Managerial planning and goal setting

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Managerial planning and goal setting. Organisasi dan manajemen perusahaan industri.

Managerial planning and goal setting

  1. 1. Managerial Planning and Goal Setting ORGANISASI danMANAJEMEN PERUSAHAAN INDUSTRI
  2. 2. Download Slide di http://rumah-belajar.org Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.2
  3. 3. Planning for the Future GOAL PLAN PLANNING Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.3
  4. 4. Goals and Plans  Goal - A desired future state that the organization attempts to realize.  Plan - A blueprint specifying the resource allocations, schedules, and other actions necessary for attaining goals  Planning – determining the organization’s goals and the means for achieving them – the most fundamental management function – the most controversial management function. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.4
  5. 5. Managerial Planning and Goal Setting  Process of planning  How managers develop effective plans  Goal setting  Types of plans  New approaches to planning Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.5
  6. 6. The Importance of Goals and Plans Goals and Plans Rationale for decisions Standard of performance Guides to action Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.6
  7. 7. Levels of Goals/Plans & Their Importance External Message Legitimacy for Mission investors, customers, Statement suppliers, community Strategic Goals/Plans Senior Management (Organization as a whole) Internal Message Legitimacy, Tactical Goals/Plans motivation, Middle Management guides, (Major divisions, functions) rationale, standards Operational Goals/Plans Lower Management (Departments, individuals) Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.7
  8. 8. Benefits for the Organization Provided from Internal and External Messages Goals and Plans Send • Legitimacy • What the organization stands for - reason for being • Symbolizes legitimacy • Employees identify with overall purpose • Source of Motivation and Commitment • Employees’ identification with the organization • Motivate by reducing uncertainty • Guides to Action • Provide a sense of direction; focus attention on specific targets • Direct efforts toward important outcomes Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.8
  9. 9. Benefits for the Organization Provided from Internal and External Messages Goals and Plans Send • Rationale for Decisions • Learn what organization is trying to accomplish • Make decisions to ensure that internal policies, roles, performance, structure, products, and expenditures will be made in accordance with desired outcomes • Standard of Performance • Serve as performance criteria • Provide a standard of assessment Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.9
  10. 10. Organizational Mission  Mission = organization’s reason for existing  Mission Statement – Broadly states the basic business scope and operations that distinguishes it from similar types of organizations – May include the market and customers – Some may describe company values, product quality, attitudes toward employees Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.10
  11. 11. Visi-Misi PT PERTAMINA VISI :Menjadi Perusahaan Minyak Nasional Kelas Dunia MISI :Menjalankan usaha inti minyak, gas, dan bahan bakar nabati secara terintegrasi, berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip komersial yang kuat Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.11
  12. 12. Strategic Goals and Plans Strategic Goals  Where the organization wants to be in the future  Pertain to the organization as a whole Strategic Plans  Action Steps used to attain strategic goals  Blueprint that defines the organizational activities and resource allocations  Tends to be long term Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.12
  13. 13. Tactical Goals and Plans ●Tactical Goals - Apply to middle management - Goals that define the outcomes that major divisions and departments must achieve ●Tactical Plans -Plans designed to help execute major strategic plans -Shorter than time frame than strategic plans Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.13
  14. 14. Operational Goals and Plans • Operational Goals - Specific, measurable results - Expected from departments, work groups, and individuals • Operational Plans - Organization’s lower levels that specify action steps toward achieving operational goals - Tool for daily and weekly operations - Schedules are an important component Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.14
  15. 15. Goal Attainment Means-end Chain  Attainment of goals at lower levels permits the attainment of high-level goals  Traditional organizational responsibility – Strategic = top management – Tactical – middle management – Operational = 1st line management & workers Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.15
  16. 16. Hierarchy of Goals Traditional Responsibility Today Mission Top Strategic Management Goals •Shrinking middle management Middle Tactical •Employee Management Goals empowerment 1st-line Management Operational & Workers Goals Employees Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.16
  17. 17. Characteristics of Effective Goal Setting  Specific and measurable  Covered key result area  Challenging but realistic ● Defined time period ● Linked to rewards Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.17
  18. 18. VISIONCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. OBJECTIVECopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. STRATEGYCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. TACTICCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. ACTIONCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. The Organizational Planning ProcessCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage 23 Learning. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Aligning Goals with Strategy Maps  Goals should be consistent and mutually supportive  The achievement of goals at low levels permits the attainment of high-level goals  Individuals, teams, and departments should be working in concert Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.24
  25. 25. Strategy Map for Aligning Goals Goals should be consistent and mutually supportiveCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Operational Planning  Operational goals should direct employees and resources toward outcomes  It is important to establish effective goals – Management by objective – Single-use plans – Standing plans – Contingency plans Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.26
  27. 27. Management by Objective Defined by management scholar Peter Drucker in his 1954 book, The Practice of Management Process of defining goals and monitoring progressCopyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Model of the MBO Process Step 1: Set Goals Step 2: Develop Action Plans Corporate Strategic Goals Departmental goals Action Plans Individual goals Review Progress Step 3: Review Progress Take Corrective Action Appraise Performance Step 4: Appraise Overall Performance Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.28
  29. 29. MBO Benefits and Problems Benefits of MBO Problems with MBO  Manager and employee  Constant change prevents efforts are focused on MBO from taking hold activities that will lead to  An environment of poor goal attainment employer-employee relations  Performance can be reduces MBO effectiveness improved at all company  Strategic goals may be levels displaced by operational goals  Employees are motivated  Mechanistic organizations and  Departmental and values that discourage individual goals are participation can harm the aligned with company MBO process goals  Too much paperwork saps MBO energy Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.29
  30. 30. Single-Use Plans For Goals Not Likely To Be Repeated ● A program is a complex set of objectives and plans to achieve an important, one-time organizational goal ● A project is similar to a program, but generally smaller in scope and complexity Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.30
  31. 31. Standing Plans For Tasks Performed Repeatedly ● A policy is a general guide to action and provides direction for people within the organization ● Rules describe how a specific action is to be performed ● Procedures define a precise series of steps to be used in achieving a specific job Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.31
  32. 32. Contingency Plans Specific Situations - unexpected conditions  Identify Uncontrollable Factors – Economic turndowns – Declining markets – Increases in costs of supplies – Technological developments – Safety accidents  Minimize Impact of Uncontrollable Factors – Forecast a range of alternative responses to most-likely high-impact contingencies Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.32
  33. 33. Strategy Formulation and Implementation
  34. 34. Strategic Planning  Strategic planning has taken on new importance in today’s world of globalization, deregulation, advancing technology, and changing demographics, and lifestyles Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.34
  35. 35. Strategy Formulation and Implementation  Strategic Management – Definition – Components – Model of Strategic Management Process – Models of Strategy Formation  Managerial Tools to Implement Strategic Plans Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.35
  36. 36. Thinking Strategically  Answers to the following define an overall direction for the organizations grand strategy  Where is the organization now?  Where does the organization want to be?  What changes are among competitors?  What courses of action will help us achieve our goals? Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.36
  37. 37. Strategic Management  Set of decisions and actions used to implement strategies that will provide a competitively superior fit between the organization and its environment so as to achieve organizational goals  Responsibility = top managers & chief executive Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.37
  38. 38. Strategic Management Managers ask such questions as...  What changes and trends are occurring?  Who are our customers?  What products or services should we offer?  How can we offer these products or services most efficiently? Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.38
  39. 39. Grand Strategy  General plan of major action to achieve long-term goals  Falls into three general categories 1. Growth A separate grand strategy can be 2. Stability defined for global 3. Retrenchment operations Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.39
  40. 40. Grand Strategy: Growth  Growth can be promoted internally by investing in expansion or externally by acquiring additional business divisions - Internal growth = can include development of new or changed products - External growth = typically involves diversification – businesses related to current product lines or into new areas Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.40
  41. 41. Grand Strategy: Stability  Stability, sometimes called a pause strategy, means that the organization wants – to remain the same size or – to grow slowly and in a controlled fashion Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.41
  42. 42. Grand Strategy: Retrenchment  Retrenchment = the organization goes through a period of forced decline by either shrinking current business units or selling off or liquidating entire businesses  Liquidation = selling off a business nit for the cash value of the assets, thus terminating its existence  Divestiture = involves selling off of businesses that no longer seem central to the corporation Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.42
  43. 43. Global Corporate Strategies High Transnational Globalization Strategy Strategy • Seeks to balance global • Treats world as a efficiencies and local single global market responsiveness • Standardizes global • Combines standardization products/advertising and customization for Need for Global Integration strategies product/advertising strategies Export Strategy Multi-domestic Strategy •Domestically focused • Handles markets independently for each •Exports a few country domestically produced products to selected • Adapts product/advertising countries to local tastes and needs Low Low Need for National Responsiveness High Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.43
  44. 44. Global Strategy  Globalization = product design and advertising strategies are standardized around the world  Multi-domestic = adapt product and promotion for each country  Transnational = combine global coordination with flexibility to meet specific needs in various countries Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.44
  45. 45. Purpose of Strategy  The plan of action that prescribes resource allocation and other activities for dealing with the environment, achieving a competitive advantage, that help the organization attain its goals Strategies focus on: ● Core competencies ● Developing synergy ● Creating value for customers Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.45
  46. 46. Three Levels of Strategy in Organizations Corporate-Level Strategy: What business are we in? Corporation Business-Level Strategy: How do we compete? Textiles Unit Chemicals Unit Auto Parts Unit Functional-Level Strategy: How do we support the business-level strategy? Finance R&D Manufacturing Marketing Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.46
  47. 47. Strategic Management Process Scan External Identify Strategic Environment – Factors – National, Opportunities, Global Threats Implement Strategy via Evaluate Formulate Changes in: Current Mission, Define new Strategy – Leadership SWOT Mission culture, Goals, Corporate, Strategies Goals, Grand Business, Structure, HR, Strategy Functional Information & control Scan Internal systems Identify Strategic Environment – Core Factors – Competence, Strengths, Synergy, Value Weaknesses Creation Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.47
  48. 48. Strategy Formulation vs. Implementation  Strategy Formulation = stage of strategic management that involves planning and decision making that lead to the establishment of the organization’s goals and of a specific strategic plan  Strategy Implementation = stage of strategic management that involves the use of managerial and organizational tools to direct resources toward achieving strategic outcomes Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.48
  49. 49. Checklist for Analyzing Organizational Strengths and Weaknesses Management and Organization Marketing Human Resources Management quality Distribution channels Employee experience, Staff quality Market share education Degree of centralization Advertising efficiency Union status Organization charts Customer satisfaction Turnover, absenteeism Planning, information, Product quality Work satisfaction control systems Service reputation Grievances Sales force turnover Finance Production Research and Development Profit margin Plant location Basic applied research Debt-equity ratio Machinery obsolescence Laboratory capabilities Inventory ratio Purchasing system Research programs Return on investment Quality control New-product innovations Credit rating Productivity/efficiency Technology innovations Sources: Based on Howard H. Stevenson, “ Defining Corporate Strengths and Weaknesses,” Sloan Management Review 17 (spring 1976), 51-68; and M.L.Kastens, Long-Range Planning for Your Business (New York: American Management Association, 1976). Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.49
  50. 50. Portfolio Strategy BCG Matrix  Mix of business units and product lines that fit together in a logical way to provide synergy and competitive advantage Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.50
  51. 51. Five Forces Affecting Industry Competition •Internet reduces Potential New barriers to entry Entrants Internet blurs differences among competitors in an industry Threat of Substitute Rivalry Bargaining Products among Power of Competitors Buyers •Internet expands market size, but •Internet shifts greater power creates new substitution threats to end consumers •Internet tends to increase the bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining Power of Suppliers Source: Based on Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1980). Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.51
  52. 52. Competitive Edge Through Competitive Strategies  Differentiation = attempt to distinguish products or services from that of competitors  Cost leadership = aggressively seeks efficient facilities, pursues cost reductions, and uses tight cost controls to produce products more efficiently than competitors  Focus = concentrates on a specific regional market or buyer group Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.52
  53. 53. Continuum of Partnership Strategies Organizational Combination Acquisitions Mergers Joint Ventures Strategic Alliances Strategic Business Partnering Preferred Supplier Arrangements Low High Degree of Collaboration Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.53
  54. 54. Implementing Strategy Tools  Leadership  Structural design  Information and control systems  Human resources Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.54
  55. 55. Tools for Putting Environment Strategy into Action Organization Leadership  Persuasion  Motivation  Culture/values Structural Design  Organization Chart Human Resources  Teams  Recruitment/selectionStrategy  Transfers/promotions Performance  Centralization Decentralization,  Training  Facilities, task design  Layoffs/recalls Information and Control Systems  Pay, reward system  Budget allocations  Information systems  Rules/procedures Source: Adapted from Jay R. Galbraith and Robert K. Kazanjian, strategy Implementation: Structure, Systems and Process, 2d ed. (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1986), 115, Used with permission. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 55
  56. 56. Download Slide di http://rumah-belajar.org Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.56

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