effectively invisible to the user
– Mark Weiser
Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop
model of human-computer interaction in which
information processing has been thoroughly
integrated into everyday objects and activities.
Mark Weiser is the father of ubiquitous computing. He
coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" around 1988
He was working as ChiefTechnologist at the
CS Lab of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in
the late 1980’s and was articulated the current
He wrote some of the earliest papers on the subject, largely
defining it and sketching out its major concerns
He developed the initial initiatives of ubiquitous computing in the
form of tabs, pads, and boards, built at Xerox PARC, 1988-1994.
• Cheaper, faster, smaller,
more energy efficient
• Big, fast and small in size.
• Global, local, ad-hoc, low-
power, high bandwidth,
• Projection, flexible
materials, low power
• Computer controlled
What makes Ubiquitous Computing Possible
There are three general features that are shared
across a wide variety of ubicomp applications.
These features are :
the ability to provide transparent interfaces
the ability to automatically adapt the behavior of a
program based on knowledge of the context of its use,
the ability to automate the capture of live experiences
for later recall.
UbicompVision: “pervasive computation without
Remove the physical barrier between user and
Keyboard and mouse are still the most commonly used
Varied interfaces that can provide similar functionality
Context – information about the environment in which the
application operates and reacts accordingly.
LOCATION andTIME are simple examples of context !
Context aware application:
is one which can capture the context
assign meaning to it
change behavior accordingly
Applications with context awareness allow rapid personalization
of their services.
Capture everyday experiences and make the records
available for later use.
Multiple streams of information
Their time synchronization
Their correlation and integration
Automated tools that support capture, integration and future
access of info.
An environment in which people
interact with embedded (and
mostly invisible) computers
(processors) and in which
networked devices are aware of
their surroundings and peers
and are able to provide services
or use services from peers
It subsumes Distributed
Computing and Mobile
Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers or
wearable are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the
bearer under, with or on top of clothing.
This class of wearable technology has been developed for general or
special purpose information technologies and media development.
Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that
require more complex computational support than just hardware
There is a constant interaction
between the computer and user.
The ability to multi-task
In computing , Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic
environments that are sensitive and responsive to the
presence of people. Ambient intelligence is a vision on the
future of consumer electronics ,telecommunications
As these devices grow smaller, more connected and more
integrated into our environment, the technology
disappears into our surroundingsTOWARDS UBIQUITY !!!
Mobile computing is HCI by which a
computer is expected to be
transported during normal usage.
Mobile computing involves mobile
communication, mobile hardware, and
Communication issues include ad hoc
and infrastructure networks as well as
communication properties, protocols,
data formats and concrete
Hardware includes mobile devices or
device components. Mobile software
deals with the characteristics and
requirements of mobile applications.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies
A distributed system is a software system in which components
located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their
actions by passing messages.
The components interact with each other in order to achieve a
Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are:
concurrency of components ,
lack of a global clock ,
independent failure of components.
Context-aware computing refers to a general class of mobile
systems that can sense their physical environment, and adapt their
Context-aware systems are a component of a ubiquitous computing
or pervasive computing environment.
Three important aspects of context are: where you are; who you are
with; and what resources are nearby. Although location is a primary
capability, location-aware does not necessarily capture things of
interest that are mobile or changing.
Context-aware in contrast is used more generally to include nearby
people, devices, lighting, noise level, network availability, and even
the social situation, e.g., whether you are with your family or a
friend from school.
AWireless Sensor Network (WSN) of spatially distributed
autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental
conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to
cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main
The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control
of sensor activity.
The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by
military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such
networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications,
such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health
monitoring, and so on.
Augmented Reality (AR) is a live, copy, view of a physical, real-world
environment whose elements are augmented by computer-
generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current
perception of reality.
With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer
vision and object recognition) the information about the real world
of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable.
Sentient Computing is a form of ubiquitous computing which uses
sensors to perceive its environment and react accordingly. A
common use of the sensors is to construct a world model which
allows location-aware or context-aware applications to be
HCI involves the study, planning, design and uses of the interaction
between people (users) and computers. It is often regarded as the
intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design and
several other fields of study.
Because HCI studies a human and a machine in conjunction, it draws
from supporting knowledge on the machine as well the human side.
On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating
systems, programming languages, and development environments
On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial
design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology,
social psychology, and human factors such as computer user
satisfaction are relevant.
Supplies tools to manage information Quickly, Efficiently and
Dramatically increased automation without much obtrusive or
visible use of computer infrastructure
It supports a new class of intelligent and portable appliances or
"smart devices" .
Helps people make effective use of computing tools without
requiring the knowledge of complex devices
It gives people convenient access to relevant information .
It removes the complexity of new technologies and enables us to be
more efficient in our work.
It simplifies life by combining open standards-based applications
with everyday activities.
Remote computers will monitor our heath statistics
Cars will use the Internet to find an open parking space or the
nearest vegetarian restaurant for their owners
Used in Digi-tickers or implanted heart monitors
In development of Smart Clothes and Smart watches .
Flight Schedules:Your phone rings. Its the computer at American
Airlines.Your flight departure is delayed by 20 minutes.
Advancement in Fire Fighters tools.
Speech Recognition on Face/Thumbprint Detection.
Instant presentation given with the help of Surface Computing.
The trends in Pervasive Computing are increasing the diversity and
heterogeneity of networks and their constituent devices .
Pervasive computing is expected to bring an explosion in the
number of devices in our local environments.
UbiComp encompasses :
System infrastructure, networking, security,UI,embedded systems, AI,
perception, speech recognition.
With more progress in the fields like MANET, Artificial Intelligence,
Natural language processing capabilities and energy management,
the infrastructure limitation present currently is supposed to be
broken, which will result in revolutionary changes through the
implementation of Pervasive computing technology.