Biomedical Computing


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Biomedical Computing

  1. 1. Biomedical Computing Rupak Chakravarty [email_address] [email_address] UNIT I – PART B Software Engineering Challenges for Biomedical Computing
  2. 3. Some Definitions: <ul><li>Biomedical Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Computational Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Bioengineering </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Bioinformatics </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Software Engineering </li></ul>
  3. 4. Software Engineering <ul><li>Software engineering is the application of a systematic , disciplined , quantifiable approach to the development , operation , and maintenance of software . </li></ul><ul><li>It encompasses techniques and procedures, often regulated by a software development process, with the purpose of improving the reliability and maintainability of software systems . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Software Engineering <ul><li>The term software engineering was coined by Brian Randell and popularized by F.L. Bauer during the NATO Software Engineering Conference in 1968. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Software Engineering <ul><li>The discipline of software engineering includes: </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>tools, and methods for software requirements, </li></ul><ul><li>software design, </li></ul><ul><li>software construction, </li></ul><ul><li>software testing, and </li></ul><ul><li>software maintenance tasks. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Software Engineering <ul><li>Software engineering is related to the disciplines of </li></ul><ul><li>computer science, </li></ul><ul><li>computer engineering, management, mathematics, </li></ul><ul><li>project management, </li></ul><ul><li>quality management, </li></ul><ul><li>software ergonomics, and </li></ul><ul><li>systems engineering. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Software Engineering <ul><li>Typical formal definitions of software engineering are: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software&quot;. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Software Engineering <ul><li>&quot;an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines &quot; </li></ul>
  9. 10. Current trends in software engineering <ul><li>Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects help software engineers deal with quality attributes by providing tools to add or remove boilerplate code (formulations) from many areas in the source code. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Current trends in software engineering <ul><li>Agile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agile software development guides software development projects that evolve rapidly with changing expectations and competitive markets . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Current trends in software engineering <ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental software engineering is a branch of software engineering interested in devising experiments on software , in collecting data from the experiments, and in devising laws and theories from this data. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Current trends in software engineering <ul><li>Model-driven </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model Driven Design develops textual and graphical models as primary design artifacts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Biomedical Computing Development and application of information science and technology for/to/in biomedical sciences.
  14. 15. Bioengineering Bioengineering ( also known as Biological Engineering ) is the application of engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of biology and medicine . As a study, it encompasses biomedical engineering and it is related to biotechnology.
  15. 16. Bioengineering <ul><li>Bioengineering applies engineering principles to the full spectrum of living systems. </li></ul><ul><li>This is achieved by utilising existing methodologies in such fields as: </li></ul><ul><li>molecular biology, </li></ul><ul><li>biochemistry, </li></ul><ul><li>microbiology, </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacology, </li></ul><ul><li>cytology, </li></ul><ul><li>immunology and </li></ul><ul><li>neuroscience </li></ul>
  16. 17. Bioengineering <ul><li>Bioengineering applies them to the design of: </li></ul><ul><li>medical devices, </li></ul><ul><li>diagnostic equipment, </li></ul><ul><li>biocompatible materials, and other important medical needs. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Bioengineering <ul><li>Bioengineering is not limited to the medical field . </li></ul><ul><li>Bioengineers have the ability to exploit new opportunities and solve problems within the domain of complex systems. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a great understanding of living systems as complex systems which can be applied to many fields including entrepreneurship. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Bioengineering <ul><li>The Main Fields of Bioengineering may be categorised as: </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Engineering ; Biomedical technology; Biomedical Diagnosis, Biomedical Therapy, Biomechanics, Biomaterials. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering ; Cell Engineering, Tissue Culture Engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>The word was invented by British scientist and broadcaster Heinz Wolf in 1954. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Biomedical Engineering Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field . It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of individuals .
  20. 21. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development , covering an array of fields: </li></ul><ul><li>bioinformatics, </li></ul><ul><li>medical imaging, </li></ul><ul><li>image processing, </li></ul><ul><li>physiological signal processing, </li></ul><ul><li>biomechanics, </li></ul><ul><li>biomaterials and bioengineering, </li></ul><ul><li>systems analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>3-D modeling, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the </li></ul><ul><li>development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, </li></ul><ul><li>medical devices, </li></ul><ul><li>diagnostic devices and </li></ul><ul><li>imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and </li></ul><ul><li>pharmaceutical drugs. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Biomedical Engineering Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary field, influenced by various fields and sources . Due to the extreme diversity , it is typical for a biomedical engineer to focus on a particular emphasis within this field .
  23. 24. Biomedical Engineering Clinical engineering: Clinical engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering related to the operation of medical equipment in a hospital setting.
  24. 26. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Medical Devices : </li></ul><ul><li>A medical device is intended for use in: </li></ul><ul><li>the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or </li></ul><ul><li>in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease </li></ul>
  25. 27. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Medical Devices: </li></ul><ul><li>intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and which does not achieve any of its primary intended purposes through chemical action and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its primary intended purposes. </li></ul>
  26. 28. A pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to medical equipment.
  27. 29. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Medical Imaging : </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging technologies are often essential to medical diagnosis, and are typically the most complex equipment found in a hospital including: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoroscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Medicine </li></ul>
  28. 31. Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Medical Imaging: </li></ul><ul><li>IPositron Emission Tomography (PET) PET scans </li></ul><ul><li>PET-CT scans </li></ul><ul><li>Projection Radiography such as X-rays and CT scans </li></ul><ul><li>Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Microscopy </li></ul>
  29. 32. An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging.
  30. 33. A JARVIK-7 artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for cardiothoracic surgery using an artificial organ.
  31. 34. Artificial limbs: The right arm is an example of a prosthesis, and the left arm is an example of myoelectric control.
  32. 46.
  33. 49. BME Biomedical engineering has come a long way since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) drew his revolutionary pictures of the skeleton and its musculature and studied the mechanics of the flight of birds.
  34. 50. BME <ul><li>The modern era has seen the application of engineering in almost every branch of medicine, so much so that the practice of medicine is now completely dependent on the work and support of engineers . </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of electronic patient records, complex and extremely powerful electromedical equipment and devices, and minimally invasive technologies is just the beginning. </li></ul>
  35. 51. BME <ul><li>The future holds new possibilities of providing telemedicine and e-health services, new ways of home self-care, sophisticated new sensors, and new ways of heath care for older persons. </li></ul><ul><li>There seems to be no limit to what engineering could do further to revolutionize medical practice. </li></ul>
  36. 52. BME <ul><li>In fact, the next generation of biomedical engineers will ........................ </li></ul><ul><li>probably develop things we can’t even yet imagine . </li></ul>
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  38. 87. Pappu can dance? Yes ...
  39. 91. Thank You Merci Grazie Gracias Obrigado Danke Japanese French Russian German Italian Spanish Brazilian Portuguese Arabic Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Hindi Tamil Thai Korean