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Cultural Dimensions in Twitter:
Time, Individualism and Power
Ruth García-Gavilanes (UPF - Barcelona)
Daniele Quercia (Yah...
Culture
2
Microblogs
3
WHAT IS CULTURE ?
4
CULTURE
Culture is a dimension that
distinguishes members of
one group or category of
people from others
5
6
7
HOW TO MEASURE CULTURE
•  Geert Hofstede: Cultural dimensions
Individualism
Power Distance
•  Levine : Pace of Life (Geogr...
Pace of Life
IndividualismPower Distance
9
Not considered
Levine
Hall
Culture and Social Media
Can such differences also be captured from
online interactions?
10
How to measure culture online?
•  Pace of Life
Predictability (tweets, mentions)
Tweets in working hours
•  Individualism ...
Sampling for 10 weeks in 2011
12
2.34
geolocated
users
follows
#FollowFridday
12.6 K
1.9M
362 K
100>= out-degree <=1000
Top 30 countries to study
The top 30 countries by # of users is representative of internet users
13
United States
Brazil
U...
RESULTS
14
Pace of Life : Predictability
Entropy
a) tweets b) mentions
− pi ( j)log2 pi ( j)
j=1
Ni
∑pi ( j):
15
12AM
6AM
9AM
6 PM
9P...
Pace of Life : Predictability
Tweets Mentio
ns
Users in working
hours
Pace of life **-0.62 **-0.68 **-0.58
16
The higher t...
Individualism : Interacting with others
Indonesia
Venezuela
Mexico
JapanBrazilColombia
Chile
South Korea Argentina
Philipp...
Individualism : Interacting with others
Indonesia
Venezuela
Mexico
JapanBrazilColombia
Chile
South Korea Argentina
Philipp...
Collectivism
Interacting with others
19
Power Distance: popularity imbalance
20
follows
#FollowFridday
Popularity imbalance for:
seed followees
followees recommen...
Power Distance: popularity imbalance
Followers Followers/
Followees
Users and followees **-0.62 **-0.67
Users and recommen...
Power
Indonesia
Venezuela
Norway
Malaysia
Singapore
Chile
MexicoPhilippines
Colombia
United States
South Korea
IndiaBrazil...
Power
Indonesia
Venezuela
Norway
Malaysia
Singapore
Chile
MexicoPhilippines
Colombia
United States
South Korea
IndiaBrazil...
Why is this important?
Indicator Pace of Time :
Predictibility
Individuali
sm:
Mentions
Power
Distance:
ImbalanceMentions ...
What is next?
25
•  Language dependent features
•  More Cultural Dimensions
•  Temporal comparisons
More features
What is next?
26
•  User recommender
•  Individualistic vs. collectivistic ?
•  Predictable vs. unpredictable ?
•  Interfa...
Thank you
@ruthygarcia
27
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Twitter: Time, Individualism and Power

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Is the culture of a country associated with the way people use Twitter? The answer is a definite “Yes!” We analyzed more than 2.34 million geo-located user profiles in 30 countries plus their tweets for 10 weeks

Blogpost: http://crowdresearch.org/blog/?p=6767
Paper:http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM13/paper/view/6102

Published in: Technology, Travel
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Twitter: Time, Individualism and Power

  1. 1. Cultural Dimensions in Twitter: Time, Individualism and Power Ruth García-Gavilanes (UPF - Barcelona) Daniele Quercia (Yahoo! Barcelona) Alejandro Jaimes (Yahoo! Barcelona) 1
  2. 2. Culture 2
  3. 3. Microblogs 3
  4. 4. WHAT IS CULTURE ? 4
  5. 5. CULTURE Culture is a dimension that distinguishes members of one group or category of people from others 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. HOW TO MEASURE CULTURE •  Geert Hofstede: Cultural dimensions Individualism Power Distance •  Levine : Pace of Life (Geography of time) •  Perception of time •  Edward T. Hall Monochronic vs Polychronic 8
  9. 9. Pace of Life IndividualismPower Distance 9 Not considered Levine Hall
  10. 10. Culture and Social Media Can such differences also be captured from online interactions? 10
  11. 11. How to measure culture online? •  Pace of Life Predictability (tweets, mentions) Tweets in working hours •  Individualism vs. Collectivism Users interacting with others (mentions) •  Power Distance : Popularity Follow, recommend and accept recommendation preferentially from more popular users (in-degree imbalance). 11
  12. 12. Sampling for 10 weeks in 2011 12 2.34 geolocated users follows #FollowFridday 12.6 K 1.9M 362 K 100>= out-degree <=1000
  13. 13. Top 30 countries to study The top 30 countries by # of users is representative of internet users 13 United States Brazil United Kingdom Indonesia Canada Mexico JapanNetherlands Venezuela SpainAustralia Germany FranceArgentina Chile South Korea Colombia IrelandSouth Africa India Philippines TurkeyItaly RussiaSweden New ZealandNorway MalaysiaBelgiumSingapore 4 5 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 Log(Internet Penetration) Log(UserCount) r = 0.63***
  14. 14. RESULTS 14
  15. 15. Pace of Life : Predictability Entropy a) tweets b) mentions − pi ( j)log2 pi ( j) j=1 Ni ∑pi ( j): 15 12AM 6AM 9AM 6 PM 9PM 12PM # tweets in working hours Interval j
  16. 16. Pace of Life : Predictability Tweets Mentio ns Users in working hours Pace of life **-0.62 **-0.68 **-0.58 16 The higher the pace of life , the more predictability The higher the pace of life the less fraction of users will tweet during working hours p < 0:005 (***), p < 0:05 (**), and p < 0.1 (*)
  17. 17. Individualism : Interacting with others Indonesia Venezuela Mexico JapanBrazilColombia Chile South Korea Argentina PhilippinesMalaysia Spain NetherlandsTurkey South Africa Singapore Ireland Canada FranceBelgiumSweden Norway New Zealand Italy Russia India Germany 80 85 90 95 100 20 40 60 80 Individualism Index FractionofEngagement 17 r= ***-0.55 p < 0:005 (***), p < 0:05 (**), and p < 0.1 (*) Collectivist countries interact more with others
  18. 18. Individualism : Interacting with others Indonesia Venezuela Mexico JapanBrazilColombia Chile South Korea Argentina PhilippinesMalaysia Spain NetherlandsTurkey South Africa Singapore Ireland Canada FranceBelgiumSweden Norway New Zealand Italy Russia India Germany 80 85 90 95 100 20 40 60 80 Individualism Index FractionofEngagement 18 Hong et al.. “Language matters in twitter: A large scale study” ICWSM 11
  19. 19. Collectivism Interacting with others 19
  20. 20. Power Distance: popularity imbalance 20 follows #FollowFridday Popularity imbalance for: seed followees followees recommended accepted recommendedseed
  21. 21. Power Distance: popularity imbalance Followers Followers/ Followees Users and followees **-0.62 **-0.67 Users and recommended user **-0.56 **-0.46 User and accepted recommended user -0.44 -0.29 21 p < 0:005 (***), p < 0:05 (**), and p < 0.1 (*) Users prefer to follow and recommend more popular users than themselves in countries with a higher power distance
  22. 22. Power Indonesia Venezuela Norway Malaysia Singapore Chile MexicoPhilippines Colombia United States South Korea IndiaBrazilCanada ArgentinaAustralia RussiaItalyNew Zealand SpainGermany Japan FranceSouth AfricaUnited KingdomIreland TurkeyNetherlands BelgiumSweden -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 30 60 90 Power Distance Index In-degreeImbalance 22
  23. 23. Power Indonesia Venezuela Norway Malaysia Singapore Chile MexicoPhilippines Colombia United States South Korea IndiaBrazilCanada ArgentinaAustralia RussiaItalyNew Zealand SpainGermany Japan FranceSouth AfricaUnited KingdomIreland TurkeyNetherlands BelgiumSweden -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 30 60 90 Power Distance Index In-degreeImbalance 23 27% of all blog trends are about artists and celebrities (Silang et al, 2011)
  24. 24. Why is this important? Indicator Pace of Time : Predictibility Individuali sm: Mentions Power Distance: ImbalanceMentions Users (%) GDP per capita ***0.55 **-0.57 **-0.41 **-0.48 Education ***0.58 **-0.51 -0.24 ***-0.60 Inequality ***-0.53 **0.49 *0.39 ***0.58 24
  25. 25. What is next? 25 •  Language dependent features •  More Cultural Dimensions •  Temporal comparisons More features
  26. 26. What is next? 26 •  User recommender •  Individualistic vs. collectivistic ? •  Predictable vs. unpredictable ? •  Interfaces personalization •  Do collectivist countries need additional features to interact easier? •  More engagement? •  Information Propagation •  By knowing the cultural characteristics of users, can we increase re-tweet chance? Application
  27. 27. Thank you @ruthygarcia 27

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