Targeting the audience


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Targeting the audience

  1. 1. the Audience Targeting
  2. 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>FIRST, the persuader must DISRUPT the STASIS of his audience- this makes him uncomfortable in the present course of action or their current belief that they will look for a new stasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Then target their needs that will maintain their stasis. Provide arguments that supports their needs to get back to stasis </li></ul><ul><li>There are different approaches to organizing an argument depending on the side you wish to prove. </li></ul><ul><li>Example- In the play, The Music Man, Professor Harold Hill claims in the song “Trouble in River City” that “a pool hall is the devil’s playground” </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested setting up a town band to create a diversion for the kids </li></ul><ul><li>He used the problem/solution approach. </li></ul>
  3. 3. About Persuasion <ul><li>Main purpose: to convince someone to think, act, or feel a certain way </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to get someone to do something you want them to do that they are not currently doing </li></ul><ul><li>How: modifying the attitudes of a target audience in such a way as to alter their behavior in the manner the advocate wants that behavior altered </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle’s The Rhetoric shows 3 means of persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character of the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposition created in the hearer </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Targeting Motivation <ul><li>The internal or external forces that arouse enthusiasm and commitment to pursue a certain course of action </li></ul><ul><li>How behavior is energized and directed </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Anderson: “Behavior is ongoing, and motivation is a continuous ongoing process as well. It is impossible to set a beginning and end to a unit of motivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Audience acceptance of a position is more likely to occur when the position you want them to take meets one of their needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Two steps of Targeting <ul><li>First, clearly identify which need level your audience is on, or at what need level the audience is most vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Second, create a line of reasoning that will appeal directly to that need </li></ul>
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>In the levels of the 5 basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow, Humans tend to progress from one need issue to the next within the Hierarchy, remaining both partially satisfied and partially unsatisfied in all need categories at the same time </li></ul>SELF-ACTUALIZATION Pursue Inner Talent Creativity Fulfillment SELF_ESTEEM Achievement Mastery Recognition Respect BELONGING-LOVE Friends Family Spouse Lover SAFETY Security Stability Freedom from Fear PHYSIOLOGICAL Food Water Shelter Warmth
  7. 7. <ul><li>To be successful, you must first either change their attitudes and beliefs or reinforce attitudes and beliefs they already hold </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on what matters most to them and what will help you lead them to your goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good persuasion given to the wrong audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared persuasion given to the correct audience </li></ul></ul>Audience Analysis Beliefs/Values Lead to the creation of Attitude Is reflected in Behavior
  8. 8. Tips in Targeting Your Audience <ul><li>Know the attitudes and biases of your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What biases, concerns, or fears must you first overcome to achieve your goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know how the audience already feels about the subject of your persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive view: reinforce those views and recite the benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative view: anticipate objections and prepare your responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As much as possible, know what motivates your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out the issues that trigger strong emotions, so you can prepare to deal with them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk to the audience not at the audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good communicators don’t talk over the head of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how much your audience knows about your topic so that you don’t repeat what is already know or provide information that is not yet known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk to the interests of your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t assume what those interests are: ask, instead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Educational and job background, professional interest, recent work or personal experiences. Common interests or conflicting interests? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure your audience understands the importance of the goal of your persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The audience, their needs, goals, and desires that make the decision as to what is significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of significance is grounds for audience rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure you stay consistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency with accepted facts, values, truths is a powerful way to engage support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate to the language level of your audience: word choice and proper definition </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Organizing your Argument <ul><li>A case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A way to structure your persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary any time an advocate has more than one reason for his or her position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A valuable asset for more complex persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are 3 different types of approach for each side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro side: side advocating the acceptance of the persuasive goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con side: side rejecting the acceptance of the persuasive goal </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Pro Side <ul><li>Problem/Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a problem exists in the status quo, and there is one solution that will solve it for them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most traditional case approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very clear, well defined, and understandable pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Some program model used to run an interconnected system is not functioning as it should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Only by accepting your claim could the program be made effective, and without the change, the system will become dysfunctional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals/Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>- the currently defined goal of the target audience is not being met, and cannot be met using current criteria (policies, beliefs, values, or institutions </li></ul><ul><li>- new criteria is proposed that will allow the target audience to move towards meeting its goals </li></ul>A breakdown in discipline is responsible for the family unit falling apart. Parents need to adopt Tough Love discipline rules in their homes. The current punishment laws fall short of having a fair and equitable punishment goal. The death penalty is a justifiable method of criminal punishment.
  11. 11. The Pro Side <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While there may be nothing wrong with the status quo, something exists that will be better than that which already exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of the claim are significant enough to warrant adherence to the claim and deserves higher priority status than any other competing claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “new and improved” products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain number of alternatives exist to deal with any problem, meet any goal, or make any problem work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of these alternatives, all but one are unacceptable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Diet program, insurance program, or computer program </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Con Side <ul><li>Straight Refutation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues for keeping the status quo (the current fact, value or policy user attack by the pro side) in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refuting the problem and/or solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denying all advantages from a change in the status quo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguing against the alternative presented in the residues case approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense of the status quo with just minor repairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status quo is generally doing an effective job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is a problem, it can be dealt with by making a minor change or repair in the status quo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. To avoid buying an expensive new home or buying a new car, minor repairs are done to the existing one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counterproposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admits that the overall goals of the pro side’s case are good, but the way to reach them is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents a better alternative or better plan of attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. 2 friends agree that a Friday night is best spent watching a movie, but they disagree on what movie to watch </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Persuasive communication is the process through which people attempt to influence the beliefs or actions of others Communication will be most persuasive when we build the message around the other person The Audience Conclusion