Note 1: Daniel, L. (14 June 1999). Intelligent managers in tune with workplace stresses. Federal Times. 16.
The intelligence test was a primary step in the development of the applied branches of psychology. Educational psychologists stimulated the applied nature of educational psychology by using the intelligence test as a way to help them group children to make teaching more effective. Personnel managers saw the intelligence test as a way to keep less efficient and effective workers off the payroll. To the 19th Century psychologist, intellectual ability was an intriguing research possibility. The idea that there may be individual variations in ability or that the focus of teaching should be learning weren’t yet developed. In 1904, the French Minister of Public Instruction became concerned about the children in Parisian schools who were unable to profit from the given instruction. He wanted to devise a plan to develop schools for such children but needed a method to identify them. Alfred Binet, a psychologist studying individual differences and mental abilities, produced a list of thirty tasks, in a range of difficulty, normed the tasks and thus developed the first of the recognized standardized intelligence tests. Subsequent tests and subsequent developments drew in to “intelligence” a variety of additional factors: creativity, environment, heredity, social stimulation , age, and personality factors. It was the Army which caused intelligence testing to come to the public eye--through its intelligence testing of soldiers. The term, “IQ” became an accepted popular term and again spurred on the development of the various branches of applied psychology.
Neisser, U., et. al. ((1996.) Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist , 51, 77-101.
Phineas Gage lived during the 1840’s. He was a bright, social person. He was well balanced and even shrewd. Energetic and persistent, too. Then he had an accident where an iron bar went through his head. He seemed to recover fully and actually returned to work. At that time, physicians argued that most of the human brain was filler, so they thought Phineas had healed when the wound healed. Then life began to deteriorate for Phineas Gage. He became fitful, irreverent, profane even, impatient of restraint when it conflicted with his desires. He could no longer serve as construction foreman. He left and worked on a ranch in South America, eventually returned to the states and died penniless and family-less. He is often used as the example--why emotions underlie good decision making. He exemplified the condition of impaired emotions which appeared to link to his poor decisions. Previously, he had been the young wonder.
Amygdala: a major structure leading to patterns of physiological change which pause when emotion occurs. The connection is thalamus to cortex to amygdala. Thus, we may have an emotional reaction/response before we’re aware what’s going on. View this chart first and then rapidly move to the next, which shows the amygdala. The following is a good reference for the learner... Diamond, M.C., Scheibel, A.B., and Elson, L.M. (1985). The human brain coloring book . New York: Barnes & Noble Books, a Division of Harper & Row, Publishers. 1-2; 1-3.
Antonio Damasio, in Descartes’ Error , asserts that concerted activity at all levels of the cortex assist rational decision making. For a reference citation, see your Reference list in the syllabus.
Question for thought and perhaps later exploration: How does emotion as an essential contributor to rational decision making fit with the theories of critical thinking as espoused by Richard Paul and taught in the SBLMP curriculum? Specifically look at the division made between rational thought and emotional thought. Damasio, A. (1994.) Descartes’ error . New York: Avon Books.
Based on Goleman’s book (1995), Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman is a writer; not a researcher. As a writer he had the gift of explaining the research to others. He is also a psychologist.
Another way to express the framework comes directly from Goleman’s work (available from www.eiconsortium.org ) is: Personal Competence Self-Awareness emotional awareness accurate self assessment self-confidence Self-Regulation self control trustworthiness conscientiousness adaptability innovation Self-Motivation achievement drive commitment initiative optimism Social Competence Social Awareness empathy service orientation developing others leveraging diversity political awareness Social Skills influence communication leadership change catalyst conflict management building bonds collaboration and cooperation team capabilities
Interesting to note; there are gender differences here. Females experience a greater range of intensity in emotions. More of these differences will be covered later, too.
Alexithymia = when self awareness is impoverished. There are no words for emotion. There is difficulty in distinguishing between emotions. There is impoverished capacity for emotions. Also, this person is likely to be overly concerned about physical symptoms. Reference Taylor, G. J., et. al. (1991.) The alexithymia construct: A potential paradigm for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 32, 153-164.
Over time these will impact cardiovascular disease, the progression of diabetes; influence cancer onset or progression. Anxiety and cardiovascular disease predict subsequent cardiac events, the onset of hypertension, and even sudden death from fatal MI’s. Stress management reduces that risk and psychological intervention can make a difference. Having good emotional health influences good physical health.
Mayer, J.D., and Salovey, P. (1995.) Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology , 4, 197-208.
In neurobiological terms also referred to as “somatic markers.”
Quickly relate the social relationships and managing emotions in others topic to Office of Personnel Management Executive Core Qualifications (ECQ’s) and to Army Values as exemplified by FM 22-100; leadership; duty; respect; selfless service; honesty; integrity; personal courage. This ground will be covered more thoroughly in a later slide dealing with organizations and EI.
Making criticism constructive is an example. See Weisinger, H. Ph.D. (1998.) Emotional intelligence at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The nice personality is one of the dangers in creating an EQ instrument--empathy can be faked.
Recent research explores abuse-driven brain changes. In the relation between early abuse and dysfunction of the limbic system; Patients with abuse scored higher on a temporal lob epilepsy-related symptoms checklist; patients with sexual abuse scored significantly higher yet. Maltreatment before age 18 has more impact than later abuse; males and females were similarly affected. Researchers hypothesize that adequate nurturing and the absence of intense early stress permits brains to develop in a manner that is less aggressive and more emotionally stable, social, empathic and hemispherically integrated (75.) Teicher, M.H. (march 2002.) Scars that won’t heal: The neurobiology of child abuse . Scientific American. 68-75
Don’t interpret “dysfunction” too clinically. Many of the items on the list represent our daily challenges. The message is, when any or several of these exceed our capacity for acceptable behavior we need help. At that point, too, we would be the last person to recognize the problem. It is therefore important for supervisors and trusted coworkers to recognize the behaviors associated with “going overboard”.
Is the person in the wrong job? An introvert, highly intuitive who doesn’t follow through administratively. Someone who wanted to with with numbers; now is supervising people Does the job require the person to be difficult? Are they doing someone else’s dirty work? What about the group dynamic? Is someone a prima donna--strong minded, runs rough shod over everyone else? Personal & Interpersonal “ loose cannon” needs to be able to control intimidated temper and fear; be overwhelmed confident & assertive diffident --useful tools are 360 o ; videotaping behavior, executive coach
It was Super Bowl Sunday, that sacrosanct day when most American men are to be found in front of their TV’s. A departing flight from New York to Detroit was delayed two hours, and the tension among the passengers--almost entirely businessmen--was palpable. When they finally arrived in Detroit, a mysterious glitch with the boarding ramp made the plane stop about a hundred feet from the gate. Frantic about being late, passengers leapt to their feet anyway. One of the flight attendants went to the intercom. How could she most effectively get everyone to sit down so that the plane could finish taxiing to the gate? WHAT’S BEHIND THIS? She did not announce, in a stern voice: “Federal regulations require that you be seated before we can move to the gate.” Instead, she warbled in a singsong tone, suggestive of a playful warning to an adorable small child who has done something naughty but forgivable, “You’re staaan-ding!” At that everyone laughed and sat back down until the plane had finished taxiing to the gate. And, given the circumstances, they got off the plane in a surprisingly good mood. WHAT’S BEHIND THIS? -- Taken from: Pires de Castro, A. (1999). Motivation and emotional intelligence--case studies and their results. American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA. May 1999.
Ask how many students attended the ECQ session given earlier in July. Social Competence Social Awareness empathy service orientation developing others leveraging diversity political awareness Social Skills influence communication leadership change catalyst conflict management building bonds collaboration and cooperation team capabilities Available from www.eiconsortium.org First quote taken from Goleman, D. (1999). Guidelines for best practices for emotional intelligence training . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, May 1999.
Item 1 taken from: Saratoga Institute; quoted in Hartin, B. and Lace, S. (1999). The workforce challenge and education & training’s strategic response . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999. Item 2 taken from: Rhinesmith, S. H., (1999). Leading across borders . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999.
It takes hard work to unlearn an existing habit and propel yourself forward to learn a new habit and make it your own.
Box 1: Von Hoffman, C. (June, 1999). Crabs, cranks. and curmudgeons. How to manage difficult people . Harvard Management Update, 4-5. --It says, “Increases retention. Decreases absenteeism. Increases overall organizational growth.” Box 2: Cherniss, C. and Goleman, D. (1998). Bringing emotional intelligence to the workplace . A technical report issued by the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Available from: www.eiconsortium.org . Box 3: Byron Stock & Associates. Emotional Intelligence, Getting to the heart of performance. American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999.
In “ differentiating between emotion and the need to take action” add two subcomponents: promoting action in response to sadness/depress inhibiting action in response to anger/hostility “Gut feelings” are somatic markers. A neurobiological understanding of how unconscious and conscious use of “gut feelings” can effectively guide decisions. Could this be the essence of wisdom?
Daniel Goleman and several other authors are working on a test to measure and / or map an Emotional Quotient. As of Spring 1999, they were still running test populations. You will find several such sources on the Internet, offering for large amounts of money to test your emotional intelligence. Right now, I see such tests as a waste of money. Spend your efforts in getting people to understand and apply the concepts.
“Emotional Intelligence Sets
Apart Good Leaders”1
What is Intelligence?
• Typically focused on
– analytic reasoning
– verbal skills
– spatial ability
• Murky concept with
definitions by many
• Individuals differ from one another in
their ability to understand complex
ideas, to adapt effectively to the
environment, to learn from experience,
to engage in various forms of reasoning,
to overcome obstacles by taking
thought… Concepts of intelligence are
attempts to clarify and organize this
complex set of phenomena.
Neisser et al, 1996.
• A weak predictor for
– job performance success
– overall success, wealth, & happiness
• Accounts for a major component of
employment success according to
numbers of studies covering career
success; maybe as much as 20-25%.
More potent predictors of
career success were
• Ability to handle frustrations
• manage own emotions
• manage own social skills
Do you know any highly intelligent
people who aren’t socially adept?
How do we view emotions?
•incompatible with reason
•resulting from the lack of effective adjustment
How do we view emotions?
•Arouse, sustain, direct activity
•Part of the total economy of
•Not in opposition to intelligence
•Themselves a higher order of intelligence
See the notes pages for more on
may be an essential part
of rational decision making
The main purpose of the innermost
part of the brain is survival.
deep within the most elemental parts
of the brain.
There is a
Biological Purpose for Emotion
• Signaling function (that we might
• Promote unique, stereotypical
patterns of physiological change
• Provide strong impulse to take action
Basic Emotions--presumed to be hard
wired and physiologically distinctive
Evolutionary Advantage to
• For example:
– Fight or flight
– but can basic
Neurobiology of Rationality
• Damasio’s work shows
how neurobiology can
help us understand the
role of emotion in
constantly learn more
about this important
• Work like his underlies
the concepts of
• There are less
obvious advantages to
• Emotion is emerging
as an essential
What is Emotional
The capacity for recognizing our own
feelings and those of others, for
motivating ourselves, and for
managing emotions well in ourselves
and in our relationships.
•a field in infancya field in infancy
•aspects harken toaspects harken to
research of theresearch of the
•a field in infancya field in infancy
•aspects harken toaspects harken to
research of theresearch of the
The 5 Components of EI
•Managing one’s own emotions
•Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing
•The art of social relationships
(managing emotions in others)
• The inability to notice our true feelings
leaves us at their mercy.
• People with greater certainty about their
feelings are better pilots of their lives
and have a surer sense about how they feel
about personal decisions.
Stay open to our
can we tolerate the entire bouquet?
Value of taking time for self-
awareness requires abilities
• to recognize appropriate body cues and
• to label cues and emotions accurately
• to stay open to unpleasant as well as
• Includes the capacity for experiencing and
recognizing multiple and conflicting
Emotional Self Awareness
when self awareness
•No words for
Managing one’s own emotions
• EI is like a smoke alarm--we’re not good at
influencing whether a particular emotion
will arise. EI tells us something is arising.
• We do have tremendous individual
variability in the degree to which we can
consciously limit the duration of unpleasant
emotions and the degree of influence over
the behaviors which may arise.
Out of control emotions
• Impair reasoning (even smart people
sometimes act stupidly)
• May increase the likelihood that
chronic emotional problems will
result, (e.g., clinical depression or
chronic anxiety or hostility)
Managing one’s own emotions
• We develop
• Then we develop
• Girls do better at
Managing one’s own emotions
Using emotions to maximize
intellectual processing and decision
• As a person matures, emotions begin
to shape and improve thinking by
directing a person’s attention to
important changes, (e.g., a child worries about
his homework while continually watching TV. A teacher
becomes concerned about a lesson that needs to be
completed for the next day. The teacher moves on to
complete the task before concern takes over enjoyment.
Mayer and Salovey, 1995
Utilizing mild emotional swings to
perform one’s options more effectively
• “Gut feeling” can be used to effectively
guide decisions--a neurological understanding
of how unconscious and conscious gut feelings
guide decisions, e.g., when prioritizing,
emotions help move the decisions.
Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing and decision making
• Harness emotions to promote or hinder
motivation. (Anxiety, hostility, sadness)
• Emotional swings to increase the accuracy
of one’s perspective on future events.
• Empathy is the ability to recognize
another’s emotional state, which is
very similar to what you are
• In research on married couples,
empathy appears to include matching
the physiological changes of the
Developing empathy links to
• Greater emotional
• Better school
The art of social relationships--
managing emotions in others
• To excel at people skills means having
and using the competencies to be an
effective friend, negotiator, and
leader. One should be able to guide
an interaction, inspire others, make
others comfortable in social
situations, and influence and persuade
The subtle and complex abilities
which underlie people skills
• Being attuned to
• Promoting comfort
in others through
the proper use of
• Using own
emotional display to
establish a sense
of rapport The art of social relationships--
managing emotions in others
The danger of the nice
• Have you ever met a
nice person, but the
“bells have gone off?”
• Charisma draws in but
not always to desired
ends, e.g., Hitler, Jim
• Empathy can be faked;
so can other emotions.
The art of social relationships--managing
emotions in others
The development of EI
• A genetic
• They are not
• Early expression of
emotion by parents
• Early abuse hinders
• Poor ability to read
may lead to the
poor social skills.
Some Gender Differences
• More willing to
• Not as good as women
• Less adept than women
• More physiologically
• Greater need for
• Have a wider range of
• Better at reading
• Better at developing
• Perhaps more engaged
in marital conflict
Emotion related dysfunction
• all or nothing thinking
• excessive worrying
• worrying as magical
• disqualifying the position
• jumping to negative
• “should” statements
• labeling & mislabeling
• criticism; contempt
• Impacts on physical
– cardiovascular disease
– progression of diabetes
– progression of cancer
– onset of hypertension
• Impacts on
• Impacts on mental
Dysfunction at Work
• Is the person in the wrong job?
• Does the job require the person to be
• What is remarkable about the group
dynamics of the organization?
• What about individuals, personal and
Some Business Examples
• Airlines are similar in price structure.
The competitive edge = how well
personnel treat passengers
– Implementing credit card use
– Getting contractors paid when the
system won’t work
– ABC; JLIMS
Importance of EI in Organizations
The higher you go, the more EI
matters--the more SOCIAL
• SES ECQ’s
– influence, communication, leadership, change catalyst,
conflict management, building bonds, collaboration and
cooperation; team capabilities
• Army Values
– leadership, duty, respect, selfless service, honor,
integrity, personal courage
Importance of EI to Organizations, too
• 50% of work satisfaction is determined by
the relationship a worker has with…
• EI is a prerequisite for effective
leadership across borders.
– Requires a high level of self-mastery and people
skills; ability to put yourself into the positions
A one-day seminar won’t do it.
What is Training in EI Worth?
Increases overall organizational growth.
Could increase production as much as 20%
Current estimates to American Business:
Losing between $5.6 and
$16.8 Billion annually
If we knew nothing about a store except that
employee attitudes had improved 5%, we
could predict that its revenue would rise
.5% above what it otherwise
would have been.
--Sears executive, Harvard Business Review, January, 1998
Taking the time for mindfulness
Recognizing and naming emotions
Understanding the causes of feelings
Differentiating between emotion and the need to take action
Preventing depression through “learned optimism”
Managing anger through learned behavior or distraction techniques
Listening for the lessons of feelings
Using “gut feelings” in decision making
Developing listening skills
There are instruments to measure EI...
• Take time for mindfulness
• Recognize and name
• ID the causes of feelings
• Differentiate having the
emotion and doing
something about it
• Learn optimism to challenge
• Learn distraction
• Listen to voice of
• Develop Listening skills
Selected Links to EI