The Puritans Decide toChapter 4, Section 1 Leave England Who were the Puritans? • A religious group who had hoped to reform the Church of England Why did they leave England? • The king disapproved of Puritans and their ideas, canceled Puritan business charters, and had some Puritans jailed. • They believed that England had fallen on “evil and declining times.” • They wanted to build a new society based on biblical laws and teachings.
Problems in Massachusetts Caused People to LeaveWho Left? For Where? Why? Results Thomas Founded He thought the He established a governor and other colony with strict Hooker Connecticut officials such as the limits on General Court had government. too much power. Settlers wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.General Court—Massachusetts assembly elected by male church membersFundamental Orders of Connecticut—a plan of government that gave all maleproperty owners the right to vote, not just church members, and limited thegovernor’s power
Problems in Massachusetts Caused People to LeaveWho Left? For Where? Why? Results Roger Settled in He He set up a colony whereWilliams Rhode believed church and Island that the state were Puritan completely separate. He church fostered had too religious much tolerance. power. Anne Fled to She questioned She later the Puritan became aHutchinson Rhode church’s symbol of the Island teachings; she struggle for was tried and religious ordered out of freedom. the colony. religious tolerance—willingness to let others practice their own beliefs.
Puritans and Native Americans Fought Over LandAs more colonists settled in New England, they began to take over more Native Americanlands.By 1670 nearly 45,000 settlers were living in New England.In 1675, Chief Metacom and the Wampanog Indians destroyed 12 towns and killed morethan 600 settlers.
Towns and VillagesWere Important in New England Life• In the center of each village was the common, an open field where the settlers’ cattle grazed.• The Puritans worshiped in the village meeting house. They took their Sabbath, or holy day of rest, seriously.• Settlers gathered at the meeting house for town meetings, where they discussed and voted on issues.• Some towns became important centers of trade and shipbuilding.
New Netherland Became New York1626 and on• The Dutch set up the colony of New Netherland. Settlers traded in furs. New Amsterdam became a thriving port.• To encourage farming, Dutch officials granted huge estates to a few rich families. Owners of the estates were called patroons.• People from different religious groups flocked to New Netherland because of its religious tolerance. The colony grew.• Rivalry for trade and colonies increased between England and the Netherlands. The governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, swore to defend his colony.• Stuyvesant was unpopular because of his harsh rule and heavy taxes. When English warships entered the harbor, the colonists refused to help the governor. The English took over without a shot.1664• The king of England gave New Netherland to the Duke of York. New Netherland became New York.
New Jersey Separated From New York• The Duke of York thought that New York was too big to govern easily.• He gave up some land to friends. They set up a new colony, New Jersey, which was a proprietary colony( where king gave land to one or more people) These proprietors could divide the land and make laws for it.• Settlers came from many countries.• In 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony, which is a colony under the direct control of the English crown.
• In England, William Penn joined the Quakers, a religious group that believed that all people were equal in God’s sight. Quakers were against war. • Quakers were arrested, fined, or even hanged for their ideas. • Penn believed the Quakers must leave England. He turned to the king for help. • The king issued a royal charter naming Penn proprietor of a new colony, later called Pennsylvania. • Penn called for fair treatment of Native Americans. • Penn welcomed settlers of different faiths and people from many countries, including Germany. Other colonists called the Germans Pennsylvania Dutch, from the wordWilliam Penn Founded “Deutsch,” which means German. Pennsylvania
SOUTHERN COLONIES Maryland Was Important to Roman• Catholics 1632—Sir George Calvert became a Roman Catholic. He asked King Charles I for a colony in the Americas for Catholics. Calvert died. His son, Lord Baltimore, took over.• 1634—Settlers arrived in Maryland. Lord Baltimore appointed a governor and council of advisers, but he let colonists elect an assembly.• 1649—Lord Baltimore asked the assembly to pass an Act of Toleration, a law that provided religious freedom for all Christians.
• Settlers arrived in Virginia, expecting profits from planting tobacco.• Wealthy planters already had the best lands near the coast. Newcomers were pushed farther inland, onto Indian lands.• Settlers and Indians clashed.• Settlers asked the governor for help. He wouldn’t act.• In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon organized angry frontier planters. They raided Native American villages, then burned Jamestown.• The revolt soon ended when Bacon died suddenly. Bacon’s Rebellion
The Carolinas and Georgia AreCarolinas FoundedNorth:• poor tobacco farmers from Virginia• small farmsSouth:• eight English nobles• Charles Town• settlers from the Caribbean• rice and indigo, a plant used to make blue dye• enslaved AfricansGeorgia• James Oglethorpe• debtors, or people who owed money and could not pay
Two Ways of Life in the Southern Colonies Tidewater Plantations BackcountryLand coastal plain, many riversrolling hills, thick forestsFarms large plantations small farmsCrops tobacco, rice, indigo tobacco, garden cropsSlavery Enslaved Africans Few enslaved Africans tended Tidewater worked backcountry plantations farms.
Why the Slave Trade Grew in the 1700s1619 First enslaved Africans arrived in Virginia.1600s Some Africans remained enslaved, some were servants, a few were free.Early 1700s Carolina plantations needed large numbers of workers. The planters came to rely on slave labor.1700s Slave ships carried millions of enslaved Africans west across the Atlantic. Colonists enacted slave codes. Many colonists displayed racism, though a few spoke out against slavery. slave codes—laws that set out rules for slaves’ behavior; treated enslaved Africans as property racism—the belief that one race is superior to another
England Regulated Colonial Trade England believed in an economic theory called mercantilism, which said: – A nation became strong by strictly controlling its trade. – A country should export more than it imported. exports goods sent to markets outside a country imports goods brought into a country To enforce mercantilism, England passed the Navigation Acts, laws that regulated trade between England and the colonies so that England benefited. • Only colonial or English ships could carry goods to and from the colonies. • Colonial merchants could ship goods such as tobacco and cotton only to England. • Colonists were encouraged to build their own ships.
England Regulated Colonial Trade • Yankees—a nickname for New England traders—dominated colonial trade. • Colonial merchants developed many trade routes. One route was known as the triangular trade. • Colonial merchants sometimes defied the Navigation Acts by buying goods from the Dutch, French, and Spanish West Indies.
What Colonial Governments Were LikePart of Government How Chosen What They DidGovernor appointed by the king or directed the colony’s by the colony’s proprietor affairs and enforced lawsLegislature people who had the power to make laws upper house—a group of made laws advisers appointed by the governor lower house—an elected approved laws; protected assembly the rights of citizens; approved taxes
Rights Under Colonial Governments • Colonists had rights as English Subjects. • 1688 In the Glorious Revolution, Parliament replaced King James II with William and Mary. • 1689 William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights. – protected rights of individuals – guaranteed right to trial by jury – said the ruler could not raise taxes or army without approval of Parliament • Some colonists had the right to vote. – white Christian men over the age of 21 who owned property – in some colonies, only members of a particular church bill of rights—a written list of freedoms the government promises to protect
Limits on Liberties of Colonists• Women had fewer rights than free, white males.• Married women had fewer rights than unmarried women and widows.• Africans had almost no rights.• Native Americans had almost no rights.
Chapter 4, Section 5 Social Classes in Colonial Society Gentry • wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, successful lawyers, royal officials Middle Class • farmers, skilled craftsworkers, some tradespeople Lower Class • farmhands, indentured servants—people who signed contracts to work without wages in return for their ocean passage—and slaves
The Great Awakening Touched the Colonists and led people to challenge political authorityIn the 1730s and 1740s, a religious movement known as the Great Awakeningswept through the colonies. – It began with powerful ministers and it split from their old churches and start new ones. – GROWTH OF CHURCHES= tolerance of different beliefs. – New preachers argued that formal training was less important than a heart filled with the holy spirit. – This thinking encouraged a spirit of independence. If people could learn to worship on their own, they could govern themselves.
Education in • Massachusetts required all parents to teachthe Colonies New England their children “to read and understand the principles of religion.” • Massachusetts set up the first public schools, or schools supported by taxes. • The earliest schools had one room for students of all ages. • Churches and families set up private Middle schools. Only wealthy families could Colonies educate their children. • Some planters hired tutors, or private Southern teachers. Sons of the very wealthy went to Colonies school in England. Slave were usually denied education. Apprenticeships • Boys might serve as apprentices to learn a trade or craft by living with a master and working for free in return for training.
The Spread of New Ideas• The Enlightenment was a movement started in Europe by thinkers who applied reason and logic instead of superstition to understand the world.• English philosopher John Locke wrote that people could gain knowledge by observing and experimenting.• Benjamin Franklin demonstrated the spirit of the Enlightenment. He used reason to invent useful devices and improve his world.
COLONIAL NEWSPAPERCity life encouraged the development of culturalevents, such as the theater and the growth of thenewspaper.The growth of colonial newspapers led to adispute over freedom of the press.Newspaper publisher John Peter Zengerwas tried for libel—the act of publishing astatement that may unjustly damage a person’sreputation. The jury agreed that since the storieswere true, Zenger had not committed libel—astep toward freedom of the press.