Content Area Reading Strategies


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  • 8:00-8:30 collect materials from classrooms. Begin at 8:30 sharp NEED 6 copies of student texts from any subject
  • Why are we here? Any other concerns to discuss about students literacy needs. share PSSA reading scores--- they are all of our responsibilities, not just English teachers.
  • Secondary teachers have not “signed up” to teach reading, but reality has hit that literacy skills are the make or break. We are training students for jobs that have not yet been created. Not only is it important to have them learn the content, but to think critically and have the ability to read, write and respond to a variety of text.
  • Fighting your expertise and knowledge is difficult, I do believe that all students can learn maybe not to the extent of the top, but when given the skills they can be part of the class and the knowledge shared in that class.
  • Referred to as B D A’s, the cognitive learning process, activating prior knowledge (before reading strategies, graphic organizers for during strategies, note-taking etc. After strategies can include summarization, but many other creative ways for students to show and share what knowledge they gained and questions they still have.
  • Rethinking the Problem: Crisis and Opportunity Hand out article and Anticipation guide
  • Hand out text features
  • Hand out Blank ABC (2 copies each)– Brainstorm prior knowledge if topic is vacation destinations
  • Copy of KNL
  • No example needed- it is a blank page to begin with
  • Hand out envelopes with words and have them sort into categories
  • Show example of the circle and then return to the slide
  • Hand outs- blank vocab circle and example
  • Hand out blank Magnet summary and example
  • Add link to slide for think aloud about vocabulary
  • Models of the note taking
  • Read article and model how to complete the role- whole group –article from Meeting the challenges of adolescent literacy
  • Continue with information about Adolescent Literacy Continue to use the article on Adolescent Literacy
  • Notes/article on swine flu
  • Using info from swine flu
  • See Handouts and teacher editions of textbooks. Swine flu vs. flu
  • Printed instructions--- I use forms instead of notecards- either are fine -- article from anticipation guide “Rethinking the Problem: crisis…” handout form for STLWFM
  • Using the article from the during activity Four Square –why a schoolwide literacy focus is critical?
  • Content Area Reading Strategies

    1. 1. Welcome to Content Area Reading Strategies and Vocabulary Development
    2. 2. Do you… <ul><li>teach around the reading in your content? </li></ul><ul><li>blame earlier grades for not preparing the students? </li></ul><ul><li>tell students what to read and test/quiz to see if they actually read it? </li></ul><ul><li>feel like some students will never “get it”? </li></ul><ul><li>This workshop can help! </li></ul>
    3. 3. If not me, then who? Teaching literacy skills is every teacher’s responsibility. <ul><li>If a student is not taught the skills to access the text within a content area, he will remain unable to access the information within that subject. It has very little to do with homework completion. It has everything to do with literacy competency. </li></ul>
    4. 4. from Meeting the Challenge of Adolescent Literacy… <ul><li>“ Teachers of each content area are in the strongest position to help student successfully meet those challenges. Content area teachers know their subject matter and the standards they should be meeting. They also understand the literacy demands of their content; how to read the different kinds of text, how to write in the formats associated with each subject, how to recognize key concepts and vocabulary terms…” </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Teaching reading in the content areas is NOT so much about teaching students basic reading skills as it is about teaching students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>-Billmeyer & Barton 1998 </li></ul>Reading in the Content Areas
    6. 6. Objective- To effectively use before, during, and after reading strategies within the classroom to accelerate and improve student learning. <ul><li>Before Reading Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>During Reading Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>After Reading Strategies </li></ul>
    7. 7. Before Reading Strategies <ul><li>The most powerful time to support reading is BEFORE students begin to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Before reading strategies activate prior knowledge and focuses attention on the purpose of the reading. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Before Reading <ul><li>Link new information to prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify misconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate new vocabulary to known concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information about the organization of the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate questions about the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make predictions about what might be learned </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Before Reading Strategies Anticipation Guide Chapter Walk ABC’s of ______________ KWL/ KNL Below the Line
    10. 10. Anticipation Guide <ul><li>Read each statement and place a check under agree or disagree in the “before” column. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group discussion on agreements and disagreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the text (teacher read or independently). </li></ul><ul><li>Reread each statement and place a check under the agree or disagree in the “after” column. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note in the box as to where the evidence can be located to support this statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group or small group discussion to collaborate on the text based evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation Guide- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    11. 11. Chapter Walk <ul><li>Text Features vary from textbook to textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Take time periodically to point out how to use the text - do not assume that students will read the text the same way you read it </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try it with a generic Chapter Walk </li></ul><ul><li>Text Features.doc </li></ul>
    12. 12. ABC’S of _______________ <ul><li>Brainstorming on a certain topic </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used independently, whole group, or small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Can be broken apart to adapt for students with less prior knowledge (ex. Some students complete A-G, others H-P and so on) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information springboard for discussion where everyone can participate </li></ul><ul><li>ABC- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    13. 13. KWL/KNL <ul><li>Tried and true - students usually are familiar with this strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Spice it up with variety </li></ul><ul><li>Use post-its, note cards, timers etc. </li></ul><ul><li>K- What you KNOW about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>W-What you WANT to know </li></ul><ul><li>*N- What you NEED to find out </li></ul><ul><li>L-What you have LEARNED </li></ul><ul><li>KNL- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    14. 14. BELOW THE LINE <ul><li>Individual brainstorm and then group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Students have a piece of paper with a line in the center to divide the page </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher poses a question </li></ul><ul><li>Students brainstorm and list answers above the line </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group - students share responses </li></ul><ul><li>Check mark next to same or similar responses </li></ul><ul><li>Different responses go below the line </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions can occur about which responses occurred most often and why </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions can occur about the “different” responses </li></ul><ul><li>Below the Line- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    15. 15. Vocabulary Development <ul><li>Hand them the words on the platter.- Jacobs, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>One way to ensure that students get the most out of their reading is to focus on vocabulary. –Robb, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Spend the time working with and making sense of the words, other than defining them. - Runkle, 2009 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Vocabulary <ul><li>Choose the most important and essential words for the topic of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections to prior knowledge from previous chapters or courses </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and categorize the terms in a meaningful way </li></ul>
    17. 17. Vocabulary Development Strategies <ul><li>Word Sorts (open and closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Circles </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Think Alouds </li></ul>
    18. 18. WORD SORTS <ul><li>Place vocabulary terms onto small cards, one word per card. </li></ul><ul><li>Individually, or in groups, students then sort the words into categories. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Closed Sort”- categories provided by teacher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Open Sort”- students create and label categories discovered of their own making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students write their list for each category with a brief explanation of why these words are included together in that particular category. </li></ul><ul><li>Completing VOCABULARY SORTS in small groups using textbooks and class notes for reference provides opportunities for in-depth discussion as students consider the word from many aspects. - Billmeyer and Baron, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Word Sort- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    19. 19. VOCABULARY CONCEPT CIRCLES <ul><li>Teacher puts all four words in the circle – students explain how they are connected. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher puts words in three sections – student adds a fourth and explains why. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher selects four words based on “relatedness” – students shade words that go together, or shade a word that doesn’t fit, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Students choose all four vocabulary words to put in the circle and then write what they have learned about the topic using the words. </li></ul><ul><li>Flanigan, K. & Greenwood, S.C. (2007). Effective content vocabulary instruction in the middle: Matching students, purposes, words, and strategies. Journal of Asolescent & Adult Literacy, 51,226-238. </li></ul><ul><li>VOCABULARY CONCEPT CIRCLES.doc </li></ul>
    20. 20. Vocabulary Concept Circles - cont. <ul><li>Can be used with whole groups, small groups or individually </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the definitions of the words that you want them to know (dictionaries and glossaries often include several definitions) </li></ul><ul><li>VOCABULARY CONCEPT CIRCLE- EGYPT EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    21. 21. MAGNET SUMMARY <ul><li>Identify 3-4 essential concepts/topics </li></ul><ul><li>Place word in center box </li></ul><ul><li>Present information or have students use resources to find 3-4 pieces of information about the center word </li></ul><ul><li>The center word acts as a magnet to connect all of the pieces of information </li></ul><ul><li>All of the information is then transformed into one summary sentence in the box to the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet Summaries.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet Summaries- EXAMPLE.docm </li></ul>
    22. 22. VOCABULARY CHART <ul><li>One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate an image with it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery-based techniques produced achievement gains that were 37 percentile points higher than those produced by techniques that focused on having students continually review word definitions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Chart.doc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Chart- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. THINK ALOUDS <ul><li>Make your thinking public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are the expert in your field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to mimic your way of thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may feel “out of your comfort zone.” It gets easier with time and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation is key - use post-its to prepare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. During Reading Strategies <ul><li>All students need to have opportunities to think critically, organize and question while they are interacting with the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction that encourages students to continually summarize, visualize, connect, predict, question, organize, infer and monitor will increase comprehension. </li></ul>
    25. 25. DURING <ul><li>Monitor comprehension to adjust pacing or ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain mental activity through connecting, predicting, summarizing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and integrate new information on graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Verify/ adjust predictions to categorize new information </li></ul>
    26. 26. DURING READING STRATEGIES <ul><li>4 Square Reading </li></ul><ul><li>2 Column Note-Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Note-Taking with codes </li></ul><ul><li>Extract/React </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers specific to text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venn Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle Organizer </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 4 SQUARE READING <ul><li>Divide text into 4 sections </li></ul><ul><li>Divide students into groups of 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Assign each student a different role </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visualizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictor/ Questioner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students will read one section of the text in group </li></ul><ul><li>Each student completes his/her role </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of the completed roles </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate roles </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 4-7 until all boxes are complete </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR SQUARE.doc </li></ul>
    28. 28. 2 Column Note-Taking <ul><li>Cornell Note-Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Topic with Sub-Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Summary at the end is key </li></ul><ul><li>Cornell notetaking.doc </li></ul>
    29. 29. Note-Taking with Codes <ul><li>Finding key pieces of information from text </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying personal knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Content notes with codes.docm </li></ul>
    30. 30. Extract/React Note-Taking <ul><li>Extracting specific information </li></ul><ul><li>Placing a mental hook or a personal reaction to the information </li></ul><ul><li>Summary at the end is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Extract React.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Extract React- EXAMPLE.doc </li></ul>
    31. 31. Graphic Organizers <ul><li>Choose and use the organizer that works best for the text and the information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venn Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle Organizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook publishers often send supplemental guides with graphic organizers. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. After Reading Strategies <ul><li>To consolidate their learning, effective learners reflect on new information and integrate it into previous understandings by personalizing and applying the new concepts.- Buehl, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Have the students use the new information in a meaningful way that they can apply prior knowledge and skills.- Runkle, 2009 </li></ul>
    33. 33. After Reading Strategies <ul><li>RAFT </li></ul><ul><li>Save the Last Word for Me </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><li>3-2-1 </li></ul>
    34. 34. RAFT Informal Writing <ul><li>Role of the writer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Who are you?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience for the writer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(To whom are you writing?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Format of the writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(What form will your writing assume?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topic to be addressed in the writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(What are you writing about?) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. RAFT- cont. <ul><li>Analyze the important ideas or information you want students to learn- establish the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm possible roles for students to assume </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who the audience will be for this communication </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the format of the writing </li></ul><ul><li>RAFT- EXAMPLES.doc </li></ul>
    36. 36. Save the Last Word For Me Printed Instructions Provided <ul><li>Instructions for SAVE THE LAST WORD FOR ME </li></ul><ul><li>Students read an article independently, highlighting statements, sections, sentences, etc. that stand out to the student for ANY REASON. (Maybe it was interesting, maybe he/she disagrees or agrees with the statement, maybe he/she is confused, amused, saddened, angered, etc by the statement.) </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER reading the ENTIRE article, students choose 3 statements they would like to share with group members. Using index cards, students should write each of the statements on a separate index card. On the BACK of each index card, the students should write WHY they chose that statement to share (here they should explain their reasoning for picking the statement.) </li></ul><ul><li>After all students are through writing their statements and reasons on the index cards, students should get into groups (4-6 people per group is ideal.) </li></ul><ul><li>Each group chooses a person to start. This person chooses one of his statements to share with the group. He just shares the STATEMENT ONLY at this point (NOT HIS REASONING.) After sharing the statement with the whole group, each group member must comment on the statement, telling what he/she thinks about the statement. It may be helpful to pass the card with the statement to each group member to allow them to reread it before commenting. </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER ALL GROUP MEMBERS HAVE COMMENTED, the person who shared the statement gets to share his reasoning for choosing the statement. After he speaks, there is no more discussion, thus he gets THE LAST WORD. </li></ul><ul><li>At this point a different group member gets to share a statement. Continue this process until all group members have shared at least once. The teacher can decide to have the group share a second and/or third comment. </li></ul><ul><li>Save the Last Word for Me- form.docm </li></ul>
    37. 37. Rating Scale <ul><li>Students must identify important facts or topic </li></ul><ul><li>Students will then “rank” them in order of importance – thinking critically about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Students must then explain the rankings </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scale.DOC </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scale-EXAMPLE.DOC </li></ul>
    38. 38. 3-2-1- quick strategy for the end of any lesson, vary the response <ul><li>3 - new facts that you have learned over the past two days </li></ul><ul><li>2 - strategies that you will definitely use this school year </li></ul><ul><li>1 - question that you still have about content area literacy </li></ul>