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Scince folio air pollution . _.


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Scince folio air pollution . _.

  1. 1. SMK Bukit Jambul PentaksiranBerasaskanSek olah Science Form 1 Name :NurulIzzahBtHurairoh Class : 1 Dinamik Teacher’s name :PuanSitiIndriati
  2. 2. Index : 1 . What is air pollution? 2. Examples of air pollution? 3. Sources of air pollution 4. The effects of air pollution to human and environment 5. The steps needed to prevent and control air pollution 6. Ways to keep the air clean 7. Practising habitats that keeps the air clean
  3. 3. What is air pollution? Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and
  4. 4. Examples of air pollution Noise Pollution Noise pollution or unwanted sounds that are carried by the air, have an irritating and detrimental effect on humans and other animals. Careful planning of streets and biuldings in towns and better control over noisy vechiles may add to the control of noise pollution. Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is one of the major forms of pollution in buildings. It is not only the smoker who is infected, but everyone who inhales the polluted air. There is a very strong connection between smoking and lung cancer. Bronchitis is common among smokers and unborn babies of mothers who smoke also suffer from the harmful effects of smoking. Exhaust Gases of Vehicles Pollution from exhaust gases of vehicles is reponsible for 60% of all air pollution and in cities up to 80%. There is a large variety of harmful chemicals present in these gases, with lead being one of the most dangerous. Combustion of Coal The combustion of caol without special precautions can have serious consequences. If winds do not blow away the poisonous gases, they can have fatal effects and may lead to death. Acid rain Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture to produce highly acidic rain, snow, hail, or fog. The acid eats into the stone, brick and metal articles and pollutes water sources. Coal in South Africa is rich in sulphur and the power stations in the Mpumalanga Province could be reponsible for acid rain over other areas of our country.
  5. 5. Sources of air pollution The combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in automobiles, trucks, and jet airplanes produces several primary pollutants: nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, as well as large quantities of particulates, chiefly lead. In the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides combine with hydrocarbons to form a secondary class of pollutants, the photochemical oxidants, among them ozone and the eyestinging peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). Nitrogen oxides also react with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide, a foul-smelling brown gas. In urban areas like Los Angeles where transportation is the main cause of air pollution, nitrogen dioxide tints the air, blending with other contaminants and the atmospheric water vapor to produce brown smog. Although the use of catalytic converters has reduced smog-producing compounds in motor vehicle exhaust emissions, recent studies have shown that in so doing the converters produce nitrous oxide, which contributes substantially to global warming. In cities, air may be severely polluted not only by transportation but also by the burning of fossil fuels (oil and coal) in generating stations, factories, office buildings, and homes and by the incineration of garbage. The massive combustion produces tons of ash, soot, and other particulates responsible for the gray smog of cities like New York and Chicago, along with enormous quantities of sulfur oxides (which also may be result from burning coal and oil). These oxides rust iron, damage building stone, decompose nylon, tarnish silver, and kill plants. Air pollution from cities also affects rural areas for many miles downwind. Every industrial process exhibits its own pattern of air pollution. Petroleum refineries are responsible for extensive hydrocarbon and particulate pollution. Iron and steel mills, metal smelters, pulp and paper mills, chemical plants, cement and asphalt plants—all discharge vast amounts of various particulates. Uninsulated high-voltage power lines ionize the adjacent air, forming ozone and other hazardous pollutants.
  6. 6. Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides, herbicides, radioactive fallout, and dust from fertilizers, mining operations, and livestock feedlots.
  7. 7. The effects of air pollution to human and environment Effects on human Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals, i.e., the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution.
  8. 8. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. It is estimated that half a million people die prematurely every year in the United States as a result of smoking cigarettes. Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing. Medical conditions arising from air pollution can be very expensive. Healthcare costs, lost productivity in the workplace, and human welfare impacts cost billions of dollars each year.
  9. 9. Effects on environment Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. These acids fall to the Earth either as wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry precipitation (gas and particulates). Some are carried by the wind, sometimes hundreds of miles. In the environment, acid rain damages trees and causes soils and water bodies to acidify, making the water unsuitable for some fish and other wildlife. It also speeds the decay of buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our national heritage. Acid rain has damaged Massachusetts lakes, ponds, rivers, and soils, leading to damaged wildlife and forests. Eutrophication is a condition in a water body where high concentrations of nutrients (such as nitrogen) stimulate blooms of algae, which in turn can cause fish kills and loss of plant and animal diversity. Although eutrophication is a natural process in the aging of lakes and some estuaries, human activities can greatly accelerate eutrophication by increasing the rate at which nutrients enter aquatic ecosystems. Air emissions of nitrogen oxides from power plants, cars, trucks, and other sources contribute to the amount of nitrogen entering aquatic ecosystems. Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the air. Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see. Some haze-causing pollutants (mostly fine particles) are directly emitted to the atmosphere by sources such as power plants, industrial facilities, trucks and automobiles, and construction activities. Others are formed when gases emitted to the air (such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) form particles as they are carried downwind. Effects on wildlife. Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on soils or surface waters, can impact wildlife in a number of ways. Like humans, animals can experience health problems if they are exposed to sufficient
  10. 10. concentrations of air toxics over time. Studies show that air toxics are contributing to birth defects, reproductive failure, and disease in animals. Persistent toxic air pollutants (those that break down slowly in the environment) are of particular concern in aquatic ecosystems. These pollutants accumulate in sediments and may biomagnify in tissues of animals at the top of the food chain to concentrations many times higher than in the water or air. Ozone depletion. Ozone is a gas that occurs both at ground-level and in the Earth's upper atmosphere, known as the stratosphere. At ground level, ozone is a pollutant that can harm human health. In the stratosphere, however, ozone forms a layer that protects life on earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. But this "good" ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and halons. These substances were formerly used and sometimes still are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. Thinning of the protective ozone layer can cause increased amounts of UV radiation to reach the Earth, which can lead to more cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. UV can also damage sensitive crops, such as soybeans, and reduce crop yields. Crop and forest damage.Air pollution can damage crops and trees in a variety of ways.Ground-level ozone can lead to reductions in agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests and other environmental stresses (such as harsh weather). As described above, crop and forest damage can also result from acid rain and from increased UV radiation caused by ozone depletion. Global climate change.The Earth's atmosphere contains a delicate balance of naturally occurring gases that trap some of the sun's heat near the Earth's surface. This "greenhouse effect" keeps the Earth's temperature stable. Unfortunately, evidence is mounting that humans have disturbed this natural balance by producing large amounts of some of these greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and methane. As a result, the Earth's atmosphere appears to be trapping more of the sun's heat, causing
  11. 11. the Earth's average temperature to rise - a phenomenon known as global warming. Many scientists believe that global warming could have significant impacts on human health, agriculture, water resources, forests, wildlife, and coastal areas.
  12. 12. Steps needed to prevent and control air pollution Step 1: Save energy around the house. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, saving energy can reduce carbon emissions. Because most energy sources require burning fossil fuels, the less energy you use, the greener you are. Set your appliances and lights on a timer to turn off after a certain period of inactivity. Use compact fluorescent bulbs instead of standard lightbulbs, and use your microwave instead of the oven to heat small items. (See References 3) Step 2: Manage your heating and cooling. Turn your thermostat down in the winter and up in the summer whenever you are at work, sleeping or on vacation. You can also turn your water heater down to 120 degrees to save power. Make sure your insulation is up to the recommended level for your area, and insulate pipes that pass through unheated spaces. Check to see that your windows and doors are not leaking warm or cool air. To make sure your furnace and air conditioners are running efficiently, perform regular maintenance. (See References 3) Step 3: Cut back on the amount of packaging you purchase and the amount of household waste you produce. The process of manufacturing packaging releases harmful emissions into the atmosphere, so patronize brands that use as little packaging as possible. Recycle everything you can: aluminum, paper, glass, plastic and cardboard are usually easy to recycle. When you are disposing of chemical-based substances like paint, batteries, pesticides or solvents, check with your local waste management office for a safe, ecofriendly method. (See References 3)
  13. 13. Step 4: Reduce the amount of time you spend in the car. Carpool or use public transportation whenever you can. For shorter distances, walk or ride your bike to do errands. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, changing to carpooling can save a person over $1,000 per year. If you avoid driving alone only one day every week for a year, you can save hundreds of dollars in expenses, not to mention the wear and tear on your car. When you must drive, refill your gas tank during colder times of the day and avoid spilling gas to prevent evaporation into the atmosphere. Step 5: Improve your fuel economy. According to the EPA, a 1 percent increase in fuel economy equals a 1 percent decrease in carbon dioxide emissions (see References 1). Avoid accelerating quickly, braking hard and driving at high speeds, particularly when in heavy traffic. Remove excess weight from your car and remove unused roof racks or bike carriers, which cause drag. Ways to keep the air clean.
  14. 14. Walk or Bike Instead of automatically grabbing your car keys for every errand, walk or ride your bike whenever you can. Increase your opportunities to get there under your own steam by switching to neighborhood shops, restaurants and service providers. Leaving your car at home the equivalent of just one day each week reduces your yearly greenhouse gas emissions up by to 800 pounds, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. You'll keep the air cleaner, save money and get fit. Recycle Electronics The term "eCycling" means recycling used electronics, by refurbishing them for new users or reusing their metal, glass and plastic. Recycling electronics reduces the need for mining and processing new materials. It also keeps hazardous parts made of chromium and lead from polluting the air, reports the Environmental Protection Agency. Take your old computers, televisions, cell phones and other gadgetry to an electronics recycling center instead of putting them in the trash. Many retailers and manufacturers offer electronic recycling options, as do some local governments. Refuel Without Vapors Avoid letting vapors escape when you put gas in your car. Gasoline vapors contribute to ozone problems, and they're toxic if you breathe them. Don't top off your tank after the pumps clicks. Continuing to pump causes vapors to escape from the pump nozzle and increases your chances of a spill. Overfilling can also damage your car's vapor collection system, since gas expands in your tank. Take extra care refueling during hot weather, when vapor production increases, suggests the Environmental Protection Agency. Fill the tank early in the morning or at night, especially on ozone action days, and make sure you tighten your gas cap afterward. Protect and Plant Trees Encourage community preservation and planting, and plant trees around your own home. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, up to 25 pounds
  15. 15. per tree each year, according to Power Scorecard. They also produce clean, new oxygen and help cool the air.