• Technological Advances
• today’s chip can contains billions of transistors .
• transistor gate lengths are now in term of nano meters .
• approximately every 18 months the number of transistors on a chip
doubles – Moore’s law .
• The Consequences
• components connected on a Printed Circuit Board can now be integrated
onto single chip .
• hence the development of System-On-Chip design .
• SoC: System-on-a-Chip or System-on-Chip
•A collection of all kinds of components and/or
subsystems that are appropriately interconnected to
perform the specified functions for end user
• SoC refers to integrating all components into a single
integrated circuit (chip)
What is SoC..?
• A system-on-chip architecture integrates several heterogeneous
components on a single chip
• A key challenge is to design the communication or integrated
between the different entities of a SoC….
• Resulting 1 word : COMPLEXITY
Typical SoC Architecture
• Smaller device geometries, new processing (e.g., SOI)
• Higher density integration
• Low Power requirement
• Higher frequencies
• Design Complexity
• Verification, at different levels
• Time-to-market pressure
SoC Design Challenges!!
Source : On-Chip Communication Architectures (Sudeep Parischa – Nikil Dutt)
SoC Design Challenges!!
SoC Design GAP
• Use a known real entity
• A pre-designed component (IP reuse) or IP based design
• A platform (architecture reuse) or Platform based design
• Based on functionality
• Hardware and software
• At different level
• Consistent and accurate
Conquer the complexity
• Intellectual Property Cores
• Parameterized components with standard interfaces facilitating high
• Cores available in three forms
• Black-box in optimized layout form and encrypted simulation model.
• Synthesized netlist which can be simulated and changed if needed
• Register transfer level (RTL) HDLs; user is responsible for synthesis
IP Based Design
Predictability, performance, time to market
Trade-off among soft, firm, and hard cores
IP Based Design
• Platform-based SoCs are systems embedded on a
chip that contain
•IP blocks like embedded CPU, embedded memory,
•Real-world interfaces (e.g., PCI, USB),
•Mixed signal blocks and
• Device drivers, real-time operating systems and
Platform Based SoC
• Embedded Applications built using
•Common architectural blocks and
•Customized application specific components
• Common architectures
•Processor, memory, peripherals, bus structures
• Common architectures and supporting
technologies (IP libraries and tools) together called
as platforms or platform-based designs
• Latest trend in the Embedded Systems
Platform Based Design
• Technological advances mean that complete systems
can now be implemented on a single chip
• The benefits that this brings are :
– Lower cost per gate
– Lower power consumption
– Faster circuit operation
– More reliable implementation
– Smaller physical size
– Greater design security
– Significant in terms of speed , area and power
• The principle drawbacks of SoC design are
associated with the design pressures
imposed on today’s engineers , such as :
– Time-to-market demands
– Exponential fabrication cost
– Increased system complexity
– Increased verification requirements
• Yen-Kuang Chen and S.Y. Kung, “Trend and Challenge on System-on-a-Chip Designs” ,
Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol.53 Issue 1-2, November. 2008
• Linda E.M. Brackenbury, Luis A. Plana, and Jeffery Pepper, “System-on-Chip Design and
Implementation”, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 53, No. 2, May. 2010.
• Wayne Wolf, Ahmed Amine Jerraya, and Grant Martin, “Multiprocessor System-on-Chip”,
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 27, No. 10,
• Lech Jozwiak, “Quality-driven design in the System-on-a-Chip era: Why and how ?”, Journal
of Systems Architecture 47 (2001) 201-224.
• On-Chip Communication Architectures : System on Chip Interconnect, Morgan Kaufmann
• R. Saleh et al. ,”System-on-Chip : Reuse and Integration”, Proceedings of The IEEE, vol. 94 , No.
6, June 2006.
• Henry Chang et al. ,”Surviving the SOC Revolution : A Guide ti Platform-Based Design”,
Dordrecht :Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1999
• OMAPTM 5 mobile application platform, Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas, TX, 2011.
• McKinsey on Semiconductor, Issue 2 Autum 2012