Sources Of Political Conflict


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Sources Of Political Conflict

  2. 2. Focus: <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul>
  3. 3. On Power… <ul><li>Centers on 2 things: </li></ul><ul><li>- domination </li></ul><ul><li>- influence </li></ul><ul><li>* the question of who has power in society becomes a question of who has political power </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A pervasive control of the government is an exercise of political dominance ( domination ) </li></ul><ul><li>examples : masters dominating slaves, aristocrats dominating commoners, rich dominating the poor…in history in different countries, religious hierarchy, upper class, and political party have exercised dominance over the government </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Domination is the predominant mode of political power in authoritarian regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Here the political clique (group) monopolizes governmental authority and imposes its will on the population. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Influence is the predominant mode of exercising political power in democracies </li></ul><ul><li>Where the government plays a mediating role, society’s main groups such as business, labor, middle class, religious groups, ethnic groups, etc. may influence the government to help them out or favor them…. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Methods used to exercise influence: </li></ul><ul><li>- personal persuasion (ex.Church on RH Bill) </li></ul><ul><li>- public demonstration (ex. prayer rally against BJE) </li></ul><ul><li>- campaign contributions (ex.Chinese chamber of commerce funding campaign of a certain politician) </li></ul><ul><li>- votes on election day </li></ul><ul><li>-bribery and etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. On Resources… <ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources ( oil, petroleum reserves etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Money ( budget, policies on econ growth etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- These are typically economic conflicts </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>To help us understand the relationship of economics and politics… </li></ul><ul><li>Political Economy </li></ul><ul><li>This allows students to look into questions in which various resources are dealt with through political process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Such questions as : </li></ul><ul><li>Labor-management relations </li></ul><ul><li>Class conflict involving the rich and poor and those in between </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies on economic growth,taxes, inflation, interest rates,minimum wage etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In democracies: </li></ul><ul><li>- private enterprises are given more latitude </li></ul><ul><li>( theorist say they are essential in democracy because economic freedom promote political freedom ) </li></ul><ul><li>- governments also play a major role in national </li></ul><ul><li>economy ( raising taxes, regulating private businesses, and actually owning corporations ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>In authoritarian regimes: </li></ul><ul><li>- prone to restrict freedom of private enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>-control over the country’s population requires control of its economy </li></ul><ul><li>-in an extreme case, gov may control and operate the entire economy ( centrally planned economy , i.e. USSR ) </li></ul><ul><li>-in other cases enterprises are allowed but under the watchful eye of the government ( China in the 1980s, Nazi, etc.) </li></ul>
  13. 13. One of the most important questions in comparative politics centers on the relationship between States and Markets
  14. 14. On Social Identity… <ul><li>This refers to the ways in which individuals and groups are defined in society </li></ul><ul><li>To better understand how comparative politics addresses social identity, the following issues need to be dealt with: </li></ul><ul><li>- class, ethnicity, religion, gender, and generational identities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Class <ul><li>Usually refers to the economic position of individual or group in society… socioeconomic identity in other words </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ideas <ul><li>Socialism: </li></ul><ul><li>- An ideology which central premise is that an economy based on private enterprise places excessive economic and political power in the hands of a small band of private entrepreneurs </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>- Maintain that humanity is better off if free-enterprise system were abolished all together </li></ul><ul><li>-Socialist government to take over factories, banks,farms, etc…. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Certain disagreements as to how ideals of Socialism should be practiced: </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Marx- proposed no government a all; gov always agent of social domination </li></ul><ul><li> -did not view socialism is authoritarian term but a liberating force that will free masses from economic exploitation </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Soviet-style Communism: </li></ul><ul><li>-believed in all powerful government operated by a well-organized communist party claiming to represent the workers </li></ul><ul><li>- Stalin and Mao Ze Dong </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Fascism: ideology that emerged in Europe in 1920s-1930s </li></ul><ul><li>- most malignant manipulation was Hitler’s Nazi Movement which supreme political values were: </li></ul><ul><li>1. solidarity and strength of German Nation </li></ul><ul><li>2. extermination of non-Aryan race and the Jews </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>- In Italy , Benito Moussilini- emphasized national solidarity and pride…glorifying military and opposing democracy </li></ul>
  22. 22. Political ideology:left-right spectrum Radical left communism democracy Conservative authoritarian fascism
  23. 23. Values <ul><li>May be defined as spiritual/moral principles, ideals, or qualities of life that people favor for their own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Most important values: </li></ul><ul><li>-freedom -justice promotes human dignity and civilized relationship </li></ul><ul><li>-equality -security </li></ul><ul><li>-order -community </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Values may become political when people call on government to guarantee them </li></ul><ul><li>There can be conflict of values: </li></ul><ul><li>-freedon vs. Equality </li></ul><ul><li>-order vs. Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>(dictatorial) (democracy) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Western value- west exultation of individual freedom which will lead ( according to criticisms) to social collapse/breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Asian value- individual responsibilities to collective community…intense family loyalty </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>* Democracy is not a recipe for eliminating conflict, rather it is a mechanism for dealing with it in accordance with generally accepted rules…. </li></ul>