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History of British Cinema


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Use this to help answer the exam strand: • How does contemporary representation compare to previous time periods?

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History of British Cinema

  1. 1. HISTORY OF BRITISHCINEMAJessica Mcguigan
  2. 2. 1920sBackground information- Saw the introduction of Sound Films and the Cinematograph Films Act of 1972, which was an act of Parliament designed to stimulate the declining British film industry.- Cameras were mounted on moveable, squeak-proofed dollies, and microphones were hung from booms that could be held above the action.- Films that began production as silents were quickly transformed into sound films.Key genres- Crime- DramaWho were the key directors of this time?Adrian Brunel Alfred Hitchcock reached his peak in thelater 1920s.
  3. 3. 1920sHow successful were British Cinema in this time period?- Their essence was entertainment; their success, financial and otherwise, was huge.- The 1920s was largely dominated by silent movies but saw the introduction of synchronized sound- It wasnt until 1923 that a commercially distributed film contained a synchronised sound track that was photographically recorded and printed on to the side of the strip of motion picture film.- Was the first real turning point for British cinema, this was the era where films developed significantly in terms of technology used to make them.
  4. 4. Popular Films in the 1920s
  5. 5. BRITISH CINEMA INTHE 1930’S.By Luke Dixon
  6. 6. Brief Overview• The 1930’s was viewed largely with disdain, it was before the ‘Golden Age’ of British Cinema which occurred in 1940.• Lots of films were produced with the lowest possible budget as they were only made to fill the Cinematograph Films Act of 1927. • These films were known as the ‘quota quickies.’• However, the Replacement Act in 1938 changed this as a minimum production cost was introduced.
  7. 7. Key Genre of the Decade• The most successful and predominant genre in the 1930’s was Comedy.• A team of Will Hay, Moore Marriott and Graham Moffatt resulted in one of the greatest comedy teams ever to work in cinema.• George Formby and Gracie Fields were the two stand out actors in this decade and as a result they endured a very successful time in cinema. • They became the biggest British box office attractions of the decade.
  8. 8. Key Films of the Decade• The 39 Steps; • Thriller produced and directed by Alfred Hitchcock. • In 1999, The 39 Steps was voted 4th in the BFI Poll of the top 100 British Films.• 35th in the list was another Hitchcock film, The Lady Vanishes. • This film was a comic thriller. • It was Hitchcock’s penultimate film before his move to Hollywood.
  9. 9. Hitchcock• Alfred Hitchcock was, by a large margin, the greatest director in British Cinema in the 1390’s. • He was arguably one of the greatest directors of all time in cinema in general. • He produced numerous films in the 30’s before he moved to Hollywood such as The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1937).
  10. 10. Sam Wood• Sam Wood is another director who endured a fair amount of success in the 1930’s. • Directed the film Goodbye, Mr. Chips in 1939. The film came 72nd in the BFI’s Greatest 100 British Film poll. • This film was nominated and one an Oscar 1940 for the Best Actor in the leading Role, Robert Donat and was also nominated for the Best Picture, Best Sound, Best Film Editing and more.
  11. 11. John Grierson• John Grierson was the man who merged the term ‘documentary’ to a non-fiction film. • He produced the iconic film Night Mail (1936) which was the most successful and celebrated documentary of it’s time.
  12. 12. Successful?• Overall, the 1930’s for British Film was not a time of success. The majority of films were cheap and only created to fulfill the Cinematographic Films Act.• However, some directors and producers, none more so than Alfred Hitchcock, experienced a good decade.• Actors and actresses such as George Formby and Gracie Fields came to the foreground as leading cast members.
  13. 13. Representation This shot is from the film The Lady Vanishes in 1937. At this time Britain was gearing up towards the Second World War in 1939. This screen shot could represent and portray as Britain as a war mongering country and they are always resorting to fighting.
  14. 14. Examples• The 39 Steps (1935).• The Lady Vanishes (1938).• Goodbye, Mr. Chips. (1939).
  15. 15. 1940S FILM In the beginning half of the 1940s World War 2 took place which then ended in 1945.In the 1940s documentaries were quite popular as they were based on the home front.
  16. 16. Key Films-Brief Encounter (1945)-Great Expectations (1946)-Oliver Twist (1948)-Odd Man Out (1947)-The Third Man (1949)-A Matter Of Life And Death (1946)-Black Narcissus (1947)-The Red Shoes (1948)-Hamlet (1948)-Dead of Night (1945)
  17. 17. Key Directors-David Leane, UK film director and producer.-Carol Reed, was a British film director best known for Odd Man Out (1947)-Laurence Olivier, British actor, director and producer.
  18. 18. How successful Britain Film was inthe 1940sIn the 1940s it was thought to have been the golden era of British Cinema as directors such as David Lean, Michael Powell & Carol Reed produced their most highly acclaimed work.16 of the top 100 British films polled in 1999 were from the 1940s, including half of the top ten.In 1940 propaganda was used a lot in cinemas and in films such as Eating Out with Tommy Trinder (1941)During the 1940s the cinema was incredibly cheap which meant that a lot of people went to cinemas.
  19. 19. Film Representation of BritainIn the 1940s britain was represented as being quite posh, people were wealthy and having money.
  20. 20. Was British film successful in Key movements Popular Directors of thethe 1950s? Free cinema- documentary film Decade movement that took place in the midThe 1950s have been seen as 1950s 1.Charles Crightons directedthe doldrum era for british The Lavender Hill Mob, 1951cinema, an era of depression. Key Genres Comedy was one of the most 2. Michael Anderson directedthe top two british cinema popular genres of the 1950s one of the Dam Busters, 1955companies of the time rank these films was called theorganisation closed 79 Astonished heart directed by 3.Chareles Frend directedcinemas in 1956 and Terence Fisher The Cruel Sea, 1953Associated british picturesCorporation closed 65 the yearlater BRITISH CINEMA 1950Scinema admissions had stoodat £1,365 million in britain by1960 the figure was down to£500 million 1. 2. Popular Films of the 1950s The Cruel Sea directed by Charles Frend, 1953 during the 1950s the The Dam Busters by Michael Anderson, 1955 rationing came to an end there was the The Most Popular of the Decade was: coronation of Queen The Bridge on the river Kwai by David Lean, 1957 Elizabeth II and the This was the cinemas biggest international success space race began. of the decade
  21. 21. The image above was taken from the film the bridge on the riverkwai, I think that this image is reflecting the war and rationing thathad happened in the 1950s before this film was released. As youcan see an army in the picture this reflects and represents british patriotism. the 1950s was a low point for British Film
  22. 22. 1960S BRITISHCINEMA Charlie Reynolds
  23. 23. British Cinema Overview• American film companies started to financially support British films again.• The James Bond series was the first to gross over a billion dollars, and is still the highest-grossing after adjusting for inflation.• Popular genre was action, based around spies.• Popular films: - James Bond; Dr. No, From Russia with Love, Goldfinger and Thunderball. - The IPCRESS File - The spy who came in from the cold - The Deadly Affair
  24. 24. Key Films- Dr. No (1962), first of the James Bond series.- Lawrence of Arabia (1962), won 5 golden globes.- Tom Jones (1963), directed by Tony Richardson.- Goldfinger (1964), third James Bond film.- Help! (1965), second Beatles film.- Accident (1967), directed by Harold Pinter.- Kes (1969), directed by Ken Loach.
  25. 25. Key Directors- Alfred Hitchcock - Psycho - 1960- Billy Wilder - The Apartment - 1960- Stanley Kubrick - Spartacus - 1960- Stanley Kramer - Inherit the Word - 1960- Michael Powell - Peeping Tom - 1960- Richard Brooks - Elmer Gantry - 1960All these directors were influential within the 1960s and they created pieces which are still being watched till today.
  26. 26. Key Event within British Cinema in 1960sThe key event in British cinema within in 1960, I feel is the start of the James Bond phenomenon. It was the first film to have become the highest-grossing movie of all time and it is the longest continually-running series of films in history, and its British. This shows our cinematic culture is the most powerful in the world and we have a huge impact on the world when it comes to the film industry.
  27. 27. This screenshot is easily recognisable and everyone around the world are able to identify it. I think this represents Britain as being quite dangerous however it only reflects what is happening to the film, but in the 1960s it could represent Britain in that way as it has British influences.
  28. 28. THE 1970S AND BRITISH FILMMustafa Mohamud
  29. 29. Overview of the periodThe 1970s were a unique period for British cinema.Firstly there were huge cutbacks on American studios investing in British productions, this meant that this decade would not be huge for British cinema; although there were some hit British films produced.
  30. 30. Key film of the decade?Despite these investment issues British producers still managed to produce key films that could be argued to be some of the best British films ever produced.Examples of such films include the james bond film "Diamonds are forever 1972", "Dont look now-1973" and "Monty pythons life of Brian-1979".
  31. 31. What were the key directors of thisdecade?Although some British directors did produce great films during this period, for example Ridley Scott produced hes Sci-Fi hit "Alien- 1979" and John Boorman produced hes epic thriller "Deliverance-1972" ; however if one director should be accredited with the title of best British director of the 70s it has to be Nicolas Roeg, who produced three iconic films during this decade those being "Performance- 1970", "Walkabout-1971" and "Dont look now- 1973".
  32. 32. How successful was British film atthis time?British film during this period was moderately successful but this depends on how you define success as their were very few great British films during this period. Britain faced stiff competition from abroad examples include many great productions such as "The Godfather-1972" and "Apocalypse Now-1979"
  33. 33. How did this reflect what was goingon in Britain in the 1970s?The 1970s was a decade of strikes.During 1972 a three day week was imposed to save on electricity during the miners strikes.These series of strikes ended in 1979 with the "winter of discontent".Surprisingly these strikes were not really represented in British Cinema at the time and these strikes are covered in more modern films such as "The iron lady" which includes scenes of mass strikes.
  34. 34. Screen grab Screen grab from "Deliverance-1972" This screenshot represents Britishness in a positive way as the person above is aiming an arrow at an armed individual attempting to kill him, so he is acting in self defence. This represents Britishness as being defensive and self reliant.
  35. 35. High or low point for British film?In general this was a high point in British cinema as there were many great British films produced during the decade.•"Diamonds are forever-1972"•"Monty pythons life of Brian-1979"•"Alien-1979"•"Deliverance-1972"•"Sunday Bloody Sunday-1971"•"A Clockwork orange-1971"•Note-Both "Deliverance" and "A Clockwork orange" won academy awards for best picture.
  36. 36. HISTORY OF BRITISHCINEMA – 1980SBy Hannah Woods
  37. 37. Brief Overview• At the 1982 Oscars, Colin Welland announced ‘the British are coming’• British film won many awards• Channel 4 funded British Cinema giving others voices, not just London based producers.• Many independent production companies were made.
  38. 38. Key Films and DirectorsFILMS• Babylon DIRECTORS• Gregory’s Girl• Ping Pong • Bill Forsyth• Educating Rita • Hugh Hudson• Licence To Kill • Roland Joffe
  39. 39. How successful was British Film at thistime?• There weren’t a lot of successful films made in the 80’s with a few (such as Chariots of Fire) winning many awards and rising cinema attendance.• USA had an amazing year of film with films such as Back To The Future, E.T, Ghostbusters, The Breakfast Club. This may have been the reason why British films weren’t as popular.• Many Hollywood blockbusters relied on special effects made at the British studio Pinewood, including Superman and Star Wars
  40. 40. Representation of British Film Gregory’s Girl
  41. 41. BRITISH CINEMA1990S The Decade of Money, Mega-Spending and Special Effects
  42. 42. What happened to british film in the 90sKey events Key genres 1990s - 1999s Film movementInvestment in film production rose The key genres that was seen The Decade of Money, Mega- dramatically compared to the within the 90s was Comedy Spending and Special Effects 1980s. Investments had gone up With home viewing start and and Dramas. Every year there by over 600 million by 1994. people being able to watch was more Drama and comedyTax incentives allowed americans films at home, Film makes had films than any other genres. producers to invest in british film. to keep people insteaded. This help to fund big british films Special effects helped to keep like "Shakespeare in love" and people interested into going to "Topsy-Turvy" watch a film and with higherIn 1995 the british film board had to costs films need more funding. start putting on information about films (e.g sec,violence, bad language).DVD was introduce into the UK market. they was the most successful domestic media format since the compact dice in 1983,New acted intoduced for the writing off production to a film and expenditure of british film qualifying as british. they also have to meet the 1985 Film act.
  43. 43. WHAT WAS THE KEY FILMS OF THE 1990S? • The Remains of the Day • Four weddings and a Funeral • Trainspotting • The English Patient • The full Monty • Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels • Shakespeare in Love • In The Name of The Father • The crying game These was key films that was made in the 90s
  44. 44. THE KEY DIRECTORS OF THE 1990SNike Newell was the director of Peter Cattaneo was the director Anthony Minghella was the"Four Weddings and a Funeral" of "The Full Monty" director of "The English Patient"
  45. 45. BRITISH FILM SUCCESS?British film was growing and had become more popular than the 1980s. With investment going upby over 600 million.however many films relied on funding from television broadcasters like BBC and Channel 4.I would say that the 90s was a success because looking at the films that was made they wentworldwide and are still watched today.
  46. 46. YOUTUBE CLIP This is a shot from the film Trainspotting. I think this is a negative representation of britishness within the film. This is because it shows them sitting around smoking and drinking loads of bear. I dont agree that all people did was drink and smoke in the pub.Overall i think that trainspotting shows a negative view of britain from this clip. Howeveras i have never watch the full film i wouldnt give my opinion if i think it is fully negativeor has some positive points.This was a high year for british film in my opinion as well know films was made and arestill watched today. The decade help to bring money in the british film industry andkeep it going.
  48. 48. OverviewThe 2000s was a successful decade for the british film industry with the first seven films in the Harry Potter series taking over $637,700,000 alone.British urban film festival was created, leading the way for films such as KiDULTHOOD and AdULTHOOD to become highly successfulDaniel Craig controversially became the new James BondThe UK Film council had its last decade producing films before it was abolished producing cult classics within the era such as Harry Brown, Snatch, The Business, This Is England and The Football Factory.
  49. 49. Key Films and DirectorsThe key films of this era were:Harry Potter (Films 1-7)Bridget Jones SeriesCharlie And The Chocolate FactoryBatman BeginsSnatchThe key directors of the era were:Noel Clarke (KiDULTHOOD, AdULTHOOD)Nick love (Football Factory, The Business, Outlaw, The firm)Danny Boyle (28 Days later, Slumdog Millionaire, 127 Hours)Guy Ritchie (Snatch, RocknRolla, Sherlock Holmes)
  50. 50. Success of the 2000s &Reflection of on societyThe British cinema admissions for 2000 - 2010 were the highest since 1970s which indicates the British film industry had a a very strong decade.Films such as KidULTHOOD, AdULTHOOD, Harry Brown and The Football Factory reflect the rising problems britain faced during that period such as which was majorly Street crime such as muggings, shootings and stabbings which can be seen in many of the urban films of that era, other problems which are depicted within british films was the rising issue of recreational drug use. All of these problems can also be related to the topic of the economical downfall of the country at that time.
  51. 51. Representations within british film This screenshot From The Football Factory depicts Britains everlasting problem with binge drinking, which the population are notorious for because of their poor behaviour whilst binge drinking. I believe that this is a negative representation of Britishness as it displays the dominant ideology that the country has created for themselves.In general most of the topics portrayed are negative within the British film industry such as crime, violence and drugs this shows these topics to a younger audience who them may deciede to copy or be influenced by what they see. This period was the best for britain since the 1970s the British film industry is ever growing, expanding and achieving higher and was a high point for the industry during 2000 - 2010
  53. 53. 2010’s• The 2010’s has dropped down 19 percent as the year 2011 between the months of June to August came in at 55.1m. Making films such as Total Recall and Battleships which were disappointed blockbusters. During 2011 they sold 172 million cinema tickets, this is a 1.4% increase from 2010. The key genres for the British audience are shown to be comedies.• The next pages show how popular the movies have got during the year of 2011.• year-uk-film-2011
  54. 54. Films of 2011
  55. 55. Key films and Directors of 2012’s• Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows ‘part 2’• Director; David Yates• Distributor; Warner Brothers• The Kings Speech• Director; Tom Hooper• Distributor; Momentum• The Imbetweeners Movie• Director; Ben Palmer• Distributor; Entertainment
  56. 56. Examples•• Imbetweeners Movie (2011) This represents Britain as he is wearing a England top in a foreign country.