Hormones and the brain<br />By Marcus Ruddick<br />Hormones, sex and the brain<br />By: Marcus Ruddick<br />
Every experience an individual has is interpreted through the brain. A great deal about every human being is a result of h...
Even before you are born androgen hormones and the levels at which they exist in your body determine  aspects of your life...
Sexuality
Gender
Demeanor
Sensitivity</li></li></ul><li>Sex:<br />“differentiation of the internal and external sex structures and of the brain depe...
Sex:<br />Sex:<br />testosterone and mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) produced by the newly formed testicles in males ...
Gender:<br />Any error within the  development processes can cause abnormalities in sexual/gender identity and development...
Gender:<br />The role that hormones play on gender can be seen vividly in hormonal treatments. <br />often perscribed to i...
Demeanor: <br />Along with the determination of  gender during development often comes differences in demeanor <br />The h...
In these studies the testosterone levels of  male and female test subjects did not create a significant correlation to inc...
Hormones play an integral part in the development and behavior of human beings, especially during  time spent in the womb....
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Hormones, sex and the brain

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Hormones, sex and the brain

  1. 1. Hormones and the brain<br />By Marcus Ruddick<br />Hormones, sex and the brain<br />By: Marcus Ruddick<br />
  2. 2. Every experience an individual has is interpreted through the brain. A great deal about every human being is a result of how hormones work in their body. <br />Hormones tell us how we feel, stimulate different reactions in the body and play a large role in almost every part of brain development, as well as development of the entire body. <br />
  3. 3. Even before you are born androgen hormones and the levels at which they exist in your body determine aspects of your life and personality that will follow you till death! aspects like:<br /><ul><li>Sex
  4. 4. Sexuality
  5. 5. Gender
  6. 6. Demeanor
  7. 7. Sensitivity</li></li></ul><li>Sex:<br />“differentiation of the internal and external sex structures and of the brain depends greatly on the secretions of hormones at critical periods in development” (Mills)<br /> the testis-determining factor (TDF) is the hormone that initiates male development in fetuses<br />Without TDF, all fetuses will develop into females naturally<br />After lack of exposure or exposure to TDF a fetus will develop male or female genitalia respectively <br />
  8. 8. Sex:<br />Sex:<br />testosterone and mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) produced by the newly formed testicles in males masculinize the body and finish the TDF’s job of developing a male fetus.<br />In contrast female ovaries produce estrogen hormones that continue the natural feminization of a fetus.<br />It is critical that enough testosterone and MIS hormones are produced after exposure TDF in order for proper masculinization of the male body and mind.<br />When these hormone levels are disrupted or abnormally high or low during development abnormal sex development may occur within the brain and or body<br />These development abnormalities may manifest physically as seen in intersexed individuals or mentally as seen in abnormalities of gender and or orientation<br />
  9. 9. Gender:<br />Any error within the development processes can cause abnormalities in sexual/gender identity and development<br />Whether you are Mentally male or female is directly influenced by your hormones<br />It is believed that abnormalities in prenatal hormone secretions play a role in the development of homosexuality, bisexuality, gender identity disorders and transexuality<br />
  10. 10. Gender:<br />The role that hormones play on gender can be seen vividly in hormonal treatments. <br />often perscribed to individuals with gender identity disorder these treatments serve to further masculinize or feminize the body and mind even after birth. <br />
  11. 11. Demeanor: <br />Along with the determination of gender during development often comes differences in demeanor <br />The higher levels of the hormone testosterone in males is associated with more aggressive, dominant type personalities<br />In contrast lower levels are associated with more “friendly “ “cooperative” and “intelligent” individuals (Society For Neuroscience)<br /><ul><li>Studies have shown that though it is testosterone that is believed to cause males to have more aggressive behavior, the difference is much more pronounced between the sexes then within them.
  12. 12. In these studies the testosterone levels of male and female test subjects did not create a significant correlation to increased aggressive or thrill seeking behavior unless being compared to the opposite sex (except in groups of extreme cases)</li></li></ul><li>Sensitivity:<br />Sensitivity to pain has been attributed largely to exposure to testosterone at early ages of development. <br />Females produce less testosterone in their early development then males<br />Females have been found in comparative studies to experience more pain then their male counterparts in response to the same painful stimuli<br />Females are also less apt at dealing with emotional stressors/pain<br />“women are two to three times more likely than men to experience a major depressive episode during their lifetime.” (Society For Neuroscience) <br />
  13. 13. Hormones play an integral part in the development and behavior of human beings, especially during time spent in the womb. They are responsible for all the variations of sex, gender and orientation throughout the spectrum of humanity. As well as the thoughts, feelings and emotions we experience every day. <br />We would not be able to call ourselves human without them.<br />END<br />
  14. 14. Aluja, Anton, and Rafael Torrubia. "Hostility-Aggressiveness, Sensation Seeking, and Sex Hormones in Men: Re-Exploring Their Relationship." Neuropsychobiology50 (2004): 102–107. Web. 8 Aug 2010. <http://web.udl.es/usuaris/e7806312/publi/pu_49.pdf>. <br />An online journal article that provides research on and discusses the relation between testosterone and aggressive/ sensation seeking behavior. Only researches male subjects but supports findings from "Sensation Seeking and Hormones in Men and Women: Exploring the Link." <br />DabbsJr, James M., marianhargrove, and colleen heusel. "TESTOSTERONE DIFFERENCES AMONG COLLEGE FRATERNITIES: WELL-BEHAVED VS RAMBUNCTIOUS." Elsevier Science Ltd 20.2 (1996): 157-161. Web. 8 Aug 2010. <http://people.stfx.ca/x2005/x2005fho/Testosterone%20Differences.pdf>.<br />Online journal article concerning a study of testosterone levels in college fraternaties, found a correlation between outgoing, aggressive, dominant behavior and higher testosterone levels between fraternities. This is in contrast to the "Sensation Seeking and Hormones in Men and Women: Exploring the Link." article which only found such correlation in extreme cases, however, in the "Hostility-Aggressiveness, Sensation Seeking, and Sex Hormones in Men: Re-Exploring Their Relationship.“ article it is mentioned that in structured institutions (prison) some correlations became apparent, interesting in relation to college and frat considering their hierarchical structured enviornment<br />
  15. 15. Kailey, Matt. Just add Hormones an insiders guide to the transexual experience. 1st. 1. 25 beacon street bostonmassichusetts 02108-2892: Beacon Press, 2005. Print. <br />A book about transexualsity and the process of hormonal treatment through sex change, discusses effects of hormones, provided information regarding the effects of hormones on the body and mind as well as reasons for administration of hormonal treatments post natal. <br />Mills, Michael E. "PROXIMATE DIFFERENTIATION: ONTOGENETIC MASCULINIZATION AND DEFEMINIZATION ." drmillslmu.com. Loyola Marymount University, 2004. Web. 16 Aug 2010. <http://www.drmillslmu.com/sexdiffs/Textbook/chap2.htm>.<br />Chapter two of a psych textbook for a“sex differences” class at LMU, contained allot of helpful information regarding the effects of prenatal sex hormones on developing fetuses, provided research and references to other studies concerning hormonal impact on sex, gender, and sexuality<br />
  16. 16. Rosenblitt, John C., Hosanna Soler, Stacey E. Johnson, and David M. Quadagno. "Sensation Seeking and Hormones in Men and Women: Exploring the Link." Hormones and Behavior 40 (2001): 396–402. Web. 8 Aug 2010. <http://www.uni-graz.at/~schulter/se04_sensationseeking.pdf>.<br />An online journal article on the relationship between testosterone and aggressive/ sensation seeking behavior, provides studies and information on both male and female subjects and compares them within and between the sexes<br />Society For Neuroscience. "Gender And Sex Hormones Affect The Brain's Pain Response And More, According To New Studies." ScienceDaily 1 November 2004. 8 August 2010 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2004/10/041030133346.htm>. <br />An article on differences due to hormones between the sexes, focusing on pain and briefly speaking on emotional differences. References current studies to support its assertions.<br />

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