Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved
• Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such
as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for
its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input
and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and
THE TRAINING SYSTEM
• A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to
perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a
sub system of the organization.
The System Approach views training as a sub system of an
organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like
objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship
between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis
(TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating.
• Organizations are working in open environment i.e. there are some
internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities,
therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on
the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces
are the various demands of the organization for a better learning
environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.
The Three Model of Training Are:
Systematic Model Training,
Instructional System Development
Systematic Model Training
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular
basis to make further improvements.
The Five Phases of Systematic Model
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees
requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc
The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance
would be evaluated.
2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing
objectives of training, identifying
3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist
the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training
material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals &
4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the
failure of whole training program.
5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent
work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to
remedy or improve failure practices.
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole.
The outer loop
and values of the
the basis of
model i.e. inner
loop is executed
Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the
defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few
years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal
transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.
Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the
community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform
the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that
how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other
Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the
deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment.
For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.
The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the
organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then
the training model is further implemented.
Instructional System Development
Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the
training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is
concerned with the training need on the job performance.
The Phases Of ISD Model
1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target
2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional
objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training
material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training
program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.
3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of
developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids,
demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.
4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,
equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training
5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has
achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying
strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in
order to remedy or improve failure practices.
The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also
highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this
model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.
Case Study:Company Overview
• Cognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information
technology, consulting, and business process outsourcing services,
dedicated to helping the world's leading companies build stronger
businesses. Headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant
combines a passion for client satisfaction, technology innovation, deep
industry and business process expertise, and a global, collaborative
workforce that embodies the future of work.
• With over 50 delivery centres worldwide and 130,000 employees as of
September 30, 2011, Cognizant is a member of the NASDAQ-100, the
S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked
among the top performing and fastest growing companies in the world.
• Cognizant Academy, the in-house learning and development arm of
Cognizant, provides associates role-based and business-aligned
learning solutions at career inflection points. Present in 26 cities,
around the world, Cognizant Academy is well-supported by a
dedicated workforce who aim to seamlessly weave learning into
the work life of employees at Cognizant.
• Distinct offerings like the Campus Associate Training, Dovetail,
Career Compass, Leadership Development and other Continuous
Education programs cater to the diverse work-force.
• Delivered through a host of media like Classroom Training, ELearning, Experiential Labs, Virtual Classrooms, Web 2.0
Collaboration, Library, Assessments and Certifications, these
programs inculcate a continuous learning culture at Cognizant.
Cognizant: Training Talk
• As the workforce multiplies and business expands at
Cognizant, Cognizant Academy has been seeing a steady increase in the
number of people it trains annually. In 2010, they trained 85,211 unique
employees. As of 2011, thus far, they have trained 101,226 unique
• Cognizant Academy has identified core capability areas to keep employees
abreast with the market and customer expectations, and to ensure their
professional development. This provides the basis of Cognizant Academy’s
• Right from when employees join, they are enrolled into customized
learning packages that address all aspects of their career development.
• These programs provide structured learning through an apt and well
thought out blend of delivery channels like e-learning, virtual
classrooms, workshops, expert sessions and case studies, etc., ensuring
optimum attendance and course-ware retention.
Cognizant’s Measurement Means
• Cognizant Academy had a need to implement measurement to gain insight
about training effectiveness. To meet that need, Knowledge Advisors
implemented Metrics that Matter to collect and report data that could be
leveraged by several internal teams to improve training effectiveness.
• The need for measurement:
• To understand the effectiveness of the learning delivery process as
experienced by the learners
• To manage the training portfolio in alignment with the business objectives
(both strategic and operational)
• To manage the learning effectiveness of key programs
• To assess the impact of L&D in specific jobs as well as at broader business
• To devise future training plan and strategy
Maximizing Metrics That Matter
• Cognizant Academy utilizes Knowledge Advisors’ flagship software solution
for learning measurement evaluation, Metrics that Matter, to measure
and assess instructor-led sessions and virtual, facilitated training on the
following parameters –
• Business Alignment
• Perceived Job Impact
Metrics that Matter
• Cognizant Academy’s rationale for selecting Metrics that Matter
centers around the following:
• Metrics that Matter is a leading system specializing in learning
measurement, analytics and reporting
• The MTM tool can be easily integrated with theirLearning
Management System – PeopleSoft ELM - and allows for
repeatable and scalable measurement
• Over 100 reports are available off-the-shelf with data gathered in
the feedback forms, capable of being sliced at various levels
• By enhancing the learning experience of employees, the tool
improves Cognizant Academy’s reach and performance
• Having an effective tool like Metrics that Matter helps reduce the
effort spent on administrative tasks required for feedback gathering
and helps focus on analytics and action
Why Does Metrics that Matter
• Cognizant Academy would recommend Metrics that Matter to another
organization because the tool provides standard evaluation forms and
robust measurement models that focus on efficiency, effectiveness,
business alignment and job impact. It is effective in garnering feedback
from learners, which can then be used to enhance learning delivery
Measurement Successes with Metrics
• Metrics that Matter reports helped Cognizant Academy
understand customer expectations, add value and improve
overall process efficiency and effectiveness. Below are a few
examples of such successes, pertaining to (a) courseware and
instructors (b) awareness on importance of feedback (c)
qualitative feedback analysis
a) Courseware & Instructor - Best Practices followed:
Courseware scores below a certain threshold are identified for
maintenance or retirement
- Participants are profiled to ensure that their expectations from the
program are met
- Courseware is enhanced for several courses to include case-studies,
scenario-based hands-on sessions etc. which lead to better subject recall
- Overall, there is a good improvement in the learner scores for courses
that are enhanced. Each month, the course scores are analyzed and in
case of low scores, corrective measures are taken. The courseware scores
are seen to be consistent over the months but factors like participants
profile, trainer and course material also seem to impact the overall course
For example, the courseware average as on 23rd April 2011 is 5.64, but the
courseware average as on 15th July 2011 is 5.72. This data point shows that
the courseware feedback has improved 0.08 over a course of time.
• The teams in-charge of delivering learning at Cognizant
Academy constantly evaluate the instructors and ensure
that they are equipped and capable of imparting the
• - Based on Instructor scores, all instructors are required to
undergo a workshop that grooms essential skills required
for a training facilitator
• - This workshop enables instructors to upgrade their
teaching skills and learn various ways of delivering a course.
It helps them to make their training sessions learnerfriendly and impactful. It boosts the confidence level of
instructors and in turn improves instructor scores.
b) Improved Awareness on
Importance of Feedback
• All sessions are now kick-started by setting the context
of the training and also by highlighting the importance
• - Information about the Metrics that Matter feedback
and its importance is displayed in all classrooms
• - All course-schedule confirmation mails have
information on the importance of providing feedback.
Employees are also informed about the Metrics that
Matter trigger emails.
• - SMS reminders (text messages) to share feedback are
• sent to employees. This is to increase the response
Table 1: Response Rate for January to
c) Qualitative Feedback Analysis
• Regular qualitative feedback analysis helps Cognizant Academy ensure a
constant enhancement of its programs.Some key features that were
introduced as a result of continual analysis of Metrics that Matter
feedback data are:
• - Course revision
• - Increase of course duration
• - Accessibility of share path
• - More hands-on training
• - Mixed participation ensuring greater peer-to-peer knowledge sharing
• - More effective instructors
• - More real-world examples for a deeper understanding
Taking Measurement One Bold Step
• Following significant successes with Metrics that Matter, Cognizant
Academy’s future considerations with regards to measurement using
Metrics that Matter are –
• In the last year, Cognizant Academy focused on Learning Efficiency and
Effectiveness to provide a fulfilling learning experience to employees.
Now, in alignment with Cognizant’s vision and commitment to transform
its workforce to best serve the future needs of its customers, Cognizant
Academy has renewed its commitment to be more business-centric.
Therefore, their primary focus will be on Business Alignment and Job
Impact and they will strive to improve the associated performance
parameters for all key L&D offerings.
• Cognizant Academy has long been using the Metrics that Matter feedback
for its Continuous Education Program which deals with continuously
improving the skills and capabilities of employees. Cognizant Academy is
now looking to use Metrics That Matter for its Year-1 Learning Program
too, with an aim of triggering feedback to fresher's, mentors and
• A significant portion of future learning will be through Social Media.
Recognizing this, Cognizant Academy may pilot the Informal Learning
Measurement Suite offered by MTM to monitor and improve effective
implementation of informal learning.
• In its efforts to align with Knowledge Advisors’ Talent Development
Reporting Principles, Cognizant Academy sets key measurement objectives
upfront for every High Business Impact Learning program. The training
program is then customized in alignment with these improvement areas
and business outcomes. After the training is completed, these objectives
are again measured to ensure the desired business outcomes are
achieved. For instance productivity improvement of 10% has been
achieved through a technical training session in Struts2.0.
In summation, Cognizant Academy found that Metrics that Matter helped
their organization improve the effectiveness and business impact of
learning with tangible and compelling results.