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Course Code: Tex -4034
Project report on
Fabric wastage and sewing fault analysis
Prepared & Submitted By
Adnan Zaber Mahmud
Department of Textile engineering,
NAME ID BATCH GROUP
001 Md. Faridul Islam Rumman 2012000400116 19TH
02 MD. Abul Hasan Rasel 2012000400139 19TH
03 Masrura Mahmud 2012000400135 19TH
Submission Date: 09 January 2016
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“Letter Of Transmittal”
09 January 2016
Adnan Zaber Mahmud
Department of Textile Engineering
Subject: Submission of Project Report.
We are pleased to submit our “Project Report” This is submitted under the program
of B.Sc in Textile Engineering in Southeast University.
The Report has been completed in accordance with the knowledge that we have
gather during our Industrial Training and the guidelines received from our
honorable teachers and our group members.
We have done this field work in“Norban Comtex Ltd”. However, we will always
be ready to provide any further clarification that you may require.
Md. Faridul Islam Rumman ; ID: 2012000400116 ;
Masrura Mahmud ; ID- 2012000400135;
Md. Abul Hasan Rasel ;ID-2012000400139 ;
Batch: 19th, Advance: GMT
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At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah for giving me strength and ability
to complete the Project report. A number of people have made significant
contributions in preparing this report. Their insights, advice and suggestions helped
me a lot .
To whome we are extremely indebted for his tremendous support & guidance
throughout our training period. Special thanks to our supervising teacher “Adnan
Zuber Mahmud”, without his help it would not have been possible to complete this
project.On our whole way we would also like to express our gratitude to Prof. Syed
Fakhrul Hassan, Chairman Department of Textile Engineering Southeast
I would like to thank the management of the “NORBAN COMTEX LTD”. for
giving me the opportunity to complete the Project successfully and also for their
valuable suggestion. I would also like to thank specially our senior brothers seniors
of my university whom are working in the “NORBAN COMTEX LTD.” for
helping me practically & for showing me the right path. I am greatly indebted to
them. I also want to thank executives, senior executives and other official’s
employee of “NORBAN COMTEX LTD”. for helping me to complete Project
successfully. My gratitude also goes to all the employees of “NORBAN COMTEX
LTD”. for their sincere co-operation, support and valuable advices.
From this Project We Learn so many term in apparel industries basically about the
line balancing. This will be so helpful in our job life.
Finally we would like to convey our acknowledgement that we remain responsible
for the inadequacies and errors which doubtless remain.
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Sewing process is one of the most important stages in labour intensive ready-made
clothing enterprises. Quality faults occurring during this process adversely affect
product quality and product efficiency, and also increase the production cost. The
this study is to investigate whether the knitwear production process is under
control in a
knitwear production enterprise and to detect the processes with highest rates of
faults in sewing department and finally to make suggestions for improving the
control. Among the Statistical Process Control methods; control list, product
were used in the study. “product control chart” was used to test whether the
process is controlled in the enterprise. Furthermore, the statistical methods were
employed to determine the issues that need to be done in the improvement efforts
detect the relations between the process groups supposedly effective on faults
in knitwear production and the amount of faults. Also, the processes with highest
amounts of sewing faults and the effects of these processes on fault rates were
investigated. As a result, it was concluded that the production process was
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not under control in the ready-made clothing enterprise. In addition, this study
demonstrated that the investigation of each process group by drawing their product
control charts would make significant contributions to foresee the results and
more effective the improvement plans.
We hereby declare that, this work has been done by Md. Faridul Islam rumman ,
Masrura Mahmud and Md. Abul Hasan Rasel under the supervision of Adnan
Zaber Mahmud , Lecturer of Southeast University
We also declare that neither this project nor any part of this attachment has been
submitted elsewhere for award of any degree or diploma.
Objective for this project:
To analysis the percentage of fabric wastage in textile sector;
The way to reduce fabric wastage;
To analysis the sewing fault data;
Calculation of per day as well as per month garment product which is
hampering due to sewing .
How many time required for repairing them;
Economical effect due to sewing fault.
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Table of content
Serial Title Page no.
Chapter 01:Fabric Wastage
1.1 Introduction 7
1.2 Fabric & Fabric wastage 7
1.3 Types of fabric wastage 7
1.4 Fabric wastage at Norban Comtex ltd 9
1.5 Fabric Utilization 10
1.6 Recommendation 12
Chapter 02: Sewing Fault
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 History 13
2.3 Elements of garments sewing 15
2.4 Sewing fault 15
2.5 Types of sewing fault 16
2.6 Sewing fault name, reason and remedies 17
Chapter 03: Production hampering
3.1 Fault calculation ( line wise) 31
3.2 Treatment of fault product 32
3.3 Recommendation 33
Chapter 04: Conclusion 35
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Fabric is the core of apparel manufacturing. For this concern, many studies have
been carried out with the aim to reduce fabric wastage in the production process.
Cutting room is a place where a huge amount of fabric loss is generated. Fabric
loss in cutting room is mainly caused by two operations - marker making and
fabric spreading. Although marker making shares a large portion of material
wastage, fabric loss due to spreading is of equal importance for material utilization
control. Fabric also may wastage in knitting section during knitting process . On
the other hand , when a complete garments is made, then if any kind of fault which
cross the 4 point system , it also called fabric wastage.
1.2 Wastage and Fabric wastage:
wastage means to loss or damage something which are not reparable or re-useable.
When any material become loss or damage permanently and it loss its use ability
its called wastage. In textile , the main raw material is fabric . Fabric is produced
from yarn. By knitting process fabric is made . From fabric producing to finished a
complete garments product fabric may wastage.
1.3Types of fabric wastage :
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Figure: wastage fabric
1.4Fabric wastage in Norban Comtex ltd. :
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Knitting section : In knitting section at Norban comtex ltd, 2-3% fabric is
1) Design change: When fabric design is changed according to buyers fabric
construction machine set up have to change according to fabric design.
2) Machine set up: For new design of fabric , machine should be changed.
Machine parts also be changed. After changing machine set up when
machine is start for new designed fabric machine take sometimes for
controlled new design.
3) Machine maintenance: After a particular time machine should be
mainentnance . during this times oil and lubricants entered on the
machine parts and when machine is start oil and lubricant are attached on
the fabric surface which is the major fault of fabric and fabric is wastage.
4) Poor yarn used: Poor yarn is one of the most issue for fabric wastage .
Because poor yarn may be break down during machine running . If it
continue time and time it need time to re connect yarn and yarn become
5) Machine R.P.M : Machine r.p.m may play an major role for fabric
wastage. If machine rpm is become higher against yarn count then yarn
may break down and may fabric wastage.
1) Strong yarn used : For reducing fabric wastage strong yarn should be used.
2) Machine r.p.m and tension fixed: If machine rpm and tension is properly set
up then chance of yarn breaking is reduce and fabric wastage must be
Dyeing section: In dyeing section at Norban Comtex ltd, 5-7% fabric is
1) G.S.M measurement: In dyeing section fabric GSM should be check. That’s
why fabric is cut from fabric role by gsm cutter. Though it is legal to cut
fabric from any position of fabric roll, fabric is cut randomly and due to
miss positioning fabric is wastage.
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2) In correct sample dyeing: before starting bulk dyeing, a short amount sample
is dyed as sample dyeing. If sample dyeing is approved first time then no
chance to fabric wastage.
Remedies: Skilled worker should be used to check the gsm and skilled
engineer should be used to calculation recipe of sample dyeing.
Garments section :
Cutting section : Maximum fabric is wastage in garments cutting section .
About 12-17% fabric is wastage in cutting section.
1) Incorrect marker making;
2) Miss size ratio;
3) In correct cut panel;
4) Unskilled worker used.
1) Use Auto cad system;
2) Skilled worker used.
1.5 Fabric utilization:
It means how much fabric is being utilized in cutting for garment patterns out of
total fabric laid for cutting. Generally, fabric constitutes 60% to 70% of the total
garment cost. So, through effective fabric utilization factory can save lot of money
Calculation of Fabric utilization:
Fabric utilization is calculated by weight.
Step 1: Measure the lay length (A) or marker length that should be used in bulk
cutting. Suppose fabric width is 1.2 meters. Collect the information of fabric GSM
(Grams per square meter).
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Step 2: Calculate weight of that lay (B).
Fabric Weight = Fabric width X Lay Length X GSM X No. of plies (You can also
calculate taking multiple lays) or 1.2A*GSM * no. of plies
Step 3: Cut the patterns and collect all waste fabric and weigh waste (C). Normally
includes ends losses, cut waste.
Step 4: Weight of the fabric of cut panels D= (B-C)
Step 5: Fabric utilization% = Weight of cut panels (D)/Total weight of the lay
For the accuracy you can do this exercise with multiple lays and take average of
Example: For better understanding I have shown an example in the following.
Step 1: Assume that
a) Measured lay length = 3 meters
b) Fabric GSM = 150
c) No. of Plies = 5 and
d) Fabric width = 1.2 meters,
Step 2: Calculated weight of the lay = 3*150*5*1.2 =2700 grams
Step 3: Weight of the collected waste after cutting = 300 grams
Step 4: Weight of the cut panels = (2700 – 300) = 2400 grams
Step 5: Fabric utilization percentage = (2400/2700*100) = 88.9%
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About 25-30% fabric is wastage during all process of textile. If its percentage is
reduced company will be more profitable.
Sewing fault analysis
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Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with
a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile, arising in
the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn
or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and
Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread"
made of various animal body parts including sinew, catgut, and veins.
For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand. The invention of the sewing
machine in the 19th century and the rise ofcomputerization in the later 20th century
led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still
practised around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-
quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, and custom dressmaking, and is pursued
by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression.
Seated woman sewing a kimono,Utagawa Kuniyoshi, early 19th century. Different
cultures have developed diverse sewing techniques, from methods of cutting fabric
to types of stitches.
Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic
Age. Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for clothing and for shelter.
The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of
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bone; the indigenous peoples of the American Plains and Canadian Prairies used
sophisticated sewing methods to assemble tipi shelters. Sewing was combined with
the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made
by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips
of palm leaf that had been woven into a coil. The weaving of cloth from natural
fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BCE, and perhaps earlier during
the Neolithic Age, and the sewing of cloth accompanied this development.
During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it
employed seamstresses and tailors. Sewing for the most part was a woman's
occupation, and most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was
an expensive investment for most people, and women had an important role in
extending the longevity of items of clothing. Sewing was used for mending.
Clothing that was faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be
worn, and sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this
purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the
reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made intoquilts, or
otherwise put to practical use. The many steps involved in making clothing from
scratch (weaving, pattern making, cutting, alterations, and so forth) meant that
women often bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one
another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, and young
women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area.
From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such
as needles, pins and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European
Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most
embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or
Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known
throughout the world today. Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch,
Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, and the Japanese stitch. The stitches
associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active
during the Middle Ages. The Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to
Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East
spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European
imperial settlements also spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide.
However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant
locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been
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historically unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of
South America is also known to Southeast Asia.
2.3 Elements of garment sewing
Sewers working on a simple pattern need only a few sewing tools: measuring tape,
needle, thread, cloth, and sewing shears. More complex patterns done on a sewing
machine may only need a few more simple tools to get the job done, but there are
an ever-growing variety of helpful sewing aids available, such as presser
foot attachments for sewing ruffles, or hem repair glue.
When the sewer has gathered the necessary tools to tackle a pattern, there are
several elements of garment construction that are part of the process. Patterns will
specify whether to cut on the grain or a bias cut.
Construction stitches include edgestitching, understitching,staystitching and topstit
ching. seam types include the plain seam, zigzag seam, flat fell seam, French seam,
and many others. Supporting materials, such as interfacing, interlining or lining, or
fusing, may be used as well, to give the fabric a more rigid or durable shape.
Volume can be added with elements such as pleats, or reduced with the use
Sewing machines are now made for a broad range of specialised sewing purposes,
such as quilting machines, computerized machines for embroidery, and
various sergers for finishing raw edges of fabric.
2.4 Sewing Faults
Quality of product plays an important role in any industry. If a consumer does not
like the quality of the product then the chances of sales become very less. Today,
clothes play a very important role in the society. They help in creating an
impression and define the human being in some aspects. Therefore it is very
important to see to it that garments are made of high quality. In textile and Apparel
Industry, sewing is one of the major processes in apparel production. It plays an
important role in maintaining the quality of clothes. Hence it is important that all
defects have to be avoided during sewing any apparel. In this paper, various faults
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or defects that can take place during sewing along with different remedies or
methods to solve these defects are discussed.
2.5Types of Sewing Faults:
Mainly there are three types:
1. Critical fault.
2. Major fault.
3. Minor fault.
Critical fault: The faults present in garments lead the garments to be rejected
directly are called critical fault. This garment should not pass for shipment.
a. Hole in the garments.
b. Shade variation of the garments fabric etc.
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Major fault: The faults which are present in garments may not lead the garments
be rejected rather after removing this faults garments are executed for shipment is
called major fault.
a. Spot in the front part.
b. Seam puckering.
c. Slipped stitch.
d. Broken stitch etc.
Minor fault: The faults which are present in the garments cannot lead the
garments be rejected rather if small quantity of this fault are present in the garment,
garments can be accepted for shipment. This type of fault is called minor fault.
a. Spot in the under part.
b. Sewing problem in the under part etc.
2.6 Names of different sewing faults , reason and their remedies :
Fault name: Gathering
Size matching: When different parts of the body are not matching with
another parts , during stitching gathering may occurred .
Machine tension : If tension of the sewing machine are not maintained , it
is possible to passing extra fabric during sewing
Send that garment to sewing line as alter to recheck size and re sewing.
Recheck the machine tension and re sewing that garment,
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Figure: Gathering .
Fault name: Point Up-down .
Mismatching of body parts size ;
Mishandling of body parts;
Match the body parts according to size and number and lot.
Skilled operator used to handling the garments.
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Figure: Point up-down.
Fault Name: Level missing.
Over passing the parts from one operator to another;
Operator mistake to joining level but passed to another.
Operator should be careful to join level;
Operator helper should be check all parts before passing other to another.
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Figure: Level missing.
Fault name: Shade variation:
Mismatching of body parts;
Lot or bundle of cut panel mixing ;
Miss mixing of face side and back side of body parts.
Recheck bundle or lot before input in sewing line;
Proper identified of face side and back side;
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Figure: Shade variation.
Fault name: Skipped stitch:
1. Failure of needle to enter loop at correct time
2. Needle deflection or bent needle
3. Thread loop failure due to incorrect needle size for thread size
4. Incorrect sewing tension in the needle
5. Thread loop failure due to incorrect setting of thread control mechanism
6. Flagging of fabric due to poor presser foot control
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1) Check needles is inserted and aligned correctly. Machine clearance and
2) Replace the needle
3) Change needle size in accordance with thread size. Kindly refer to
recommended needle numbers against specified articles.
4) Re adjust the thread tension
5) Reset to standard and check loop formation through jog mechanism.
6) Re adjust presser foot pressure
Figure: Skip stitch.
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Fault name: Seam Puckering:
It may be defined as a ridge, wrinkle, or corrugation of the sewn fabric running
across the seam. It is a sort of differential contraction occurring along a particular
line usually along the seam line, in fabric,
Seam Puckering can be attributed to following causes:-
Incorrect tension setting
Structural jamming or inherent pucker
Fabric and / or thread instability
Poorly controlled fabric feed
Extension in sewing thread
Without distorting the thread loops in the fabric, cut entire top and bottom threads
of all the stitches along a fixed length of the seam. If the pucker vanishes, then it is
due to incorrect thread tension setting.
If pucker does not vanish then remove the stitches. on removal if both faces of
seam come to a normal surface, structural jamming has occurred.
If pucker appears after during post sewing operations or washing, due to
dimensional changes in the thread /fabric. It is due to fabric /thread instability.
Cut the area of maximum pucker, if on removal of stitch, one ply of fabric is
longer than the other, then it is due to poor control on feed.
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Incorrect Tension Setting - tension setting
Sewing with too much tension in thread causes pucker sewing takes place in
stretched state of the thread. After sewing the stretched thread relaxes and attempts
to recover its original length, it gathers up seam, which causes pucker.
Check tension level in the thread, Sew with minimum tension possible. Always
adjust bobbin thread tension first then needle thread tension.
Check dirt / fIy accumulation in the thread guides and eyelets. Check rough or
worm out hread guides.
Check if the coefficient of friction of the thread with metal is high. Contact
Customer Technical Service Cell.
Adjust feed timing and fabric control for maximum pulling of the fabric.
Check for proper threading or fitting of bobbin case.
Fault name: Needle Thread breakage:
1. Excessive tension in needle thread
2. Thread fraying at needle
3. Thread trapped at thread guide
4. Thread trapping at the base of cone
5. Snarling before tension disc.
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6. Improper off winding from cone
7. Sharp edges on throat plate, hook point, needle guard, bobbin needle groove or
8. Excessive needle heat, groove or eye blocked with melted fabric.
1) Use stronger thread or adjust tension
2) Use finer thread or coarser needle
3) Re guide the thread properly
4) Reduce cone stand height to avoid vibration which can cause thread trapping
5) Increase thread guides and reduce disc tension
6) The overhead guide should be directly above cone or the thread package.
Also ensure that thread package shouldn’t get tilted during off winding.
7) Polish rough edges, replace. Replace needle, use better quality.
8) Change to better needle or throw compressed air to cool down the needle.
Fault name: Open seam or broken seam
This happens due to improper handling of the parts of garments , improper setting
and timing between needle and looper or hook etc.
Proper setting and timing between needle and looper or hook.
Proper handling of the parts of garments.
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Fault name: Cutting hole:
Carefulness of helper during cutting sewing thread ;
Helper should be careful during cutting extra sewing thread ;
Thread cutter should be keep in safe place;
Figure: Cutting hole.
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Fault name: Oil mark.
After maintenance the sewing machine it contain oil or lubrication on its
out surface and during sewing it mixed with the fabric surface.
Remedies: After oiling or lubrication the machine, machine should be clean with
jut fabric or others.
Fault name: Sewing thread shrinkage
Due to variable shrinkage % of sewing thread & fabric, Seam pucker will
create after washing or ironing.
Cotton threads develop puckering when wet or after wash.
To use synthetic thread.
To protect this, it must know about the shrinkage % of fabric & thread
before selection to sew.
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Fault name: Size measurement.
During manufacturing of garments size of some parts are measured as requirement.
assembling full garments is also measured so that the dimension of garments is ok.
occur in this time is very rare.
During size measurement the parts which are measured are –
4) Sleeve length
5) Sleeve opening
6) Body length
7) Neck width
8) Front neck drop
9) Back neck drop
10) Collar Height
11) Arm hole
12) Placket length
13) Pocket length
14) Pocket width
15) Bottom part
16) Hem opening
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Production Hampering due to Sewing faults
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3.1 Fault calculation: ( Line wise)
Fault analysis for one hour ( Line 15):
Fault name Total production Fault product Fault percentage
Skipped stitch 215 8 3.27%
Seam puckering 215 3 1.39%
Miss seam 215 4 1.86%
Label missing 215 2 0.93%
Shade variation 215 2 0.93%
Total 19 9%
Fault name Total production Fault product Fault percentage
Skipped stitch 280 15 5.35%
Seam puckering 280 8 2.85%
Miss seam 280 12 4.28%
Label missing 280 5 1.78%
Shade variation 280 11 4.78%
Total 51 19.04%
Fault name Total production Fault product Fault percentage
Skipped stitch 235 11 4.68%
Seam puckering 235 11 4.68%
Miss seam 235 4 1.70%
Label missing 235 2 0.85%
Shade variation 235 5 2.12%
Total 33 14%
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Total line: 28
Average Fault per line/hour :
= 20 pcs
Total fault per hour = 20* 28 = 560 pcs.
Total fault per day = 560 pcs* 10 hour = 5600 pcs.
3.2 Treatment of fault products:
Spot mark removing:
Average cycle time for spot removing: 1 minute 05 second per pcs.
Number of spot mark garments body: 45 pcs per day
Total time for spot mark removing body = 45*1 minute 05 second
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Total alter body per day = 142 pcs
Average time for repairing alter body = 2 minute
Total time for repairing alter body = 142*2 =284 minute.
4 hour 44 minute.
Total time required for fault body treatment =4 hour 44 minute + 49 minute
=5 hour 33 minute
In this 5 hour 33 minute , about 1000 garment product will more produced which is
obviously more profitable for company. So everybody should be care about his
job responsibility to minimize the wastage percentage .
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Finally we have completed our thesis after lots of inspection, experiment &
discussion. We have gathered a large experience about this project. We have
increased our knowledge about how sewing is done, problems of sewing & how
those problems are minimize. This study investigated knitwear sewing process in a
ready-made clothing Enterprise manufacturing men’s suit in terms of quality; in
addition, the reasons increasing quality faults and the priorities were determined
for the improvement studies. During data collection, the sewing faults were
determined in 4.5% products. As a result, the knitwear production process was
concluded statistically not under control in the enterprise. In addition, there was a
statistically significant relation between the quality fault amounts. In the present
study, it is established that Statistical Process Control Methods could be suggested
for planning improvement studies and analyzing whether the quality is under
control in a ready-made clothing enterprise. In addition, it can be suggested to
prepare separate (p) control charts for all process groups contributing to fault
reasons and to investigate hypothetically the effects of improvement studies on
quality level. Within the scope of quality improvement studies, it could be
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recommended to make regular quality control education, to investigate permanent
solutions instead of daily solutions, to keep the workers’ motivation high, and to
make regular maintenance of machines. To enable a good quality system in
enterprises, there should be adequate number of quality staff and the quality
consciousness of workers should be increased. Quality system includes all the
phases of production from the input of materials to product output, and quality
standards should be created. Material quality should be controlled by performing
input controls, while production quality should be provided by intermediary
controls during production, and product quality should be provided by making
output controls in the enterprise. Quality level should be constantly improved by
using SPC methods, and for this purpose, regular trainings should be prepared in