Atomic Structure Part 2

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Atomic Structure Part 2

  1. 1. A t o m i c S t r u c t u r e Part 2
  2. 3. Recap
  3. 4. Recap <ul><li>Atom is a particle which is electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>No. of protons = No. of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>An atom consists of 3 subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Protons </li></ul><ul><li>2) Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>3) Electrons </li></ul>
  4. 5. Recap <ul><li>Structure of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons </li></ul>+ Electrons Nucleus Protons and Neutrons
  5. 6. <ul><li>One hydrogen atom weighs as much as 1836 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Found around the nucleus. </li></ul>1/1836 -1 Electron <ul><li>Mass is the same as that of a hydrogen atom </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the nucleus of the atom </li></ul>1 0 Neutron <ul><li>Mass is the same as that of a hydrogen atom </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the nucleus of the atom </li></ul>1 +1 Proton Remarks Relative Mass Charge Particle
  6. 7. Recap <ul><li>Symbol of an atom </li></ul>Chemical Symbol Nucleon Number Proton Number
  7. 8. Recap <ul><li>Proton number (atomic number) </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons in an </li></ul><ul><li>atom </li></ul><ul><li>For an atom, </li></ul><ul><li>no. of protons = no. electrons </li></ul>
  8. 9. Recap <ul><li>Nucleon number (mass number) </li></ul><ul><li>= no. of protons + no. neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>= Nucleon number – Proton number </li></ul>
  9. 10. Overview of topic Structure of Atoms Isotopes Electronic Arrangement Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Ions Atomic Structure
  10. 11. Today’s Menu <ul><li>What are isotopes </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons arrangement in atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Outermost electrons </li></ul><ul><li>The Periodic table </li></ul>
  11. 12. What are isotopes?
  12. 13. What are isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons </li></ul>
  13. 14. What are isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>(atomic number) </li></ul><ul><li>Different number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Different number nucleon number </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of electrons </li></ul>
  14. 15. Examples of isotopes <ul><li>Three isotopes of hydrogen </li></ul>1) Hydrogen Number of proton: 1 Number of neutrons: 0 Nucleon number: 1 Number of electron: 1 Hydrogen-1
  15. 16. Examples of isotopes <ul><li>Three isotopes of hydrogen </li></ul>2) Deuterium Number of proton: 1 Number of neutrons: 1 Nucleon number: 2 Number of electron: 1 Hydrogen-2
  16. 17. Examples of isotopes <ul><li>Three isotopes of hydrogen </li></ul>3) Tritium Number of proton: 1 Number of neutrons: 2 Nucleon number: 3 Number of electron: 1 Hydrogen-3
  17. 18. Examples of isotopes <ul><li>Two isotopes of Chlorine </li></ul>Number of proton: 17 Number of neutrons: 18 Nucleon number: 35 Number of electron: 17 Number of proton: 17 Number of neutrons: 20 Nucleon number: 37 Number of electron: 17 Chlorine-37 Chlorine-35
  18. 19. What are isotopes 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Electrons Neutrons Protons Number of Isotopes
  19. 20. What are isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes: </li></ul><ul><li>All isotopes of the same element have the same chemical properties but small differences in physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of isotopes </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Non-radioactive </li></ul>
  20. 21. Why does chlorine has a nucleon number of 35.5
  21. 22. Why does chlorine has a nucleon number of 35.5 In the periodic table, chlorine is denoted as
  22. 23. Why does chlorine has a nucleon number of 35.5 <ul><li>75% of all chlorine atoms have a mass of 35 </li></ul><ul><li>25% of all chlorine atoms have a mass of 37 </li></ul><ul><li>Average mass of one chlorine atom </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>= 35.5 </li></ul>
  23. 24. Practice Time Part 3 Worksheet 2
  24. 25. Electrons Arrangement In Atoms
  25. 26. Electrons Arrangement in Atoms <ul><li>Electrons move around the nucleus of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons are held in shells since it is of opposite charge </li></ul><ul><li>The attractive force between the positive charge on the nucleus and the negative charge on the electrons is called electrostatic force. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Electronic Structure
  27. 28. Electronic Structure <ul><li>The way the electrons are arranged is called its electronic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are arranged in shells which are numbered from the nucleus onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Each shell is capable of holding up to a certain number of electrons </li></ul>
  28. 29. Electronic Structure <ul><li>Electrons are arranged in shells which are numbered: 1, 2, 3, 4 from the nucleus onwards </li></ul>Octet 8 (for atoms with proton number 20) 3 Octet 8 2 Duplet 2 1 Name Maximum no. of electrons Shell no.
  29. 30. Electronic Structure 1 st shell 2 electrons 3 rd shell 8 electrons (proton number 20) Nucleus 2 nd shell 8 electrons
  30. 31. Electronic Structure <ul><li>To find the electronic configuration of an atom, we should </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the electrons into the shell nearest to the nucleus first. This shell can take a maximum of 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Once this shell is filled, the electrons go to the next available shell which has a maximum capacity of 8 electrons, and so on </li></ul>
  31. 32. Electronic Structure <ul><li>Sodium, </li></ul>Electronic Configuration 2, 8, 1 1 st shell 2 nd shell 3 rd shell Na
  32. 33. Electronic Structure <ul><li>Carbon, </li></ul>Electronic Configuration 2, 4 1 st shell 2 nd shell C
  33. 34. Electronic Structure <ul><li>Its important to know the electronic structure and electronic configuration of the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table </li></ul>
  34. 35. Summary
  35. 36. Summary <ul><li>1) Isotopes are atoms of the same element having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>2) E lectrostatic force is the force between the positive charge on the nucleus and the negative charge on the electrons. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Summary <ul><li>Electrons are arranged in shells which are numbered: 1, 2, 3, 4 from the nucleus onwards </li></ul>Octet 8 (for atoms with proton number 20) 3 Octet 8 2 Duplet 2 1 Name Maximum no. of electrons Shell no.
  37. 38. Summary <ul><li>To find the electronic configuration of an atom, we should </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the electrons into the shell nearest to the nucleus first. This shell can take a maximum of 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Once this shell is filled, the electrons go to the next available shell which has a maximum capacity of 8 electrons, and so on </li></ul>
  38. 39. Any Questions
  39. 40. Practice Time Part 3 Worksheet 2

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