Redes de Sensores em Ambientes
Inteligentes, ISMAI, 2013
F. Luís Neves <f.luis.neves@gmail.com>
Rui M. Barreira <rui.m.Bar...
Program
1. Context and Application
2. Wireless Sensor Networks
(WSNs)
3. Ambient Intelligence in
Practice
4. Topologies an...
1.
Context and
Applications
1. Ambient Intelligence
2. Core Problems and Challenges
3. Key Technological Areas
4. The User...
1. Ambient Intelligence
The most profound technologies are those
that disappear. They weave themselves into
the fabric of ...
1. Ambient Intelligence
Ubiquidade (ou omnipresença), ou seja, situações em que estamos
rodeados de conjuntos multifacetad...
1. Ambient Intelligence
Ambientes inteligentes
Ambientes cooperativos
Edifícios inteligentes
Casas inteligentes
Redes móve...
1. Ambient Intelligence
• Qual o impacto social derivado da utilizado de
sistemas de AmI?
• Qual o seu verdadeiro potencia...
1. Ambient Intelligence
• Qual o nível de inteligência que as
pessoas estão dispostas a aceitar?
• Como definir as diferen...
1.
Context and
Applications
1. Ambient Intelligence
2. Core Problems and Challenges
3. Key Technological Areas
4. The User...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
… it is not technological…
Understanding the functioning
of the physical, natural,
biologi...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Interdisciplinary Ambient Intelligence
Architecture
Design
Sociology
Anthropology
Cognitiv...
Ambient Intelligence
Intelligent
Interfaces
Ubiquitous
Communications
Ubiquitous
Computing
2. Core Problems and Challenges...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
What we have and what we need…
What we
Have
What we
Need
Integration
Scalable and Robust
S...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Criticism and Social Impact
Social, Political and Cultural
concerns about:
The loss of con...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Social and Political aspects
Should facilitate human contact;
Should be orientated towards...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Emblematic Projects
Philips
Homelabs
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Emblematic Projects
Mit Media
Lab
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Emblematic Projects
Home of
the Future
Bill and Melinda Gates' $97 million house
Home auto...
2. Core Problems and Challenges
Market Trends
1.
Context and
Applications
1. Ambient Intelligence
2. Core Problems and Challenges
3. Key Technological Areas
4. The User...
3. Key Technological Areas
Ambient Intelligence Building Blocks
Ambient
Intelligence
Ubiquitous
Computing
Pervasive
Comput...
1.
Context and
Applications
1. Ambient Intelligence
2. Core Problems and Challenges
3. Key Technological Areas
4. The User...
The User as the Center of the System
What is Usability?
Jakob Nielsen
Usability is the measure of the
quality of the user ...
The User as the Center of the System
What is Usability?
ISO 9421
Usability is a measure of the
effectiveness, efficiency a...
The User as the Center of the System
Putting People First
How to make informed (proactive) choices about
sharing informati...
The User as the Center of the System
Putting People First
Communication
Processes
• Social navigation
• Legitimate periphe...
The User as the Center of the System
Putting People First
Support “peace of mind”Augment common
household object
Maintain ...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platforms
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Appli...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Origins
1958: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
created by president Dwight D. Eisenhower....
Wireless Sensor Networks
Origins
Initial Limitations:
• Size: sensors were rather large (i.e. shoe
box and up) which limit...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Origins
2003: Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) has defined the IEEE
802.1...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Platform
Network: A WSN consists of spatially
distributed sensor nodes.
Each sensor node...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Platform
Sensor nodes: micro-electronic devices powered
by a limited power source. Becau...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Platform
Embedded Processor: the functionality of
an embedded processor is to schedule
t...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Platform
Transceiver: A transceiver is responsible for
the wireless communication of a s...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Platform
Power Source: In a sensor node, power is
consumed by sensing, communication and...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Operating Systems
The role of any operating system (OS) is
to promote the development of reliable...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Operating Systems
Contiki is another open source OS specifically
designed for WSNs.
The Contiki k...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Networking
A WSN is a network consisting of numerous
sensor nodes with sensing, wireless
communic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Networking: Network Architecture
The protocol stack is an implementation of a
computer networking...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs
The sensor network protocol stack is much like the
traditional...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs
WSNs must also be aware of the following
management planes in ...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs
QoS management in WSNs can be very
important if there is a rea...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Security
While the future of WSNs is very
prospective, WSNs will not be successfully
deployed if ...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Security
Physical Layer Threats: there are more
threats to WSNs in the physical layer, due to
the...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Security Countermeasures
Generally, countermeasures to the threats in WSNs
should fulfill the fol...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Security Countermeasures
The typical countermeasures to the threats in
WSNs are the following:
• ...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Security Countermeasures
Privacy Protection: As WSN applications
expand to include increasingly s...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Applications
Military sensor networks, which includes:
• large-scale acoustic ocean surveillance
...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Applications
Health Monitoring, which includes special kinds of
sensors which can measure, for in...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Applications
Industrial Sensing, which typically includes the
possibility to monitor the “health”...
2.
Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN)
1. Origins
2. Hardware Platform
3. Operating Systems
4. Networking
5. Security
6. Applic...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Standardization
The major standardization organizations are:
• the Institute of Electrical and El...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Standardization
ZigBee is a standard for a suite of high level
communication protocols based on t...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Standardization
WirelessHART is an open-standard wireless mesh
network (WMN) communications proto...
Wireless Sensor Networks
Standardization
3.
Ambient
Intelligence in
Practice
1. Home Security
2. Home Surveillance
3. Energy Monitoring
4. Appliances Control
5. He...
Ambient Intelligence in Practice
Home Services
4.
Topologies and
Protocols.
1. Topologies
2. Protocols
3. Sensors
4. Actuators
5. Coordinators
5.
Development
Platforms
1. Ember
2. Contiki
6.
Embedded,
Ubiquitous and
Wearable
Computing
1. Embedded Computing
2. Ubiquitous Computing
3. Wearable Computing
3. Key Technological Areas
Embedded Computing: What is it?
Digital electronic system as well as other elements;
Applicatio...
3. Key Technological Areas
Embedded Computing: Attributes
Sensing and control;
Real-time operation;
Designed to meet multi...
3. Key Technological Areas
Embedded Computing: Examples
Sensor networks;
Fly-by-wire;
Engine control;
Medical implants;
Sp...
3. Key Technological Areas
Embedded Computing: Applications
Improved quality of life: health care, homeland security,
tran...
3. Key Technological Areas
Wearable Computing: What is it?
•Controlled by the user;
•Has both operational and interactiona...
3. Key Technological Areas
Wearable Computing: Attributes
Un monopolizing of the user’s attention: User can attend to othe...
3. Key Technological Areas
Wearable Computing: Attributes
Attentive to the environment: Can enhance the
user’s environment...
3. Key Technological Areas
Wearable Computing: Military Applications
Onboard physiological/medical sensor suite to
acceler...
3. Key Technological Areas
Ubiquitous Computing: What is it?
Interlacing and embedding computers into the environment
and ...
3. Key Technological Areas
Ubiquitous Computing: Example
3. Key Technological Areas
Ubiquitous Computing: Challenges
• Elephant in the room: A central network hub necessary for th...
3. Key Technological Areas
Ubiquitous Computing: In the Movies
• “Smart Car”
Knight Rider
• The doors have emotion, and ex...
7.
Context
Awareness
1. Ember
2. …
3. Key Technological Areas
Context Awareness: Definitions
• Several definitions of context in the literature;
• Any inform...
3. Key Technological Areas
Context Awareness: Definitions
• Direct Sensor Access.
• Middleware Infrastructure.
• Context S...
3. Key Technological Areas
Context Awareness: Definitions
• Physical and virtual Sensors;
• Logic Sensors.
Sensor Infrastr...
References
1. Wireless Sensor Networks - An Introduction, Wireless Sensor Networks: Application-Centric Design, Yen Kheng
...
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Sensor Networks and Ambiente Intelligence

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Sensor Networks and Ambiente Intelligence

  1. 1. Redes de Sensores em Ambientes Inteligentes, ISMAI, 2013 F. Luís Neves <f.luis.neves@gmail.com> Rui M. Barreira <rui.m.Barreira@gmail.com>
  2. 2. Program 1. Context and Application 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 3. Ambient Intelligence in Practice 4. Topologies and Protocols. 5. Development Platforms 6. Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing 7. Context Awareness 8. Projecting Applications supported by WSNs
  3. 3. 1. Context and Applications 1. Ambient Intelligence 2. Core Problems and Challenges 3. Key Technological Areas 4. The User as the Center of the System
  4. 4. 1. Ambient Intelligence The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. The Computer for the 21st Century, by Mark Weiser, 1991 A vision for our environment Smart electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; Electronics embedded in every-day objects; natural interaction; context aware; personalized; adaptive; responsive; pro-active; Enhancing productivity, healthcare, well-being, expressiveness, creativity; Intelligent user friendly interfaces.
  5. 5. 1. Ambient Intelligence Ubiquidade (ou omnipresença), ou seja, situações em que estamos rodeados de conjuntos multifacetados de sistemas embebidos; Precaução, ou seja, a capacidade para localizar e reconhecer objectos, pessoas e intenções; Inteligência, ou seja, capacidade de analizar o contexto, adaptar-se a esse contexto e às pessoas que nele interagem, capacidade de “aprendizagem” através do comportamento e do reconhecimento de emoções e da interacção natural; Utilização de meios de comunicação “naturais”, tais como a reconhecimento linguístico e a consequente utilização da linguagem natural. Principais Conceitos
  6. 6. 1. Ambient Intelligence Ambientes inteligentes Ambientes cooperativos Edifícios inteligentes Casas inteligentes Redes móveis Computação móvel Interacção natural “Os homens viverão em breve rodeados de ambientes inteligentes através de interfaces inteligentes suportadas por computadores em rede embebidos no nosso dia a dia habitacional.” Programa Europeu IST – Information Society Technologies Pervasive computing (no sentido da presença tecnológica invasiva) Ubiquitous computing (no sentido da omnipresença tecnológica) Wearable computing (no sentido da “vestimenta” tecnológica)
  7. 7. 1. Ambient Intelligence • Qual o impacto social derivado da utilizado de sistemas de AmI? • Qual o seu verdadeiro potencial na melhoria da qualidade de vida? • Como se conjugam nestes ambientes os aspectos relacionados com a privacidade e a confiança? • Que características podemos encontrar nas diferentes interacções possibilitadas pelos sistemas AmI? Questões
  8. 8. 1. Ambient Intelligence • Qual o nível de inteligência que as pessoas estão dispostas a aceitar? • Como definir as diferentes dimensões do termo “ambiente”? • Como fazer refletir o design nos espaços interactivos e nos artefactos inteligentes? • Como fazer reflectir a utilização diária de aparelhos na interacção implicita? Questões
  9. 9. 1. Context and Applications 1. Ambient Intelligence 2. Core Problems and Challenges 3. Key Technological Areas 4. The User as the Center of the System
  10. 10. 2. Core Problems and Challenges … it is not technological… Understanding the functioning of the physical, natural, biological, cultural, technical social reality that we live in.
  11. 11. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Interdisciplinary Ambient Intelligence Architecture Design Sociology Anthropology Cognitive Science Neuroscience Psychology Engineering
  12. 12. Ambient Intelligence Intelligent Interfaces Ubiquitous Communications Ubiquitous Computing 2. Core Problems and Challenges Ambient Intelligence started as… Technology Integrator
  13. 13. 2. Core Problems and Challenges What we have and what we need… What we Have What we Need Integration Scalable and Robust Solutions Business Models Standards and Lead Markets Building blocks Shared scenarios Interdisciplinary awareness New practices of research and innovation
  14. 14. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Criticism and Social Impact Social, Political and Cultural concerns about: The loss of consumer privacy Fear for an increasingly individualized, fragmented society Hyper real environments where the virtual is indistinguishable from the real Welcome to a world through Glass http://www.google.com/glass/start/ what-it-does
  15. 15. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Social and Political aspects Should facilitate human contact; Should be orientated towards community and cultural enhancement; Should help to build knowledge and skills for work, better quality of work, citizenship and consumer choice; Should inspire trust and confidence; Should be consistent with long term sustainability - personal, societal and environmental - and with life-long learning; Should be made easy to live with and controllable by ordinary people.
  16. 16. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Emblematic Projects Philips Homelabs
  17. 17. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Emblematic Projects Mit Media Lab
  18. 18. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Emblematic Projects Home of the Future Bill and Melinda Gates' $97 million house Home automation is defined as a process or system which provides the ability to enhance one's lifestyle, and make a home more comfortable, safe and efficient. Home automation can link lighting, entertainment, security, telecommunications, office automation, heating and air conditioning into one centrally controlled system.
  19. 19. 2. Core Problems and Challenges Market Trends
  20. 20. 1. Context and Applications 1. Ambient Intelligence 2. Core Problems and Challenges 3. Key Technological Areas 4. The User as the Center of the System
  21. 21. 3. Key Technological Areas Ambient Intelligence Building Blocks Ambient Intelligence Ubiquitous Computing Pervasive Computing Wearable Computing Mobile Computing Embedded Systems Personalized Systems Context Awareness Adaptive Systems Intelligent Agents Human- Centric UIs
  22. 22. 1. Context and Applications 1. Ambient Intelligence 2. Core Problems and Challenges 3. Key Technological Areas 4. The User as the Center of the System
  23. 23. The User as the Center of the System What is Usability? Jakob Nielsen Usability is the measure of the quality of the user experience when interacting with something - whether a website, a traditional software application, or any other device the user can operate in some way or another.
  24. 24. The User as the Center of the System What is Usability? ISO 9421 Usability is a measure of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment.
  25. 25. The User as the Center of the System Putting People First How to make informed (proactive) choices about sharing information? How to learn how other people protect their information? How to share information with an intended audience? (e.g. friends, my family and their friends) Much more than usability – What is the framework for social communication?
  26. 26. The User as the Center of the System Putting People First Communication Processes • Social navigation • Legitimate peripheral participation • Social translucence Structures • Relationships • Social networks
  27. 27. The User as the Center of the System Putting People First Support “peace of mind”Augment common household object Maintain awareness over distance
  28. 28. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platforms 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  29. 29. Wireless Sensor Networks Origins 1958: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) created by president Dwight D. Eisenhower. 1972: ARPA renamed to "DARPA" (for Defense) 1978: Technology components for a DSN were identified (Proceedings of the Distributed Sensor Nets Workshop, 1978): • sensors (acoustic) • communication and processing modules, and • distributed software 1980: The origins of the research on WSNs can be traced back to the Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) program at the DARPA DSNs were assumed to have many spatially distributed low-cost sensing nodes that collaborated with each other but operated autonomously, with information being routed to whichever node was best able to use the information.
  30. 30. Wireless Sensor Networks Origins Initial Limitations: • Size: sensors were rather large (i.e. shoe box and up) which limited the number of potential applications. • Price: the earliest DSNs were not tightly associated with wireless connectivity. 1988: New wave of research in WSNs mainly focused on networking techniques and networked information processing suitable for highly dynamic ad hoc environments. 1990s: Appearance of sensor nodes: • much smaller in size • much cheaper in price Many new civilian applications of sensor networks such as environment monitoring, vehicular sensor network and body sensor network have emerged. 2001: SensIT (Kumar & Shepherd) provided the present sensor networks with new capabilities such as ad hoc networking, dynamic querying and tasking, reprogramming and multitasking.
  31. 31. Wireless Sensor Networks Origins 2003: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has defined the IEEE 802.15.4 standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks. 2003: Based on IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee Alliance has published the ZigBee standard which specifies a suite of high level communication protocols which can be used by WSNs. Currently, WSN has been viewed as one of the most important technologies for the 21st century (21 Ideas for the 21st Century, 1999). Countries such as China have involved WSNs in their national strategic research programmes. The commercialization of WSNs are also being accelerated by new formed companies.
  32. 32. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  33. 33. Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware Platform Network: A WSN consists of spatially distributed sensor nodes. Each sensor node is able to independently perform some processing and sensing tasks. Sensor nodes communicate with each other in order to forward their sensed information to a central processing unit or conduct some local coordination such as data fusion.
  34. 34. Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware Platform Sensor nodes: micro-electronic devices powered by a limited power source. Because of that, the attached sensors should also be small in size and consume extremely low energy. A sensor node can have one or several types of sensors integrated in or connected to the node. Memories in a sensor node include in-chip flash memory and RAM of a microcontroller and external flash memory. A sensor is a hardware device that produces a measurable response signal to a change in a physical condition (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity). Sensor Node (typical) Architecture
  35. 35. Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware Platform Embedded Processor: the functionality of an embedded processor is to schedule tasks, process data and control the functionality of other hardware components. The Microcontroller has been the most used embedded processor for sensor nodes because of its flexibility to connect to other devices and its cheap price. Types of embedded processors that can be used in a sensor node: • Microcontroller, a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable I/O peripherals • Digital Signal Processor (DSP), a specialized microprocessor with an architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing (measure, filter and/or compress continuous real-world analog signals) • Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing and which contains programmable logic components called "logic blocks" • Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general- purpose use
  36. 36. Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware Platform Transceiver: A transceiver is responsible for the wireless communication of a sensor node. The various choices of wireless transmission media include: • Radio Frequency (RF) • Laser and • Infrared. RF based communication fits to most of WSN applications. The operational states of a transceiver are: • Transmit • Receive • Idle and • Sleep. ZigBee ZM-24 Transceiver Module, from RTI Corp.
  37. 37. Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware Platform Power Source: In a sensor node, power is consumed by sensing, communication and data processing. More energy is required for data communication than for sensing and data processing. Power can be stored in batteries or capacitors. Batteries are the main source of power supply for sensor nodes.
  38. 38. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  39. 39. Wireless Sensor Networks Operating Systems The role of any operating system (OS) is to promote the development of reliable application software by providing a convenient and safe abstraction of hardware resources. OSs for WSN nodes are typically less complex than general-purpose OSs both because of the special requirements of WSN applications and because of the resource constraints in WSN hardware platforms. TinyOS is an operating system specifically designed for WSNs. It features a component-based architecture which enables rapid innovation and implementation while minimizing code size as required by the severe memory constraints inherent in WSNs. TinyOS’s component library includes network protocols, distributed services, sensor drivers, and data acquisition tools
  40. 40. Wireless Sensor Networks Operating Systems Contiki is another open source OS specifically designed for WSNs. The Contiki kernel is event-driven, like TinyOS, but the system supports multithreading on a per application basis. Furthermore, Contiki includes protothreads (lightweight threads) that provide a thread-like programming abstraction but with a very small memory overhead. Contiki provides IP communication, both for IPv4 and IPv6.
  41. 41. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  42. 42. Wireless Sensor Networks Networking A WSN is a network consisting of numerous sensor nodes with sensing, wireless communications and computing capabilities. These sensor nodes are scattered in an unattended environment (i.e. sensing field) to sense the physical world. The sensed data can be collected by a few sink nodes which have accesses to infrastructured networks like the Internet. Finally, an end user can remotely fetch the sensed data by accessing infrastructured networks.
  43. 43. Wireless Sensor Networks Networking: Network Architecture The protocol stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. The suite is the definition of the protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them. Protocol Layer HTTP Application TCP Transport IP Internet/Network Ethernet Data Link/Link IEEE 802.3u Physical Protocol Stack is a set of network protocol layers that work together. The term stack also refers to the actual software that processes the protocols
  44. 44. Wireless Sensor Networks Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs The sensor network protocol stack is much like the traditional protocol stack, with the following layers: • Application • Transport • Network • Data link and • physical. The physical layer is responsible for frequency selection, carrier frequency generation, signal detection, modulation and data encryption. The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data streams, data frame detection, medium access and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network. The network layer takes care of routing the data supplied by the transport layer. The network layer design in WSNs must consider the power efficiency, data-centric communication, data aggregation, etc. The transportation layer helps to maintain the data flow and may be important if WSNs are planned to be accessed through the Internet or other external networks. Depending on the sensing tasks, different types of application software can be set up and used on the application layer.
  45. 45. Wireless Sensor Networks Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs WSNs must also be aware of the following management planes in order to function efficiently: • Mobility • Power • Task • Quality of Service (QoS) and • Security management planes. The mobility management plane detects and registers movement of nodes so a data route to the sink is always maintained. The power management plane is responsible for minimizing power consumption and may turn off functionality in order to preserve energy. The task management plane balances and schedules the sensing tasks assigned to the sensing field and thus only the necessary nodes are assigned with sensing tasks and the remainder are able to focus on routing and data aggregation.
  46. 46. Wireless Sensor Networks Networking: Protocol Stack of WSNs QoS management in WSNs can be very important if there is a real-time requirement with regard to the data services. QoS management also deals with fault tolerance, error control and performance optimization in terms of certain QoS metrics. Security management is the process of managing, monitoring, and controlling the security related behavior of a network. The primary function of security management is in controlling access points to critical or sensitive data. Security management also includes the seamless integration of different security function modules, including encryption, authentication and intrusion detection. It is obvious that networking protocols developed for WSNs must address all five of these management planes.
  47. 47. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  48. 48. Wireless Sensor Networks Security While the future of WSNs is very prospective, WSNs will not be successfully deployed if security, dependability and privacy issues are not addressed adequately. These issues become more important because WSNs are usually used for very critical applications. Security Threats in WSNs: A typical WSN consists of hundreds or even thousands of tiny and resource-constrained sensor nodes. In a basic WSN scenario, resource constraint, wireless communication, security-sensitive data, uncontrollable environment, and even distributed deployment are all vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities make WSNs suffer from an amazing number of security threats. WSNs can only be used in the critical applications after the potential security threats are eliminated.
  49. 49. Wireless Sensor Networks Security Physical Layer Threats: there are more threats to WSNs in the physical layer, due to the non-tamper-resistant WSN nodes and the broadcasting nature of wireless transmission. Link Layer Threats: The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data streams, data frame detection, medium access, and error control. Network Layer Threats: Threats in the network layer mostly aim at disturbing data-centric and energy efficient multihop routing, which is the main design principle in WSNs. Application Layer Threats: Many WSNs’ applications heavily rely on coordinated services such as localization, time synchronization, and in-network data processing to collaboratively process data. Unfortunately, these services represent unique vulnerabilities (e.g. False data filtering; Clock un- synchronization)
  50. 50. Wireless Sensor Networks Security Countermeasures Generally, countermeasures to the threats in WSNs should fulfill the following security requirements: • Availability, which ensures that the desired network services are available whenever required. • Authentication, which ensures that the communication from one node to another node is genuine. • Confidentiality, which provides the privacy of the wireless communication channels. • Integrity, which ensures that the message or the entity under consideration is not altered. • Non-reputation, which prevents malicious nodes to hide or deny their activities. • Freshness, which implies that the data is recent and ensures that no adversary can replay old messages. • Survivability, which ensures the acceptable level of network services even in the presence of node failures and malicious attacks. • Self-security, countermeasures may introduce additional hardware and software infrastructures
  51. 51. Wireless Sensor Networks Security Countermeasures The typical countermeasures to the threats in WSNs are the following: • Key Management: When setting up a sensor network, one of the first security requirements is to establish cryptographic keys for later secure communication. The established keys should be resilient to attacks and flexible to dynamic update. • Authentication: the authentication of the data source as well as the data are critical concerns. • Proper authentication mechanisms: can provide WSNs with both sensor and user identification ability, can protect the integrity and freshness of critical data, and can prohibit and identify impersonating attack. • Intrusion Detection: Security technologies, such as authentication and cryptography, can enhance the security of sensor networks.
  52. 52. Wireless Sensor Networks Security Countermeasures Privacy Protection: As WSN applications expand to include increasingly sensitive measurements in both military tasks and everyday life, privacy protection becomes an increasingly important concern. For example, few people may enjoy the benefits of a body area WSN, if they know that their personal data such as heart rate, blood pressure, etc., are regularly transmitted without proper privacy protection.
  53. 53. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  54. 54. Wireless Sensor Networks Applications Military sensor networks, which includes: • large-scale acoustic ocean surveillance systems for the detection of submarines • self-organized and randomly deployed WSNs for battlefield surveillance • attaching microsensors to weapons for stockpile surveillance Environmental Monitoring, which includes: • animal tracking • forest surveillance • flood detection • weather forecasting. It is a natural candidate for applying WSNs because the variables to be monitored are usually distributed over a large region (e.g. temperature).
  55. 55. Wireless Sensor Networks Applications Health Monitoring, which includes special kinds of sensors which can measure, for instance: • blood pressure • body temperature • electrocardiograph (ECG) These sensors can even be knitted into clothes to provide remote nursing for the elderly. When the sensors are worn or implanted for healthcare purposes, they form a special kind of sensor network called a body sensor network (BSN). Traffic Control, which includes, for instance, the massive installation of cheap sensor nodes: • in the vehicles • at the parking lots • along the roadside • etc.
  56. 56. Wireless Sensor Networks Applications Industrial Sensing, which typically includes the possibility to monitor the “health” of machines and to ensure safe operation. For example, a network of wireless corrosion sensors can be economically deployed to reliably identify issues (e.g. aging pipelines and tanks in the oil and gas industry) before they become catastrophic failures. WSNs have also been suggested for use in the food industry to prevent the incidents of contaminating the food supply chain. (e.g. using temperature sensors to check refrigerated transport). Infrastructure Security, which includes the use of WSNs for infrastructure security and counterterrorism applications. Critical buildings and facilities such as power plants, airports, and military bases have to be protected from potential invasions. Networks of video, acoustic, and other sensors can be deployed around these facilities.
  57. 57. 2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 1. Origins 2. Hardware Platform 3. Operating Systems 4. Networking 5. Security 6. Applications 7. Standardization
  58. 58. Wireless Sensor Networks Standardization The major standardization organizations are: • the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • the International Society for Automation (ISA) and the HART Communication Foundation, IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and MAC layer for low- rate wireless personal area networks. It is the basis for the ZigBee and WirelessHART specification, each of which further attempts to offer a complete networking solution by developing the upper layers which are not covered by the standard.
  59. 59. Wireless Sensor Networks Standardization ZigBee is a standard for a suite of high level communication protocols based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for low power and low data rate radio communications. Zigbee is initiated and maintained by the Zigbee Alliance - a large consortium of industry players. The typical application areas of Zigbee include: • Smart energy monitoring • Health care monitoring • Remote control • Building automation • Home automation, • etc.
  60. 60. Wireless Sensor Networks Standardization WirelessHART is an open-standard wireless mesh network (WMN) communications protocol designed to meet the needs for process automation applications. The protocol utilizes IEEE 802.15.4 compatible DSSS radios and it is operating in the 2.4GHz ISM radio band. On the data link layer, the protocol uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access, a channel access method for shared medium network) technology to arbitrate and coordinate communications between devices.
  61. 61. Wireless Sensor Networks Standardization
  62. 62. 3. Ambient Intelligence in Practice 1. Home Security 2. Home Surveillance 3. Energy Monitoring 4. Appliances Control 5. Health Monitoring
  63. 63. Ambient Intelligence in Practice Home Services
  64. 64. 4. Topologies and Protocols. 1. Topologies 2. Protocols 3. Sensors 4. Actuators 5. Coordinators
  65. 65. 5. Development Platforms 1. Ember 2. Contiki
  66. 66. 6. Embedded, Ubiquitous and Wearable Computing 1. Embedded Computing 2. Ubiquitous Computing 3. Wearable Computing
  67. 67. 3. Key Technological Areas Embedded Computing: What is it? Digital electronic system as well as other elements; Application specific, not highly user programmable; Digital logic interacts with the physical world.
  68. 68. 3. Key Technological Areas Embedded Computing: Attributes Sensing and control; Real-time operation; Designed to meet multiple constraints; Reliable; Distributed; Autonomous.
  69. 69. 3. Key Technological Areas Embedded Computing: Examples Sensor networks; Fly-by-wire; Engine control; Medical implants; Space control.
  70. 70. 3. Key Technological Areas Embedded Computing: Applications Improved quality of life: health care, homeland security, transportation, productivity, entertainment, etc; Military applications: smart soldier, battlefield of the future, etc; Because embedded computers are everywhere, large numbers are practitioners are needed; Growing field needs new and improved techniques, architectures, etc;
  71. 71. 3. Key Technological Areas Wearable Computing: What is it? •Controlled by the user; •Has both operational and interactional constancy, i.e. is always on and always accessible. A computer that is subsumed into the personal space of the user •Is always with the user; •Into which the user can always enter a command or receive relevant information, while walking around or doing other activities. It is a device that:
  72. 72. 3. Key Technological Areas Wearable Computing: Attributes Un monopolizing of the user’s attention: User can attend to other events; Unrestrictive to the user: Allows interaction while user carries out normal functions; Observable by the user: User can identify computational and non- computational components of their clothing; Controllable by the user: User can take control at any time;
  73. 73. 3. Key Technological Areas Wearable Computing: Attributes Attentive to the environment: Can enhance the user’s environment and situational awareness; Communicative to others: Can be used as a communications medium; Shares the same physical and situational context as the user.
  74. 74. 3. Key Technological Areas Wearable Computing: Military Applications Onboard physiological/medical sensor suite to accelerate casualty care; Netted communications to maximize robustness and integration of small teams; Embedded training; Enhanced situational awareness; Synchronized firing of weapons from team.
  75. 75. 3. Key Technological Areas Ubiquitous Computing: What is it? Interlacing and embedding computers into the environment and everyday items to streamline and simplify life; Sensors support and interact with the environment; Enables anytime, any place data access and manipulation; Creates a self regulating and quasi-intelligent user interface.
  76. 76. 3. Key Technological Areas Ubiquitous Computing: Example
  77. 77. 3. Key Technological Areas Ubiquitous Computing: Challenges • Elephant in the room: A central network hub necessary for the coordination of interlaced systems and sensors. Handling mobility • Coordination between sensors eliminates unnecessary power usage (leaving the light on or TV running) Power supply for embedded sensors • Where and how to structure interaction between man and machine User Interface
  78. 78. 3. Key Technological Areas Ubiquitous Computing: In the Movies • “Smart Car” Knight Rider • The doors have emotion, and express this when people used them The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy • Smart Paper Minority Report
  79. 79. 7. Context Awareness 1. Ember 2. …
  80. 80. 3. Key Technological Areas Context Awareness: Definitions • Several definitions of context in the literature; • Any information that can be used to characterize a person, a place or an object; • It’s the “Who”, “Where”, “When” and “What” and determines the “Why”. Context • Several definitions of context in the literature; • A system is context-aware if it uses the context information to provide relevant information/services to the user, when it relevancy depends on the user actions. Context-awareness
  81. 81. 3. Key Technological Areas Context Awareness: Definitions • Direct Sensor Access. • Middleware Infrastructure. • Context Server. Context acquisition architecture • Widgets. • Network Services. • Blackboard Model. Context Management
  82. 82. 3. Key Technological Areas Context Awareness: Definitions • Physical and virtual Sensors; • Logic Sensors. Sensor Infrastructure • Key-Value Models; • Markup Scheme Models; • Graphical Models; • Object Oriented Models; • Logic Based Models; • Ontology Based Models. Context Modeling
  83. 83. References 1. Wireless Sensor Networks - An Introduction, Wireless Sensor Networks: Application-Centric Design, Yen Kheng Tan (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-321-7, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/wireless-sensor- networks-application-centric-design/wireless-sensornetworks-an-introduction 2. Sensor Networks: Evolution, Opportunities, and Challenges. Chee-Yee Chong, Member IEEE, and Srikanta P. Kumar, Senior Member, IEEE. Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 91, No. 9, August 2003. 3. The Computer for the 21st Century, by Mark Weiser, 1991. 4. 21 Ideas for the 21st Century, 1999. BusinessWeek, August 30, 1999.

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