Hi in this slideshow I will be talking about ‘how to create a mind’ by ray Kurzweil, If you have ever wondered How the brain recognize images?Or How is it possible for man-made programme to beat the worlds best chess players?Then I suggest you read this book.
Attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the human brain down to the molecular level. The aim of the project is to study the brain's architectural and functional principles. The Blue Brain Project is using a scanning technology which they call a patch-clamp robot, with which the researchers are “measuring the specific ion channels, neurotransmitters, and enzymes that are responsible for the electrochemical activity within each neuron” Kurzweil calls this “an automated system with one-micrometer precision that can perform scanning of neural tissue at very close range without damaging the delicate membranes of the neurons”
it was found that his early speech recognition system was tripped up by the fact that there is a massive amount of variability in enunciation and pronunciation between different people (and even in the same person across time)
Some of the social and ethical issues that are raised when talking about AI systems, include cultural diversity, this is because people people may start to rely on them to much to the extend where they will essentially control their lives and allow no creativity to develop. Other issues that may rise is equality of access, these machines will probably be only available to people who have the money. The AI system that Ray is describing suggests it will be much smarter and will be connected globally. Meaning people with these machines will become superior to people who don’t as their lives may become significantly easier. And finally, another ethical issue includes people and machines, as people will start to rely on the AI system more and more once they are available. However because people will start to rely on them there is the question if the system will make ethical enough decisions and will rather than help society, damage it.
How to create a mind
‘How to Create a Mind’
By Ray Kurzweil
Content of the Book
• The Structure of the Neocortex and the
Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind.
• The Pattern Recognition
• The Theory of the Mind (PRTM)
• Solving the Speech Recognition Problem
using vector quantization or trying to train
a computer to recognize speech.
Content of the Book
• The current most advanced AI system
(Watson) and the turning test.
• Simulating brains
• And much more…
Watson: AI computer
• Watson: is an AI computer which is able to answer
questions posed in natural language.
• The computer system was specifically developed
to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy!.
• In 2011, Watson took part on Jeopardy! against
past winners Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings
• And won the first prize of $1 million.
The Blue Brain project
• Synthetic human brain,
• Brain architecture and functional
• “an automated system with onemicrometer precision that can perform
scanning of neural tissue at very close
range without damaging the delicate
membranes of the neurons”
“AI or artificial intelligence is the
simulation of human intelligence
processes by machines, especially
“An algorithm is a
formula for solving a
• is a classical quantization technique from
• allows the modeling of probability density
functions by the distribution of prototype
• It was originally used for data compression. It
works by dividing a large set of points
(vectors) into groups having approximately
the same number of points closest to them.
What is achieved from this?
• Greatly reduces the complexity of the data.
• Reduced sixteen-dimensional data to onedimensional data (each sample is now a
• Increased ease of identifying invariant
• Can use one-dimensional pattern recognizers,
(even though the original data consisted of
many more dimensions).
Speech Recognition Problem
• “at first, we used
approaches by directly
knowledge about the
fundamental units of
and rules from linguists
on how people string
phonemes together to
form words and
This approach failed however,...
And a new method had to be used.
Eventually they succeeded using:
1. Hidden Markov models,
2. Vector quantization,
3. And genetic algorithms
Social and Ethical Issues
• Issues that will be raised when AI
system is on the market:
- People and machines
- Acceptance of AI system
- Cultural diversity will decrease