Mobile Trends 2020 Africa


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Mobile Trends 2020 Africa, a collaborative outlook curated by Erik Hersman, Ken Banks & Rudy De Waele. Visualization by Steffen Becker

Join the conversation: #africa2020

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Mobile Trends 2020 Africa

  1. Mobile Trends 2020 Africaa collaborative outlookcurated by Erik Hersman, Ken Banks & Rudy De Waelevisualization by Steffen Beckerjoin the conversation: #africa2020
  2. contents Introduction by 3 Rudy De Waele Kennedy Kachwanya 4 Marlon Parker 19 Stephane Boyera 5 Bright Simons 20 Eric Cantor 6 Katrin Verclas 21 Will Mworia 7 Nathan Eagle 22 Gerald Begumisa 8 Adam Greenfield 23 Bev Clark 9 David Risher 24 Liva Judic 10 Ken Banks 25 Steve Vosloo 11 Jacques van Niekerk 26 Nigel Waller 12 Wolfgang Fengler 27 Nicholas Heller 13 Erik Hersman 28 Moses Kemibaro 14 Anthony K. Ngeno 29 Gustav Praekelt 15 Steve Mutinda 30 Valerie Itey 16 Ajit Jaokar 31 Jessica Colaço 17 John Wesonga 18 image credits 32 enjoy!
  3. After the curation of Mobile Trends 2020 from early 2010 (over 125.000 views in a year time and now listed in Slideshares Top 12 of all time in Technology) and The Future of Mobile in Africa presentation I got great response on, I decided to spin a sequel on this idea and focus this new document on the future Mobile Trends for Africa for this decade. With 7 African countries in the top 10 of fastest growing economies in the world the coming 5 years (The Economist, Jan 6th 2011 - based on the latest IMF statistics), Africa is becoming one of the most interesting continents of economic growth this decade. Currently petroleum and other raw materials are still the main drivers but mobile technology is going to play a key role in the development. Mobile subscribers in African countries on average doubled every single year between 2002 and 2007 (in Europe it was on average 17%). Innovations in mobile technology in health, education, micropayments, renewable energy, agricultural ICT and social services on the continent may push some African countries in a leading role in some of these areas. Stability in African countries such as Angola, Mozambique, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Ghana, Rwanda, Zambia and the Republic of Congo creates a new investment climate. Through growth emerges a new middle class, stimulating entrepreneurship and leading to further innovations in many of these areas -- there is definitely something moving on the African continent. Among the bigger challenges for many African countries is government accountability, and a need to address corruption and increase transparency. By doing this, funds can be more effectively diverted to the development of infrastructure, fighting poverty, developing services, creating access to education for all, ... The document is co-curated by Erik Hersman from Ushahidi and Ken Banks from FrontlineSMS. Together, we assembled some of the most relevant local entrepreneurs that are all building great things using mobile technology in Africa to draw up a realistic view of the trends for this decade on this continent. We encourage you to embed the document on your blog and write your own predictions or comments and experiences about the future of mobile in Africa. Join the conversation: #africa2020 Enjoy! Rudy De Waele Entrepreneur, CNO @mtrendsBY NC ND
  4. 1. Banking will purely on mobile phones and Mobile phones Kennedy Kachwanya to replace ATMs. The success of MPESA in Kenya is just the Co-Founder and CEO beginning. I see a future where banking halls will be deserted and ATMs Blog: obsolete.2. Mlearning. Africans have mobile phones, and kids also own devices… so why not use the channel to transmit knowledge. At the moment, getting one computer or laptop per child in Africa is not that easy but getting one Nokia lower-end phone per child is possible even in the most remote areas of the continent. I think mlearning will be both an affordable and realistic option for learning in most African countries.3. Mobile healthcare. New possibilities will include the use of SMS to track (and remind of) appointments as well as medication availability. Mobile apps will also enable data collection. In Kenya, mobile phones are already being used to fight counterfeit drugs. I also expect more smarter use of mobile phones to fight dangerous diseases4. MCommerce. In the next few years mcommerce will be everything in Africa. The fact that people trust the phones to be their banks means that soon they will start accepting the same phone to be the dominant mode of payment for the goods and services.5. Mobile-centric living. The trend is already forming where the mobile takes center stage for everything. With the expected expansion of Africa’s role with mobiles, the continent would be the center of innovation when it comes to mobile phones and all things related to them. Innovation would give users the chance to do everything via their mobile phone from payroll processing, office work, reading and sending of emails, getting the news, listening to music, playing games, etc... to critical issues like health. BY NC ND
  5. Stephane Boyera Lead Program Manager, World Wide Web Foundation @webfoundation1. Development of voice-based web access, and more generally multimodal interfaces making ICT services available to illiterate people: the future of the Web on Mobile to reach underprivileged communities is through voice and then later multi-modal interface.2. New innovative ‘killer’ apps coming from African entrepreneurs: for now the vast majority of mobile applications are driven, in Africa and developing countries in general, by big international players (operators, handset manufacturers). The future is apps from local entrepreneurs3. Mobile phone as an authoring platform and not only an access platform: for now there is a focus on mobile as an access platform, but not really as an authoring platform. Mobiles will be really the computer of Africa when new innovative solutions for authoring content (on all channels including voices) will be designed and deployed4. Unified payment/money transfer services: despite the buzz of mobile money (to pay and to receive money) the potential is largely unexploited. This is due to lack of interoperability between operators, and, above all, the inability/difficulty to connect existing mobile money system with applications, making the job of entrepreneurs harder in terms of sustainability. The development and deployment of a unified money transfer services à la PayPal where credit cards would be replaced by mobile money will overcome these issues and realize the full potential of mobile money.5. Language issues (fonts, keyboard, etc) solved: anybody from any device being able to access/enter content in any language of the world. Related to authoring and access, languages are still an issue due to lack of availability and support of appropriate elements such as free fonts and a character set, appropriate encoding, etc., preventing millions of people to provide and access information in their own language. Addressing the issue will help transforming mobile phone in a real accessible ICT platform BY NC ND
  6. Eric Cantor Director, AppLab, Grameen Foundation applab.org1. Ubuntuphone – sub-$100-smartphone and plummeting data prices will expand the capabilities of those who today find themselves on the wrong side of the digital divide, enabling the unconnected to connect more deeply2. Afroogle – the first wave of companies born, bred and built in the sub-Saharan Africa context will emerge with innovative technology solutions to African problems, doing it more efficiently than foreign competitors3. M-business – mobile will become deeply embedded in business, personal and government processes to the point that paper forms and manual processes go by the wayside and mobile money becomes the dominant form of financial exchange4. Consolidation – falling ARPUs in the core business will drive operational efficiencies, most of which will be realized through consolidation of mobile operators down to a few big ones.5. Data vs. Corruption: Leaders will go to great lengths to stem the tide of information availability and transparency which they view as a threat, leading to showdowns pitting the benefits of the open, transparent, enabling mobile economy against the waning ability of oligopolic control. BY NC ND
  7. Will Mworia Founder, @afrinnovator1. Blurring boundary between smart and feature phone: More features lower cost/cost effective smartphones2. Exponential increase in mobile web access (especially for social engagement) bringing more of the African population online primarily via the mobile screen3. Mobile money shifts economies on a large scale, and across borders.4. Africa will be the home of the fastest, most modern mobile telecommunications infrastructure deployments5. Devices made in Africa: African startups that would take open source operating systems like Android and manufacturing mobile devices based on this. The trend is already starting in Nigeria where Nigerian companies are manufacturing tablet computers based on AndroidBY NC ND
  8. Gerald Begumisa CTO & Managing Director, Yo! Uganda Ltd. 1. Revenue realised from data services will overtake revenue realised from voice services. 2. The "mobile money" service will become Africas version of the "credit card" for online payments. 3. As pricing for voice services drops, there will be increased value-add- services ("VAS") revenue from voice services. 4. Revenue from SMS-based value-add-services will drop, replaced by data-based value-add-services, and voice-based value-add-services 5. The African market for software will be driven and dominated by mobile applicationsBY NC ND
  9. Bev ClarkFounder, , Zimbabwe@kubatana1. The development of mobile applications that make women safer, both on the street and in their homes.2. No borders or boundaries: Development of mobile money payments within and across all African countries & the Diaspora.3. The use of mobiles to improve citizens’ lives, such as enhancing service delivery, monitoring corruption, and deepening respect for human rights.4. Voice over mobile to broaden access to information.5. An African “Don’t Use Your Mobile Day” to remind us all of the value of real time, personal connection. BY NC ND
  10. Liva JudicSocial media & mobile marketingfor social good@merrybubbles1. Operators + mobile social platforms >> Democracy facilitated by generalized access to information on mobiles. Deals between local carriers and platforms allowing free data connection like 0.facebook will help break isolation of small villages and spread information across the most remote territories.2. Location-based apps + mobile technology >> accessible healthcare. Mobile devices will be cheaper and more powerful. Healthcare practitioners will be able to send pictures of visual symptoms to the nearest bigger center for help/support when the cases in question are too complicated to be treated locally. Geolocation information will enable to pinpoint available doctors in closest area.3. Mobile gaming >> Education + socialization: the spreading of mobile gaming will enable the development of games dedicated to educate, at lower costs too. Interaction between distant users will foster socialization and open up small villages.4. The use of QR codes will enable the easy transfer of valuable personal data, including health files…5. ...and business files. The economy will be largely supported by mobile technology as a result of all 4 previous points. BY NC ND
  11. Steve Vosloo Shuttleworth Foundation @stevevosloo 1. There is 90% internet penetration in Africa, via widespread mobile data infrastructure. 2. Mobile data is cheap, real cheap. 3. The $10 smartphone is a hand-me-down device, in the hands of children. All phones are internet-enabled. 4. Through widespread and cheap communications, small businesses and innovation flourish. Africa is enjoying a renaissance.BY NC ND 5. mLearning plays a vital role in Africas formal and informal education.
  12. Nigel Waller Founder Movirtu @n_w 1. Voice revenue for the Operators across Africa to reduce by 90%. 2. Data revenue for the Operators to grow by 500%. 3. Data services will be paid for by content and application providers. 4. Mobile Phone penetration to increase to 800m units in Africa. 5. Number of people who have used a mobile phone in last three months to be 95% of population.BY NC ND
  13. 1. Computing - infrastructure investments will increase the availability of access; thereby driving mobile web adoption, new cloud computing services, and in turn, demand for media and advertising.2. Commerce - financial transactions over mobile will become a primary source of commerce, and will create new forms of currency and credit; thereby creating entirely new areas of economic activity.3. Devices - sophisticated superphones equipped with interactive sensors will become mass market devices because the costs of the hardware will decrease dramatically.4. Communication - developments in translation and text-to-speech technology will empower all inhabitants to more easily communicate across languages; thereby breaking down cultural barriers and increasing cross-continental trade.5. Education - increased mobile penetration will facilitate access to educational tools; thereby improving the health and welfare of all citizens across the continent. Nicholas Heller New Business Development, Google EMEA @googleafricaBY NC ND
  14. 1. Android is starting to take off in Africa. Kenya has over 9 models Moses Kemibaro in the market already and one model at at least around US$ 200.00 at retail. African Technology Blogger This should lead to uptake and growth which should drive local content. Also consider Samsungs Bada which has over 5 million handsets sold globally - @moseskemibaro where will Nokia be in a few years even as they dominate in Africa currently. 2. Data is increasingly becoming a major area of mobile usage in Africa and especially in Kenya where more and more Internet users get online via the mobile web instead of the PC web. This trend will see a whole new market for mobile content and services across the board as 2G and 3G become widely available for the masses. 3. Training and Skills - Academic institutions, mobile handset manufacturers, business, government and development organizations are partnering more and more to improve training and skills for the mobile market. This means that in the next few years, an increasing number of students and ICT professionals will be able to serve local and international needs. 4. Mobile Money - Africa and Kenya in particular has taken leadership in Mobile Money. This trend will continue and will lead to innovations that could result in new ecosystems and business models built around the mobile phone. It is in fact already the case that Mobile Money in Kenya will be Africas access point to participate in global e-commerce. 5. Smartphones - the cost of highly capable smartphones is fast dropping and features are increasing commensurately. This in time will lead to users in Africa and Kenya abandoning entry-level feature phones as they start becoming connected to global digital services via their Smartphones.BY NC ND
  15. 1. Africa becomes the leader in conversions of cellphone technology for mobile health tools eg phone based microscopes, phone based blood sugar analysis, phone based blood pressure analysis as well as adherence reminders and personal health management systems. 2. Extended USSD services across the continent enable access to rich data sources whether or not users have an internet enabled handset. 3. Per character billing on text services increases their accessibility. 4. Location based services become ubiquitous in all mobile-led interactions including text services. 5. Android phones continue to increase their market penetration until a sub-50$ Android is the most popular handset in Africa. Gustav Praekelt CEO Praekelt @gustavpBY NC ND
  16. 1. Doctors can not be everywhere with mobile technologies their knowledge will flow.2. Mobile computing will be in health cooperating cloud data services.3. Mobile will deliver expertise remotely4. Mobile text power will help health prevention5. Real time measurement will cut the gap between medical drugs provider and real demand. Valerie Itey Founder Mobile MendIt Worldwide @valitey BY NC ND
  17. Jessica Colaço *iHub_ Manager and Researcher @jessicacolaco 1. Almost every African will have a basic phone for call and texting 2. Number portability across the African countries 3. Shared mobile internet services across the African countries 4. More effective learning through mobile devices thus promoting education- “the unique nature of mobile learning in that it is always available to the learner and is on a personal and trusted device” 5. The mobile phone will have add-ons like the “Swiss Army Knife”BY NC ND
  18. egypt twitter influence network John Wesonga Mobile Monday-Kenya @jwesonga 1. mHealth- with mobile technology becoming the norm, theres definitely going to be a greater focus on how it can be effectively be used to address health challenges in Africa. 2. mobile powered education - a major push towards providing access to educational material on the mobile phone. 3. eGovernment- mobiles become the key methods of delivery of eGov services. I foresee a situation where the "my mobile is my passport to egov services" a seamless integration of government services+mobile money transfer e.g. Let me pay for my driving license using mpesa, sign for it using my touch pad phone and have it electronically sent to my mobile phone. 4. Opening of the "walled gardens" by mobile operators - telcos providing access to interfaces for developers to build solutions on top of their infrastructure. 5. Rich african content going online - cheaper access to the internet translating into more people in Africa using the internet to push rather than just pull content.BY NC ND
  19. 1. Mobile Villages and Mobile Cities Marlon Parker CEO of JamiiX 2. Broadcasting media will be mobile primary and using location, social graphs, etc. to target content @marlonparker 3. Mobile phones will become mandatory with education and learning pre-loaded tools/applications instead of the traditional textbooks in educational institutions. 4. Every African will have access to a web enabled mobile device. 5. Mobile health care records will become common that will be integrated with private and public health care facilities.BY NC ND
  20. Bright SimonsPresident, mPedigree Networkmpedigree.net1. Increased attempts by carriers to bring mobile content product & services development in-house, thus significantly reversing the current situation of independent innovators leading the space of mobile innovation.2. A growing distance between carriers and grassroots inventors/developers as established companies, otherwise known as aggregators, increasingly play the gatekeeping role in the mobile ecosystem.3. the mobile web and mobile-web convergence eventually reducing the total reliance on operators’ goodwill by providing savvy entrepreneurs with alternative paths to the mass market.4. an intensification of the trend for entrepreneurs and social integrators to dominate the new business creation - unlike what is happening in the West where developers and engineers led the curve5. Entertainment, sports and leisure to finally seizing the lead from health, education and agriculture as the “trend-makers” in the African mobile innovation space. BY NC ND
  21. Katrin Verclas Co-founder & editor of @KatrinSkaya mobileactive.org1. Mobile payments. Its slow getting getting another sucess like MPESA, but there will be others. G2B/P and B2B payments.2. Cheap Chinese smartphones will flood the market. Data access will grow rapidly, as will smartphone adoption.3. MXit growing beyond S Africa - making group communications even cheaper.4. Downward cost of SMS and voice - Say hello, Bharti! Deregulation and more competition.5. Mobiles in development will grow to national scale. So many African projects already, quite a few will scale - think mHealth country-wide.BY NC ND
  22. Nathan EagleCo-founder and CEO at txteagle1. Beyond Graymarket GSM: $15 WiMax (or similar 4+G protocol) handset.2. Megabytes over Minutes: Operator price wars will be focused on price per MB rather than per minute.3. Compensation as well as Communication: Phones wont be a device simply to communicate - they will be used as a mechanism for compensation.4. Price Always Trumps Features: The most popular phones in the next decade will still be the cheapest.5. Spectrum Wars: Operator licenses will continue to be a cash cow for local governments. BY NC ND
  23. Adam Greenfield founder and managing director, Urbanscale @agpublic1. The adoption of mobile funds transfer techniques (e.g. Mpesa) by large Western technology concerns, followed by their redesign and reintroduction to Africa as extraordinarily ambitious services (e.g. Nokia Money). My sense is that the latter will largely fail, due to their inability to deeply understand local culture and the factors which led to the original success of ventures like Mpesa...but if even one of them is well-designed enough to earn significant continental adoption, this will change the shape of lives and governments. The latter is especially true if the service that breaks big incorporates some mechanism for transborder remittance or microcredit alongside more conventional payments.2. The emergence of ad-hoc, low-power mesh networking technology effective enough to disintermediate carriers. Should any wireless networking standard be agreed upon that affords this, I think well see robust, broadband connectivity seeping out to places that have never had anything of the sort before. I dont see how that could be anything but transformative, potentially turbulently so.3. If manufacturers quit patronizing the "emerging markets" and actually decide to ship phones at volume that dont look like something that was parachuted in a CARE package, they might be surprised at the uptake. When I was at Nokia, the moment anyone mentioned "Africa" (or "India" or "Brazil" for that matter), the conversation immediately turned to e.g. the entry-level 1100. This strikes me as a not-entirely-unreasonable way for ignorant Europeans to approach a market, and certainly very successful in some ways, but only at the cost of clouding peoples perceptions regarding the many millions of people on the continent who do not actually live in scrap-tin slums or dung- walled huts. BY NC ND
  24. 1. New devices like e-readers and advanced cell phones will play an enormous role in Africa’s development. Today there is an huge gap between those who have access to connected computers and everyone else. But new, low-power and highly connected devices like e-readers will fill the void between simple cell phones and advanced computers, providing access to information to millions.2. African customers will no longer be satisfied with reduced-functionality or past-generation mobile devices. While there will always be room for low price-points in the developing world, the sophistication of African markets will demand latest-generation technology, and increased competition will drive both handset and data prices down for all.3. Everything and everyone will be connected via the mobile phone network. In 10 years it will be impossible to buy an advanced electronic device that doesn’t communicate with other devices, keeping devices and people in synch with one another and providing information with which people can improve their lives.4. Cards similar to mobile phone scratch-off cards will become the basis of micropayments for digital e-commerce in Africa, allowing digital products like e-books and downloadable music to be purchased using cash.David RisherBooks for BY NC ND
  25. Ken Banks Founder, and FrontlineSMS @kiwanja1. Africa takes hold of its own communications future: Local talent shines through and the continent becomes a leading innovator, manufacturer and exporter of cutting-edge, energy efficient, eco- friendly communications devices and systems not only throughout the continent, but to the rest of the world.2. Appropriate technologies: Local manufacturers, more aware and sensitive to Africas cultural diversity, build devices with real-time translation of text and voice to support and embrace multiple languages and dialects. Cultural, historical and environmental augmented reality tools will also allow users to reconnect with lost customs, traditions, storytellers and languages of the past.3. Local networks: With rural populations still featuring strongly in Africas demographic make-up, devices will double-up as base stations as standard, creating automatic ad-hoc networks any time, anywhere without the need for masts or other cumbersome infrastructure.4. The Knowledge Phone: Internal storage capacity on mobile devices will be infinite, allowing the storage of vasts amounts of data. "The World Wide Web on a stick" (well, a phone).5. Access to communication and information will be officially classified as a "human right".BY NC ND
  26. Jacques van NiekerkCTO MIH Internet, CEO MIH, mihswat.com1. Within the next three years, cheap smartphones will be ubiquitous in Africa. Feature phones will largely be replaced by cheap, functional smartphones (probably manufactured in China) that run Android as an operating system.2. The cost of data on cellular networks will keep dropping, reaching the price of an everyday commodity. This will be driven by a combination of extreme price sensitivity and strong competition amongst operators and service providers.3. Within five years, the advent of ultra-efficient batteries will free the phone from the grid - energy for mobile devices will derive from environmental sources, and will effectively be "free". The independence from infrastructure will accelerate and democratise the adoption of high powered mobile devices.4. The Babelphone will address issues of illiteracy and unfamiliar user interfaces by its ability to interpret natural language - and to translate to other languages. It will be the first step in the evolution of the mobile device as an everyday tool that delivers expert system functionality to illiterate users.5. The killer apps in Africa will be mobile money, goverment services (census, polls, information), and ultimately the development of expert systems that use contextual data (geolocation, environment) to provide relevant services. BY NC ND
  27. 1. The total mobile revolution. The last decade has seen an astonishing growth in ICT in Africa. But we have just seen the tip of the iceberg. This growth will continue and new innovations will develop. The mobile revolution will reshape the way Africans interact among themselves and with the outside world.2. Mega cities. Africa is the most rapidly urbanizing continent in the world. Currently a third of Africans live in cities. In 10 years, half of Africas 1.2 billion people will live in cities. On balance this is good news because it will accelerate innovation and create more economies of scale.3. Regional integration. Africa needs bigger markets and too many small states impede the growth of cities. Regional integration is the most powerful and promising response which has started to take hold, especially in East Africa.4. South South integration. Africas greatest injection for higher growth will come from other emerging economies. Trade with BRIC countries has been growing exponentially and will continue to do so over the decade. This will reshape economic and political dynamics. Africa will look more East and West, and less North.5. Drifting apart. Although Africa as a whole will experience a strong decade of economic development, the continent will also drift apart. While several countries will catch up and become emerging economies, many will remain in disarray. Countries like Congo, Guinea and Somalia will remain the biggest global development challenge by the end of the next decade. Wolfgang Fengler World Bank Lead Economist for Kenya, Rwanda, Eritrea, Somalia team/wolfgang-fengler BY NC ND
  28. Erik Hersman iHub & Ushahidi & @WhiteAfrican 1. While cities internet connectivity is owned by the ISPs who control fiber, the mobile operators become the ISPs for rural Africa. 2. Data enabled smartphones with real browsers costing around $50 will be taking hold in the next couple years across the leading tech countries in Africa, specifically Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Ghana. This trend will extend to the neighboring countries, and into the sub-urban and rural areas around cities where it set out from. 3. The mobile web is the future. While app stores and device- dependent services will continue to proliferate in the next couple of years, both consumers and entrepreneurs will seek a way around walled gardens/proprietary systems. Such an aspiration can only be satisfied by the open source systems/OS. In the future both consumers and entrepreneurs seek decreased friction, which can only be provided by the open web. 4. Digital money transactions have always been the Achilles heel holding back technology in Africa. That problem is solved by mobile payments systems tied to real IDs and historical use. This, in turn, creates a system that allows for debt and credit ratings, lending and loans, creating weath and generating transactions across the continent and beyond. 5. A mobile operator blankets the continent with their service in 90% of the continents countries.BY NC ND
  29. Anthony K. NgenoManaging Director, WinafriqueTechnologies Ltd.www.winafrique.com1. Renewable Energy Power Generation. This development allows operators to deploy in rural off grid areas characterised with low average revenue per user (ARPU) and high operating expenses cost. Renewable Energy also allows setting up of satellite communities concentrating off grid users e.g. Schools.2. Energy Storage. Energy storage will become more efficient and affordable allowing for greater Power Portability and running larger apps3. Broadband (LTE, 4G). Real time, graphic and fast data transmission4. Smartphones. Devices with have multirole, voice, data, banking, education..e.t.c ie. PA in the pocket5. M2M Apps. App that will all handset to remote machine communication BY NC ND
  30. Steve Mutinda Founder, Shimba Technologies Ltd & Team Tuvitu member / @smutinda 1. Mobile web - Africa is yet to fully capitalize on its local content, reduced data costs on mobile will see mobile web grow exponentially as it will be the initial point of discovery and consumption of online content 2. Micropayments - because not all content is created equal, and in as much as there is a ton of free content out there, value addition will take it over the edge. 3. Mobile applications - the smart phones are here, they need to do smart things 4. The cloud - for services to scale across boundaries, mobile services will take to the “skies” 5. Mobile gaming - local and relevant titles will address social issues and be used as channels to deliver more than just entertainment valueBY NC ND
  31. 1. Mobile commerce creates efficient economies 2. The Mobile phone enables knowledge so repressive regimes are changed to democracy 3. Wildlife is protected more (less poaching due to sensors) 4. Companies emerge FROM Africa to EXPORT mobile expertise to the west! 5. An augmented reality application is developed that maps Genes to regions. Thus, visitors to Africa are able to see where their ancestors lived by a probability of gene pool as they travel. This is based on the Out of Africa theory on study of mitochondrial DNA Out_of_Africa_theory Ajit Jaokar founder futuretext @AjitJaokar the great rift valleyBY NC ND
  32. The images used in this work are used with permission from a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported, unless otherwise stated.Thank you for sharing your work:Rudy De Waele / image by Jonathan Dueck / Kachwanya / image by Frank Douwes / Boyera / image by Thomas Leplus / Cantor / image by Nathan Colquhoun / Mworia / image by Maker Faire Africa / Begumisa / image by / Clark / image by Dan AVard / Judic / image by IICD / Vosloo / image by Dan AVard / Waller / image by Ken Banks / Heller / image by / Kemibaro / image by Fabien Girardin / Praekelt / image by Tina Li / Itey / image by Tina Li / Colaço / image by Morten Just / Wesonga / image by Kovas Boguta / Parker / image by Rita Willaert / Simons / image by Felix Krohn / Verclas / image by dotopen / http://www. mobileactive.orgNathan Eagle / image by Brittany H. / Greenfield / image by esa / Risher / image byFrank Douwes / Banks / image by John Duffell / van Niekerk / image by / Fengler / image by Nathan Cooke / Hersman / image by Smyl/ K. Ngeno / image by Enric Teller / Mutinda / image by pam Morris / Jaokar / image by Clem23 /
  33. this work is licensed under aAttribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License work and its contents are licensed under a Creative Commons Licence.The copyright statement we require you to include when you use our material is:© Copyright 2011 Rudy De Waele & Steffen Becker / dotopen.comYou are free: • to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the workUnder the following conditions: • Attribution — You must attribute the work to Rudy De Waele at • Noncommercial — You may not use this work for commercial purposes. • No Derivative Works — You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.special thanks to steffen becker for the visualisationthanks to all who contributed to this document, may your wisdom spread as fast as light!