TENSES (PEMBAGIAN WAKTU)1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (+) S +Verb + O/C (-) S + do + not + verb + O/C (?) Do + S + Verb1 + O/CTime Signal : always, generally, seldom, usually, often, sometimes, ever/never.Example : + I study english every Saturday. - I don’t study english every Saturday. ? Do You study english every Saturday ?
2. Simple Past Tense (+) S + V2 + O/C (-) S + did + not + V1 + O/C (?) Did + S + V1 + O/CTime signal : …ago, yesterday, last…Example :(+) I went to Menado last week.(-) I did not go to Menado last week.(?) Did You go to Menado last week ?
3. Present Continous Tenses (+) S + to be (am, is, are ) + Ving + O/C (-) S + to be (am, is, are ) + not + Ving + O/C (?) To be (am, is, are ) + S + Ving + O/CTime Signal : now, rightnow, at present, at moment.Example :(+) We are reading a newspaper at present.(-) We are not reading a newspaper at present.(?) Are We reading a newspaper at present ?
4. Past Continous Tenses (+) S + to be (was/were) + Ving + O/C (-) S + to be (was/were) + not + Ving + O/C (?) to be (was/were) + S + Ving + O/CTime signal : while, after, beforeExample :(+) I was watching TV when He came.(-) I was not watching TV when He came.(?) Was You watching TV when He came?
5. Present Future Tense (+) S + shall/will + V1 + O/C (-) S + shall/will + V1 + O/C (?) Shall/Will + S + V1 + O/CTime signal : next, tomorrow, to night.Example :(+) We will go to Surabaya next week.(-) We will not go to Surabaya next week.(?) Will We go to Surabaya next week?
6. Past Future (+) S + should/would + V1 + O/C (-) S + should/would + not + V1 + O/C (?) Should/Would + S + V1 + O/CExample :(+) Yudi would go to Bali next month.(-) Yudi would not go to Bali next month.(?) Would Yudi go to Bali next month?
7. Present Perfect Tense (+) S + have/has + V3 + O/C (-) S + have/has + not + V3 + O/C (?) Have/Has + S + V3 + O/CTime signal : since, for, already, just.Example :(+) I have stayed in Pringsewu since 20 years ago.(-) I have not stayed in Pringsewu since 20 years ago.(?) Have You stayed in Pringsewu since 20 years ago?
8. Past Perfect Tense (+) S + had + V3 + O/C (-) S + had + not + V3 + O/C (?) Had + S + V3 + O/CTime signal : by the…Example :(+) I had taken a bath by the time Rani arrived.(-) I had not taken a bath by the time Rani arrived.(?) Had You taken a bath by the time Rani arrived?
Conditional Sentences Type 1• Main Clause : Present Future Tense S + will/shall + V1 + O/C• If Clause : Simple Present S + V1 + O/CExample:I will go to Bali, if I have a holiday.If you call him, he will come here.
Type 2 Main Clause : Past Future S + should/would + V1 + O/C If Clause : Simple Past Tense S + V2 + O/CExample :I would buy a new house if I won the lottery.She would go Bali if She had much money.
Type 3• Main Clause : Past Future Perfect S + should/would + have + V3• If Clause : Past Perfect S + had + V3 + O/CExample :If I had been a president I would have built many school.You would have passed your final exam if you had studied.
PASSIVE VOICE ACTIVE SENTENCES PASSIVE SENTENCES1. Simple Present 1. Simple Present S + V1 + O S + to be ( am,is,are) + V3 + O2. Present Continous 2. Present Continous S + to be (am,is,are) + Ving + O S + to be (am,is,are) + being + V3 + O3. Simple Past 3. Simple Past S + V2 + O S + to be (was/were) + V3 + O4. Past Continous 4. Past Continous S + to be (was/were) + Ving + O S + to be ( was/were) + V3 + O5. Present Future 5. Present Future S + shall/will + V1 + O S + shall/will + be + V3 + O6. Past Future 6. Past Future S + should/would + V1 + O S + should/would + be + V3 + O7. Present Perfect 7. Present Perfect S + have/has + V3 + O S + have/has + been + O8. Past Perfect 8. Past Perfect S + had + V3 + O S + had + been + V3 + O
ExampleSimple PresentActive : He borrows the history book from the libraryPassive : The history book is borrowed by him from the libraryPresent ContinousActive : You are washing the new dressesPassive : The new dresses are being washed by YouSimple PastActive : I saw You in the bus yesterdayPassive : You was seen by me yesterdayPast ContinousActive : You were studying english when Ina camePassive : English was being studied by You when Ina came
ExamplePresent FutureActive : We will invite You on Lina’s partyPassive : You will be invited on Lina’s partyPast FutureActive : He wouldn’t give me a new dressPassive : A new dress wouldn’t be given to me by himPresent PerfectActive : They have sold the new old housePassive : The old huose has been sold by themPast PerfectActive : Mr. Tanu had built the new company for 2 yearsPassive : The new company had been built by Mr. Tanu for 2 years
ELLIPTICAL+ + Sentence + and + S + aux. verb + too Sentence + and + so + aux. verb + S- - Sentence + and + S + aux. verb + not + either Sentence + and + neither + aux. verb + S + - and - + Sentence + but + S + aux. verb + not Sentence + but + S + aux. verb
Example I like classical music Benny like classical music I like classical music and Benny does too I like classical music and so does Benny My sister didn’t visit that museum last holiday Tari didn’t visit that museum last week My sister didn’t visit that museum last holiday and Tari didn’t either My sister didn’t visit that museum last holiday and neither did Tari Budi has worked in this office for 3 years Ella hasn’t worked in this office for 3 years Budi has worked in this office for 3 years but ella hasn’t
Example Mr. Tedi doesn’t know that word Feri knows that word Mr, Tedi doesn’t know that word but Feri does
CONDITIONAL SENTENSE (Kalimat Pengandaian))Conditional clouse / if clouse- Main clouse (induk kalimat)- Sub clouse (anak kalimat)•There are 3 types of conditional1.Type 1 / future conditional2.Type 2/ present counditional3.Type 3/ past counditional
Main clouse Sub clouseType 1: present future type 1:simple (s+shall/will+V1+O) presenttenseType 2: past future (if+s+V1+o) Type 2:simple past tense (s+should/would+V1+o) (if+s+V2+o)Type 3:past future perfeck Type 3:past perfect (if+s+had+V3+o) (s+should/would+have+V 3+o
Example :1. If I...... (have) the time, I......(go) to bali a. If I have the time, will go balib. If I had the time, I would go to balic. If I had the time, I would have gone to bali2. You would buy a new car if you ... (gat) enough money ( you would buy a new car if you got enough money )3.The teacher ...(explain) that lessen if the student ask him ( the teacher w ill explain that lessen if the student ask him4.If tomy .... (be) here yesterday he would have adviced me ( if the had been here yesterday he would have adived me
S O I US YOU Me HE Your SHE him her • Active Sentences • Possitive Sentence1. Simple present 1.Simple present s+V1+O s+tobe(is,am.are)+V3+o2. Present countinous 2. Present countinouse s+tobe(was/har)+ving+o s+tobe(is,am,are)+being+V3+o3. Simple past 3. Simple past s+V2+o s+tobe(was/were)+v3+o4.Past countinouse 4. Past countinouse s+tobe(was/were)+ving+o s+tobe(was/were)+beng+v3+o
DEGRESS OF COMPARISON (Tingkat perbandigan)There are 3 types of comarison :1.Positive degress ( tingkat perbandigan biasais,as...as2.Comperative degress (tigkat pebandigan lebihthan....3.Superative degress (tingkat perbandigan palingthe...
Adjective possitive comperative superlative degree degree degreea.1 atau 2 _ + Er + Est suku kata tall tall taller tallest short short shorter shortest high high higher highest easy easy easier easiest cheap cheap cheaper cheapestb. Lebihn dari 2 _ +more +mostsuku katabeautiful beautiful more beautiful most beautifulexpensive expensive more expensive most expensivecareful careful more careful most carefuldiligent diligent more diligent most diligentduickly duickly more duickly most duiclyslowly slowly more slowly most slowly
Example :a.As the subyek• mr tedy is a manager mr. Tedy who is very tall is a manager he is very tallb.As the obyek• the lady is my secretary the lady whom you saw at theparty you saw her at the party is my secretaryc.As the possesive• mrs rany entered the room mrs rany whose bag is red enteredthe room har bag is red• the computer is mine the computer of which monitor is it’s monior is color clor is mine
QUESTION TAQ• short question which takes place in the and sentence Statemen question taqa) + -b) - +c)Kalimat ajakan shall wed)Kalimat perintah will youExample :s+p+o+aux verb+ not+s s+p+not+aux verb +sKalimat ajakanlet’s us goto the movie, shall we ? let’s me come to your house, shall we /Kalimat perintahOpen the door, will you ?Clouse the book, ill you