Principle Criteria Comment about requirement for toolsPrinciple1Promote societal choiceusing transparent andequitable processes & toolsImportance of decision support tools involvingviewpoints of relevant stakeholders enablingconflicting positions to be recognised and built intoprocesses and decisions.Principle2Delegate decisions to mostsuitable scaleDelegation requires tools to be operable at differentscales to engage all potential stakeholders. Tools needto be robust and flexible enough to work at differentlevels.Principle3Assess adjacent effects Management interventions in ecosystems often haveunknown or unpredictable effects on otherecosystems. This calls for tools that addressecosystems as connected systems, but which canfunction with evidence gapsPrinciple4Incorporate economic andsocial driversTools to support this step need to addressrelationships between natural systems, people andthe economy, for which many links are poorlyunderstood. Recognising and assessing drivers ofchange are important in tools that consider bothknowledge gaps and uncertainty. In particular weneed to recognise that these are complex naturalsystems, not simply stocks, and so impacts can be anddifficult to predictPrinciple5Encourage ecosystemresilienceBiodiversity conservation and the maintenance ofhuman wellbeing depend on the functioning andresilience of natural ecosystems. Ecosystem servicesframework provides a rigorous and peer reviewedapproach that has scientific credibility.The benefits people obtain from ecosystems– dependon maintaining and, where appropriate, restoringparticular ecological structures and functions, so toolshave to be effective at incorporating these oftenoverlooked non-marketed values into decision-making.Principle6Respond to uncertainty inenvironmental limitsOur current understanding is insufficient to allowenvironmental limits to be precisely defined, andtherefore tools supporting adaptive management,coupled with the precautionary approach, arenecessary with social learning used to improve future
responses and understanding.Principle7Operate at and acrossmultiple spatial and temporalscalesThe drivers of ecosystems, vary spatially and throughtime, necessitating management interventions andtools that can operate at more than one spatial andtemporal scale to meet management objectives.Principle8Champion the long termapproachEcosystem processes are characterized by varyingtemporal scales and lag-effects. This inherentlyconflicts with the short term focus of economic andpolitical systems. We need tools that can factor insuch long term horizons.Principle9Manage change to bestadvantageTools are needed to help manage change; there is akey role for futures tools here. Adaptive managementis key to anticipate and cater for change. Caution isrequired in making decisions lacking flexibility.Feedback of social learning is a key ingredient ofsuccessful adaptive managementPrinciple10Champion biologicaldiversityBiological diversity is critical both for its intrinsic valueand because of the key role it plays in providing theecosystem and other services upon which we allultimately depend. This non-market value needs to beembedded in decision-making tools and processes.Principle11Optimise evidence frommultiple sourcesEvidence should be secured from all relevantstakeholders (local and expert) recognising the needto process different types through a range of tools inorder to maximise transparency and robustness indecision processes.Principle12Maximise and maintainstakeholder engagementMost decisions are complex and contested. Decisionsshould harness and engage the necessary expertiseusing expert and local knowledge(s) across scales andsectors. Deliberative and iterative engagementprocesses and targeting are increasingly required tocapture public views and build a meaningful dialogue.