Group, bargaining behaviour & intergroup relations


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Group, bargaining behaviour & intergroup relations

  1. 1. A Presentation on *Group *Bargaining Behaviour *Inter-group Relations BY: Rachna Kralia (23) Ruhi Beri (24)
  2. 2. Group Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
  3. 3. Formal Groups A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task Group Those working together to completes a job task.
  4. 4. Informal Groups A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contract. Interest Group Those working together to complete a job task. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
  5. 5. Stages of Group Development The five distinct stages groups go through: Forming, Storming,  Norming,  Performing,  Adjourning.
  6. 6. Stages of Group Development Stage I: Forming The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Stage II: Storming The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Stage III: Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
  7. 7. Stages of Group Development Stage IV: Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Stage V: Adjourning The fifth stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
  8. 8. Group Properties Roles Norms  Status  Cohesiveness Size
  9. 9. Group Properties Role A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a special unit. Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
  10. 10. Group Properties Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
  11. 11. Group Properties  Size: The research leads to two conclusions 1. Groups with an odd number of members tend to be preferable to those with an even number. Groups made up of five to seven numbers do a pretty good job of exercising the best elements of both small and large groups. 2.
  12. 12. Reasons for joining groups Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement
  13. 13. Bargaining It means negotiating the terms and conditions of a transaction to create an agreement between two parties. It has generally two approaches: Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining
  14. 14. Distributive Bargaining It is defined as negotiations that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources, a win lose situation. Each party bargains aggressively and treats the other as an opponent who must be defeated. It tends to build animosities and deeper divisions when people have to work together on an ongoing process
  15. 15. Distributive Bargaining Behaviour STRATEGIES: 1. To push for a settlement close to the seller’s (unknown) resistance point, thereby yielding the largest part of the settlement range for the buyer. 2. To convince the seller to change his resistance point by influencing the seller’s beliefs about the value of the unit and thereby increase the bargaining range.
  16. 16. Distributive Bargaining Behaviour STRATEGIES: 3. If a negative settlement range exists, to convince the seller to reduce his resistance point to create a positive settlement zone or to change her own resistance point to create an overlap 4. To convince the seller to believe that this settlement is the best that is possible
  17. 17. Integrative Bargaining It means negotiation that seeks one or more settlements than create win- win situation. In most circumstances, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. Integrative bargaining builds long term relationships and facilitates working together in the future.
  18. 18. Integrative Bargaining Behaviour STRATEGIES: 1. Manage emotions, clarify perceptions, and communicate clearly to develop a complete and shared understanding of the situation. 2. Frame each of the issues as shared or joint problems to foster cooperation in order to find joint solutions
  19. 19. Integrative Bargaining Behaviour STRATEGIES: 3. Focus on both dealcrafting and interpersonal processes 4. Use objective criteria to decide which options are best to maximize joint gain
  20. 20. Intergroup relations It refers to both individual interactions involving members from different groups and the collective behaviour of groups in interaction with other groups, at either the intra‐ or inter‐organizational level
  21. 21. Some important terms Ingroup The social group to which an individual perceives herself or himself as belonging (“us”). Outgroup Any group other than the one to which individuals perceive themselves as belonging (“them”).
  22. 22. ABC’s oF IntErGroup Relationships Affective component – Prejudice Behavioral component – Discrimination Cognitive component – Stereotyping
  23. 23. Cont’D Prejudice - A negative feeling toward someone based solely on his/her group membership Discrimination – Unequal treatment based on group membership Stereotype – Beliefs that associate groups with traits
  24. 24. Theories of Intergroup Relations Authoritarian Personality Theory The authoritarian personality can be described in terms of 3 components 1. Authoritarian submission A high degree of submission to authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimate in the society in which one lives. 2. Authoritarian aggression A general aggressiveness, directed against various persons, that is perceived to be sanctioned by established authorities.
  25. 25. Theories of Intergroup Relations Authoritarian Personality Theory 3. Conventionalism A high degree of adherence to the social conventions that are perceived to be endorsed by society and its established authorities.  Results in:  Scape-goating A response to frustration whereby the individual displaces aggression onto a socially disapproved outgroup.
  26. 26. Theories of Intergroup Relations Realistic Conflict Theory (Sherif) Development of Group Culture Biased perceptions Harmonious intergroup attitudes Group Formation Intergroup Conflict Intergroup Cooperation Tasks require intragroup cooperation Intergroup competition for scarce resources Introduce superordinate goal
  27. 27. Theories of Intergroup Relations Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1978) Social categorization Social identity Social comparison Psychological group distinctiveness
  28. 28. Social Identity Theory Social categorization The cognitive tendency to divide the social world into categories (i.e., social groups). This categorical differentiation has the effect of sharpening the distinctions between the categories and blurs the differences within them.
  29. 29. Social Identity Theory Social identity That part of the individual’s self-concept which derives from knowledge of his or her membership in a social group, together with the value and emotional significance associated to that membership.
  30. 30. Social Identity Theory Social comparison The process through which characteristics of the ingroup are compared to those of the outgroup.
  31. 31. Social Identity Theory Psychological Group Distinctiveness The state desired by individuals in which the ingroup has an identity that is perceived by the group members as being both distinct and positive vis-à-vis relevant comparison groups.
  32. 32. Reducing Prejudice Prejudice can be reduced using the following: The Contact Hypothesis Common Ingroup Identity Model Dissociation Model
  33. 33. Reducing Prejudice Contact Hypothesis (Allport, 1954) Under favorable conditions, regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudice. (Negative stereotypes arise because groups don’t have enough contact with each other) Contact only works… – Among people of equal status – When positive – When outgroup members are perceived as typical of their group
  34. 34. Reducing Prejudice The Contact Hypothesis (Amir, 1969) Cooperative Interdependence Equal Status Acquaintance Potential Institutional Support Prejudice Reduction
  35. 35. Reducing Prejudice Common Ingroup Identity Model Individuals in different groups who view themselves as members of a single social entity will experience more positive contacts between themselves and intergroup bias will be reduced. Recategorization Shifts in the boundary between an individual’s ingroup and various outgroups cause persons formerly viewed as outgroup members now to be seen as belonging to the ingroup
  36. 36. Reducing Prejudice Dissociation Model (Devine, 1989) Based on a conflict between stereo-typed responses and personal beliefs, there are : Automated Processes Controlled Processes
  37. 37. Reducing Prejudice Dissociation Model (Devine, 1989) Automatic Processes (stereotyped-response) Involve the unintentional (spontaneous) activation of previously developed associations in memory that have been established through a history of repeated activation. Controlled Processes (personal beliefs) Refers to the intentional activation of information stored in memory. More flexible than automatic processes, but they can be initiated only with active attention and not under conditions in which one’s cognitive capacity is limited
  38. 38. Thank You 