Microsoft excelMicrosoft excel
Microsoft Excel is a Microsoft Excel is a commercialcommercial
spreadsheet applicationspreadsheet application written and distributed by written and distributed by
MicrosoftMicrosoft for for Microsoft WindowsMicrosoft Windows and and Mac OS XMac OS X. It. It
features calculation, graphing tools, features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tablespivot tables,,
and a macro programming language called Visualand a macro programming language called Visual
Basic for ApplicationsBasic for Applications. It has been a very widely. It has been a very widely
applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especiallyapplied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially
since version 5 in 1993, and it has almost completelysince version 5 in 1993, and it has almost completely
replaced replaced Lotus 1-2-3Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for as the industry standard for
spreadsheets. Excel forms part of spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft OfficeMicrosoft Office..
The current versions are 2010 for The current versions are 2010 for MicrosoftMicrosoft WindowsWindows
and 2011 for and 2011 forMac OS XMac OS X..
Basic operationBasic operation
Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheetsMicrosoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets
It can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, andIt can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and
with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. Itwith a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It
allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on variousallows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various
factors from different perspectives.factors from different perspectives.
It has a programming aspect, It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for ApplicationsVisual Basic for Applications,,
allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numericalallowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical
methods, for example, for solving differential equations ofmethods, for example, for solving differential equations of
mathematical physics and then reporting the results back to themathematical physics and then reporting the results back to the
Finally, it has a variety of interactive features allowing userFinally, it has a variety of interactive features allowing user
interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from theinterfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the
user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-
called application, or decision support system (DSS), via acalled application, or decision support system (DSS), via a
custom-designed user interface, for example, a stockcustom-designed user interface, for example, a stock
analyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the useranalyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the user
questions and provides answers and reports.questions and provides answers and reports.
The Windows version of Excel supportsThe Windows version of Excel supports
programming through Microsoft's programming through Microsoft's
Visual Basic for ApplicationsVisual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is a (VBA), which is a
dialect of dialect of Visual BasicVisual Basic. Programming with VBA. Programming with VBA
allows spreadsheet manipulation that is awkwardallows spreadsheet manipulation that is awkward
or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques.or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques.
Programmers may write code directly using theProgrammers may write code directly using the
Visual Basic Editor (VBE), which includes a windowVisual Basic Editor (VBE), which includes a window
for writing code, debugging and code modulefor writing code, debugging and code module
organization environment.organization environment.
VBA was removed from Mac Excel 2008, as the
developers did not believe that a timely release
would allow porting the VBA engine natively to Mac
OS X. VBA was restored in the next version, Mac
Excel supports charts, graphs or histograms
generated from specified groups of cells. The
generated graphic component can either be
embedded within the current sheet, or added as a
These displays are dynamically updated if the
content of cells change. For example, suppose that the
important design requirements are displayed
visually; then, in response to a user's change in trial
values for parameters, the curves describing the
design change shape, and their points of intersection
shift, assisting the selection of the best design.
of Microsoft excel.of Microsoft excel.
Excel 2.0Excel 2.0
Excel 5.0Excel 5.0
Excel 2000Excel 2000
Excel 2007Excel 2007
Excel 2010Excel 2010
Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called
MultiplanMultiplan in 1982. Multiplan became very popular on in 1982. Multiplan became very popular on CP/MCP/M
systems, but on systems, but on MS-DOSMS-DOS systems it lost popularity to systems it lost popularity to
Lotus 1-2-3Lotus 1-2-3. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the
Mac in 30 September 1985, and the first Windows versionMac in 30 September 1985, and the first Windows version
(numbered 2.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a run-(numbered 2.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a run-
time Windows environment) in November 1987.time Windows environment) in November 1987.
Early in 1993 Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuitEarly in 1993 Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuit
by another company already selling a software package namedby another company already selling a software package named
"Excel" in the "Excel" in the finance industryfinance industry.
Excel became the first spreadsheet to allow the user to defineExcel became the first spreadsheet to allow the user to define
the appearance of spreadsheets the appearance of spreadsheets
Since 1993 Excel has included Since 1993 Excel has included Visual Basic for ApplicationsVisual Basic for Applications
(VBA), a programming language based on (VBA), a programming language based on Visual BasicVisual Basic which which
adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user-adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user-
defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets.defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets.
Versions 5.0 to 9.0 of Excel contain various Versions 5.0 to 9.0 of Excel contain various
EasterEaster eggseggs (an intentional (an intentional hiddenhidden message inmessage in
jokejoke or feature in a work such as a or feature in a work such as a
computer programcomputer program, , web pageweb page, , video gamevideo game, ,
moviemovie, , bookbook or or crosswordcrossword) , although since) , although since
version 10 version 10 MicrosoftMicrosoft has taken measures to has taken measures to
eliminate such undocumented features fromeliminate such undocumented features from
their products .their products .
For many users, one of the most
obvious changes introduced with Excel
2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000
suite) involved a clipboard that could
hold multiple objects at once. In another
noticeable change the Office Assistant,
whose frequent unsolicited appearance
in Excel 97 had annoyed many users,
became less intrusive.
The most obvious change is a completely revampedThe most obvious change is a completely revamped
user interface called the user interface called the RibbonRibbon menu system, which menu system, which
means a user must abandon most habits acquiredmeans a user must abandon most habits acquired
from previous versions. Some practical advantagesfrom previous versions. Some practical advantages
of the new system are greatly improved managementof the new system are greatly improved management
of named variables through the Name Manager, andof named variables through the Name Manager, and
much improved flexibility in formatting graphs,much improved flexibility in formatting graphs,
which now allow (x, y) coordinate labeling and lineswhich now allow (x, y) coordinate labeling and lines
of arbitrary weight. The number of rows is nowof arbitrary weight. The number of rows is now
1,048,576 and columns is 16,384. Several1,048,576 and columns is 16,384. Several
improvements to pivot tables were introduced. improvements to pivot tables were introduced.
Office Open XMLOffice Open XML file formats were introduced, file formats were introduced,
including .xlsm for a workbook with macrosincluding .xlsm for a workbook with macros
and .xlsx for a workbook without macros.and .xlsx for a workbook without macros.
The changes in Excel 2010 are listed below
Access the right tools, at the right time
Microsoft Office Backstage view
Workbook management tools
Make fast, effective comparisons from lists of data
Improved conditional formatting
Obtain powerful analysis from your desktop
Power Pivot for Excel add-in
Improved Solver add-in
Improved function accuracy
Improved filter capabilities
Access workbooks in new ways
Microsoft Excel Web Applications
Excel Mobile 2010 for Windows Phone 7
Create workbooks with more visual impact
Support for equations
Paste with live preview
Improved picture-editing tools
Collaborate on workbooks in new ways
Improved Excel Services
Improved language tools
Extend workbooks in new ways
Improved programmability features
Support for high-performance computing
Versions of Microsoft excel.
In Microsoft windows.
1987 Excel 2.0 for Windows
1990 Excel 3.0
1992 Excel 4.0
1993 Excel 5.0 (Office 4.2 & 4.3, also a 32-bit version for Windows NT
only on the x86, PowerPC, Alpha, and MIPS architectures)
1995 Excel for Windows 95 (version 7.0) included in Office 95
1997 Excel 97 (version 8.0) included in Office 97 (for x86 and Alpha).
This version of Excel includes a flight simulator as an Easter Egg.
1999 Excel 2000 (version 9.0) included in Office 2000
2001 Excel 2002 (version 10) included in Office XP
2003 Office Excel 2003 (version 11) included in Office 2003
2007 Office Excel 2007 (version 12) included in Office 2007
2010 Excel 2010 (version 14) included in Office 2010
Versions of Microsoft excel.Versions of Microsoft excel.
In Apple Macintosh
1985 Excel 1.0
1988 Excel 1.5
1989 Excel 2.2
1990 Excel 3.0
1992 Excel 4.0
1993 Excel 5.0 (part of Office 4.X—Motorola 68000 version and
first PowerPC version)
1998 Excel 8.0 (part of Office 98)
2000 Excel 9.0 (part of Office 2001)
2001 Excel 10.0 (part of Office v. X)
2004 Excel 11.0 (part of Office 2004)
2008 Excel 12.0 (part of Office 2008)
2011 Excel 14.0 (part of Office 2011)
Versions of Microsoft excel.Versions of Microsoft excel.
1989 Excel 2.2
1990 Excel 2.3
1991 Excel 3.0
Versions of Excel up to 7.0 had a limitation in
the size of their data sets of 16K
(2^14=16384) rows. Versions 8.0 through
11.0 could handle 64K (2^16=65536) rows
and 256 columns (2^8 as label 'IV'). Version
12.0 can handle 1M (2^20=1048576) rows,
and 16384 (2^14 as label 'XFD') columns.
OPENING MICROSOFT EXCELOPENING MICROSOFT EXCEL
CLICK ON STARTCLICK ON START
CLICK ON PROGRAMS.CLICK ON PROGRAMS.
CLICK ON MICROSOFTCLICK ON MICROSOFT
Descriptions of Excel componentsDescriptions of Excel components
Navigate within worksheetsNavigate within worksheets
To navigate within a workbook, you
use the arrow keys, Page Up, Page
Down, or the Ctrl key in
combination with the arrow keys to
make larger movements.
The most direct means of
navigation is with your mouse.
Scroll bars are provided and work
as they do in all Windows
Developing a WorksheetDeveloping a Worksheet
Determine the worksheet’s purpose.
Enter the data and formulas.
Test the worksheet and make any
necessary edits / corrections.
Document the worksheet and improve
Save and print the complete worksheet.
Entering Data into aEntering Data into a
To enter data, first make the cell in which you
want to enter the data active by clicking it.
Enter the data (text, formulas, dates, etc.) into
the active cell.
Use the Alt+Enter key combination to enter
text on multiple lines within the same cell.
Use TAB key, arrow keys, or ENTER key to
navigate among the cells.
Entering Data into a WorksheetEntering Data into a Worksheet
Entering FormulasEntering Formulas
A formula is a mathematical expression thatA formula is a mathematical expression that
calculates a value.calculates a value.
In Excel, formulas always begin with anIn Excel, formulas always begin with an
equal sign (=).equal sign (=).
A formula can consist of one or moreA formula can consist of one or more
arithmetic operators.arithmetic operators.
The order of precedence is a set of predefinedThe order of precedence is a set of predefined
rules that Excel follows to calculate arules that Excel follows to calculate a
Resize worksheet rows and columnsResize worksheet rows and columns
There are a number of methods for altering row
height and column width using the mouse or menus:
Click the dividing line on the column or row, and drag the
dividing line to change the width of the column or height of
Double-click the border of a column heading, and the
column will increase in width to match the length of the
longest entry in the column
Widths are expressed either in terms of the number
of characters or the number of screen pixels.
Identify cell rangesIdentify cell ranges
A group of worksheet cells is known as a cell range,
Working with ranges in a worksheet makes working
with the data easier.
Ranges can be adjacent or nonadjacent.
An adjacent range is a single, rectangular block of cells
Select an adjacent range by clicking on a cell and dragging
to an opposite corner of a rectangle of cells
A nonadjacent range is comprised of two or more adjacent
ranges that are not contiguous to each other
To select a nonadjacent range, begin by selecting an
adjacent range, then press and hold down the Ctrl key as
you select other adjacent ranges
Select and move worksheet cellsSelect and move worksheet cells
To select a large area of cells, select the first cell in
the range, press and hold the Shift key, and then
click the last cell in the range.
Once you have selected a range of cells, you may
move the cells within the worksheet by clicking and
dragging the selection from its current location to its
By pressing and holding the Ctrl key as you drag,
Excel will leave the original selection in its place and
paste a copy of the selection in the new location.
To move between workbooks, use the Alt key while
dragging the selection.
Adjacent and nonadjacent rangesAdjacent and nonadjacent ranges
Range selection techniquesRange selection techniques
Insert worksheet rows and columnsInsert worksheet rows and columns
You can insert one or many additional rowsYou can insert one or many additional rows
or columns within a worksheet with just aor columns within a worksheet with just a
few steps using the mouse or menu options.few steps using the mouse or menu options.
You can insert individual cells within a rowYou can insert individual cells within a row
or column and then choose how to displaceor column and then choose how to displace
the existing cells.the existing cells.
You can click the Insert menu and then selectYou can click the Insert menu and then select
row or column, or right click on a row orrow or column, or right click on a row or
column heading or a selection of cells andcolumn heading or a selection of cells and
then choose Insert from the shortcut menu.then choose Insert from the shortcut menu.
Delete worksheet rows and columnsDelete worksheet rows and columns
To delete and clear cells, rows, or columns,To delete and clear cells, rows, or columns,
you can use the Edit menu, or right click on ayou can use the Edit menu, or right click on a
heading or a selection of cells and chooseheading or a selection of cells and choose
Delete from the shortcut menu.Delete from the shortcut menu.
Clearing, as opposed to deleting, does notClearing, as opposed to deleting, does not
alter the structure of the worksheet or shiftalter the structure of the worksheet or shift
uncleared data cells.uncleared data cells.
What can be confusing about this process isWhat can be confusing about this process is
that you can use the Delete key to clear cells,that you can use the Delete key to clear cells,
but it does not remove them from thebut it does not remove them from the
worksheet as you might expect.worksheet as you might expect.
Use the Undo and Redo featuresUse the Undo and Redo features
Editing is an intrinsic task in any document,Editing is an intrinsic task in any document,
and especially useful are the Undo and Redoand especially useful are the Undo and Redo
The Undo feature allows you to sequentiallyThe Undo feature allows you to sequentially
back up to a certain action, such as a delete, aback up to a certain action, such as a delete, a
move, an entry, etc. and allows you to reversemove, an entry, etc. and allows you to reverse
those actions.those actions.
Redo allows you to reapply actions one stepRedo allows you to reapply actions one step
at a time that you have previously undoneat a time that you have previously undone
Insert, move, and rename worksheetsInsert, move, and rename worksheets
Worksheets are much like pages within aWorksheets are much like pages within a
book; you peruse through them like you flipbook; you peruse through them like you flip
the pages of a book.the pages of a book.
There are several ways to move, copy andThere are several ways to move, copy and
work with worksheets.work with worksheets.
Right click on the sheet tab and choose MoveRight click on the sheet tab and choose Move
or Copy. Select a new position in theor Copy. Select a new position in the
workbook for the worksheet or click theworkbook for the worksheet or click the
Create a copy checkbox and Excel will paste aCreate a copy checkbox and Excel will paste a
copy of that worksheet in the workbook.copy of that worksheet in the workbook.
The same shortcut menu for the sheet tab alsoThe same shortcut menu for the sheet tab also
gives you the option to insert, delete orgives you the option to insert, delete or
rename a worksheet.rename a worksheet.
Print a workbookPrint a workbook
To Print a worksheet, you can use:To Print a worksheet, you can use:
A menuA menu
The Print button on the standard toolbarThe Print button on the standard toolbar
The Ctrl-P keystroke to initiate a printoutThe Ctrl-P keystroke to initiate a printout
of the worksheetof the worksheet
Excel uses the same basic methods forExcel uses the same basic methods for
printing as other Windows andprinting as other Windows and
Microsoft Office applications.Microsoft Office applications.