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VALUES AND ETHICAL
LESSONS FROM
MAHABHARATA
Presented by:
- Sonam
- Ruchita
Flow of Presentation
 Introduction to:
 Values
 Ethics
 Ethical Behaviour
 Indian Ethos
 The Mahabharata
 Strategie...
Values
 Values( set of preferences) are said to be the cause and Ethics
effect. If one operates in a given instance, from...
Ethics
 The word ‘ethics’ is defined as “moral principle that govern or
influence a person’s behavior”.
 Ethics is thus ...
 Ethical behavior is characterized by honesty, fairness and equity in
interpersonal, professional and academic relationsh...
 Indian ethos is drawn from the Vedas, the Ramayana,
Mahabharata, the Bhagwadgita, and Upanishad's.
 Right from the Vedi...
THE MAHABHARATA
Kauravas Resources
Logistics = 11 Akshouhini
Key Human Resources(Players) :-
 Bhishma
 Drona
 Karna
 Shalya
 Kripacha...
Pandavas Resources
Logistics :- 7 Akshouhini
Key Human Resources (Players) :-
 Arjuna
 Bhima
 Dhrshtadyumna
 Abhimanyu...
Allies
Kauravas : Centralized power system. The greatest empire
of the time. But not many powerful allies, except from old...
Pandavas : No wealth. No power of their own. But powerful allies all over
India.
 Panchala through Marriage with Darupadi...
Leadership
Kauravas : Centralized leadership. One Head of Army at
a time, who has supreme authority of 11 akshouhini of
ar...
Pandavas : Distributed leadership. Seven commanders for the seven
divisions. (1 man command 1 akshouhini each).
 Virat (K...
Team Spirit
Kauravas : No team spirit. They all fought their individual wars.
 Bhishma : For his Vow to protect the thron...
 Pandavas : One team. One Goal.
 As men, they all had huge respect for Krishna and
Yudhisthira.
 While as warriors they...
Individual Motives
Kauravas : Except for Duryodhana nobody wanted the War. All the 4
main generals had strong ties with th...
Pandavas : Common goal. But the individuals had their
individual targets. Their own agenda, which just became one
with the...
Right Managers
Krishna : The Greatest Crisis Manager the world has seen.
Yudhisthira : Low-key strategist.
 On the first ...
Women Empowerment
 Kauravas : Patriarchal structure.
 Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Dhratarashtra, Vidur, Shakuni,
Duryodhana, ...
Pandavas : Matriarchal Structure.
 Kunti was the authority supreme for the Pandavas.
“Whatever my mother says is Dharma t...
DECISION MAKING AND
JUDGEMENT
 Duryodhan and Arjun asked Lord Krishna for Support
 One could have his Army and the other...
GETTING YOUR WORK DONE
 Dronacharya realized that Eklavya was a superior archer
to Arjun
 Dronacharya asked for Eklavya’...
IMPEDIMENTS TO SOUND
MENTAL HEALTH
Greed - For power, position, prestige and money
Envy - Other’s achievements & success
E...
ETHICS AND MAHABHARATA
 The Mahabharata, an epic Indian poem detailing the struggle between
two rival families for contro...
THE GOLDEN RULE
 The thread of dharma runs continuously throughout the rich
tapestry of the Mahabharata.
 "Dharma" means...
AVOIDING ZERO-SUM GAMES
 At the end of Mahabharata, the intense battle waged by the two
sides leaves the kingdom over whi...
INTEGRITY AND EDUCATION
 Before the two sides set off for battle, one of the warring
parties learns the art of war at the...
ETHICS IN WORK
 The Mahabharata warns against focusing solely on the rewards of
doing your duty.
 Lord Krishna exhorts t...
ETHICAL
APPROACHES
MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES
1. Utilitarian
• The whole moral of Mahabharata states that “Victory of
good ove...
PRINCIPLES OF
ETHICS
MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES
1. Honesty
• Yudhishtir’s partial truth manipulated to convey the message of
A...
CONCLUDING STRATEGIES
Here goes the strategy you could apply to your startup and
win against all odds in your way:
 Prepa...
 The right team is made by selecting right individuals, get
the right man for the right job and you make great
symphony.
...
Values and Ethical Lessons from mahabharata
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Values and Ethical Lessons from mahabharata

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Ethical learning and Values from the Mahabharata

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Values and Ethical Lessons from mahabharata

  1. 1. VALUES AND ETHICAL LESSONS FROM MAHABHARATA Presented by: - Sonam - Ruchita
  2. 2. Flow of Presentation  Introduction to:  Values  Ethics  Ethical Behaviour  Indian Ethos  The Mahabharata  Strategies from Mahabharata  Ethics and Mahabharata  Ethical Approaches and Principles -- Mahabharata Incidences  Conclusion
  3. 3. Values  Values( set of preferences) are said to be the cause and Ethics effect. If one operates in a given instance, from a Value emotion within, the outward action will tend to be Ethical.
  4. 4. Ethics  The word ‘ethics’ is defined as “moral principle that govern or influence a person’s behavior”.  Ethics is thus a benchmark of human behavior.  The conduct of human beings is influenced either by the emotions of life or the actions people perform in different situations.  The coordination of action and emotions generates ethics.
  5. 5.  Ethical behavior is characterized by honesty, fairness and equity in interpersonal, professional and academic relationships and in all other activities.  Ethical behavior respects the dignity, diversity and rights of individuals and groups of people.  This definition is not a denial of the existence of other ethical duties with respect to practice, professional service delivery, and research. Ethical Behaviour
  6. 6.  Indian ethos is drawn from the Vedas, the Ramayana, Mahabharata, the Bhagwadgita, and Upanishad's.  Right from the Vedic age it has been discovered two basic universal truths of life. 1.The essential infinitude and divinity of all souls. 2.The essential oneness and solidarity of universe and all life. Indian Ethos
  7. 7. THE MAHABHARATA
  8. 8. Kauravas Resources Logistics = 11 Akshouhini Key Human Resources(Players) :-  Bhishma  Drona  Karna  Shalya  Kripacharya  Ashwatthama  Duryodhan [1 Akshouhini = 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 65,610 horses and 109,350 foot-soldiers (in a ratio of 1:1:3:5) ]
  9. 9. Pandavas Resources Logistics :- 7 Akshouhini Key Human Resources (Players) :-  Arjuna  Bhima  Dhrshtadyumna  Abhimanyu  Ghatotkach  Shikhandi  Satyaki
  10. 10. Allies Kauravas : Centralized power system. The greatest empire of the time. But not many powerful allies, except from old relations from far off places like Gandhara(Shakuni), Sindhu(Jayadrath) and Kambodia(Camboja - Bhagadutt)
  11. 11. Pandavas : No wealth. No power of their own. But powerful allies all over India.  Panchala through Marriage with Darupadi.  Dwarka through marriage with Arjuna and Subhadra.  Magadh through marriage of Shadeva and Vijaya.  Chedi through marriage of Nakula and Karenmayi.  Kasi through marriage of Bhima and Balandhara.  Kekaya through marriage of Yudhisthira and Devika.  Matsya through marriage of Abhimanyu and Uttara.  The Rakshasas through marriage of Bhima and Hidimba.  The Nagas through marriage of Arjuna and Uloopi.
  12. 12. Leadership Kauravas : Centralized leadership. One Head of Army at a time, who has supreme authority of 11 akshouhini of army Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Shalya and Ashwatthama.
  13. 13. Pandavas : Distributed leadership. Seven commanders for the seven divisions. (1 man command 1 akshouhini each).  Virat (King of Matsya).  Drupad (King of Pancala).  Sahadeva(King of Magadha).  Dhrshtaketu (King of Chedi).  Satyaki (Only warrior from Dwarka).  Shikhandi (Prince of Pancala).  Dhrshtadymna – Commander in Chief.  Arjuna –Supreme Commander.  Krishna – Arjuna’s charioteer and counselor.
  14. 14. Team Spirit Kauravas : No team spirit. They all fought their individual wars.  Bhishma : For his Vow to protect the throne Hastinapur.  Drona and Kripa : They owed allegiance to the throne.  Shalya : Simply cheated by Duryodhana to be there. Was originally a Pandava ally.  Karna : To prove his mantle against Arjuna. Friendship for Duryodhana. They didn’t gel well with each other. Bhishma and Karna. Bhisma and Shakuni. Karna and Shakuni. Karna and Shalya. Shalya and Bhishma.
  15. 15.  Pandavas : One team. One Goal.  As men, they all had huge respect for Krishna and Yudhisthira.  While as warriors they were in complete awe of Bhima and Arjuna. Most of them were close relatives – cousins, brother-in-laws, father-in-laws.  More than that they all were part of the decision-making process. It was their “common” war.
  16. 16. Individual Motives Kauravas : Except for Duryodhana nobody wanted the War. All the 4 main generals had strong ties with the Pandavas.  Bhishma (grand childern) – Wont kill the pandavas. Will kill a thousand soldiers each day.  Drona (students) – Wont kill the Pandavas. Will capture them only.  Shalya (Nakula-Shadeva’s maternal uncle) : Loved the Pandavas and covertly helped them by humiliating Karna  Karna (brother to the Pandavas) : Promised not to kill any of the other Pandavas save Arjuna.  A Team of Traitors
  17. 17. Pandavas : Common goal. But the individuals had their individual targets. Their own agenda, which just became one with the teams’ agenda.  Dhratsadyumna : Drona.  Shikhandi : Bhisma.  Satayaki – Bhurisravas.  Arjuna – Karna.  Bhima – Duryodhana and his brothers.  Sahadeva – Shakuni and his sons.  Nakula –Karna’s sons.
  18. 18. Right Managers Krishna : The Greatest Crisis Manager the world has seen. Yudhisthira : Low-key strategist.  On the first day of the War, he played a Master game. Went over to the Enemy side to seek blessings from Elders. In reality he made a covert deal with them, wherein all of them agreed to help him and unfolded the secrets of defeating them.  While coming back, he took a calculated risk. He made an offer to all the assembled people to change sides if they wanted to. He knew well of the lack of cohesiveness among the Kauravas. Yuyutsu, son of Dhrtarashtra crossed over to the Pandavas. This exposed the weakness of the Kauravas for all to see.
  19. 19. Women Empowerment  Kauravas : Patriarchal structure.  Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Dhratarashtra, Vidur, Shakuni, Duryodhana, Karna, Duhsasana.  No women in the decision making process.  Gandhari retreated to the Inner Chambers. Nobody listened to her.
  20. 20. Pandavas : Matriarchal Structure.  Kunti was the authority supreme for the Pandavas. “Whatever my mother says is Dharma to me” : Yudhisthira.  Draupadi was a companion in whatever the Pandavas did.  She had a big role in all the decision making. Without her the Pandavas would have most probably reclined to the forests.  Even the younger Pandavas : Ghatotkach, Abhimnanyu and Iravan were brought up by their mothers. So the female influence was huge.
  21. 21. DECISION MAKING AND JUDGEMENT  Duryodhan and Arjun asked Lord Krishna for Support  One could have his Army and the other could have him as his charioteer  Duryodhan took the army and Arjun chose Krishna
  22. 22. GETTING YOUR WORK DONE  Dronacharya realized that Eklavya was a superior archer to Arjun  Dronacharya asked for Eklavya’s right thumb as Guru Dakshina
  23. 23. IMPEDIMENTS TO SOUND MENTAL HEALTH Greed - For power, position, prestige and money Envy - Other’s achievements & success Egotism - About one’s own accomplishments
  24. 24. ETHICS AND MAHABHARATA  The Mahabharata, an epic Indian poem detailing the struggle between two rival families for control of the throne, stands as one of the great treasures of world literature.  An enormous cast of characters populates the lines of the story, and drama, pathos, and thrills abound.  Throughout all of the adventures, an underlying theme runs through the tale.  Earthly achievements, such as wealth and power, mean nothing without a strong moral compass to guide you.  While the Mahabharata is a religious text, it teaches important lessons about business ethics.
  25. 25. THE GOLDEN RULE  The thread of dharma runs continuously throughout the rich tapestry of the Mahabharata.  "Dharma" means that you should not do things to another person that you would not want done to yourself.  Abiding by the Golden Rule leads to win-win situations, for which every businessperson strives.
  26. 26. AVOIDING ZERO-SUM GAMES  At the end of Mahabharata, the intense battle waged by the two sides leaves the kingdom over which they fought ravaged and desolate.  Even though the side of right and goodness wins, they pay a heavy price.  Modern-day companies should take note. Businesses can become so focused on competition that they lose sight of everything else, including the environmental and societal ramifications of their actions.  Instead of competing, firms should try to collaborate with each other.
  27. 27. INTEGRITY AND EDUCATION  Before the two sides set off for battle, one of the warring parties learns the art of war at the best military training school in India.  The head of the school, Dronacharya, begins teaching his pupils how to behave responsibly in the face of temptation and controlling the urge to exploit others.  Only when his students passed the tests Dronacharya gave them would he educate them in the art of war.
  28. 28. ETHICS IN WORK  The Mahabharata warns against focusing solely on the rewards of doing your duty.  Lord Krishna exhorts the warrior Arjuna not to fight for his own benefits and not to satisfy feelings of greed or desire. Rather, Arjuna must fight for the good of others.  Business executives can take this message to heart. While having a strong work ethic brings riches, ethics at work bring meaning and significance to profit-making efforts.  Companies should not aim just to make money. Being good corporate citizens equals being good citizens.
  29. 29. ETHICAL APPROACHES MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES 1. Utilitarian • The whole moral of Mahabharata states that “Victory of good over evil” against which heavy cost was paid in form of loss of great lives. 2. Rights and Duties • The famous quote said by Krishna “MaFaleshu Kadachana” (do your duty and do not think about its rewards) 3. Justice and Fairness • The intent of Lord Krishna was to defeat the forces of evil and to establish the Rule of Law or ‘Dharma’ where the righteous would not only defend themselves but also triumph over evil. 4. Virtue • Earthly achievements, such as wealth and power, mean nothing without a strong moral compass to guide you. 4. Common Good • Concept of ‘bahujan hitaya bahujan sukhaya’ has remained the touchstone of decision making in righteous public policy in India since the times of the Mahabharata.
  30. 30. PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES 1. Honesty • Yudhishtir’s partial truth manipulated to convey the message of Ashwathama’s death. 2. Values • The head of the school, Dronacharya, begins teaching his pupils how to behave responsibly in the face of temptation and controlling the urge to exploit others. • Only when his students passed the tests Dronacharya gave them would he educate them in the art of war. 3. Transparency • Drona too indirectly gave away his secret, by saying he was invulnerable as long as he held a weapon. 5. Respectfulness • Draupadi’s chirharan in front of whole assembly where Krishna protected her dignity. 6. Legality • Every step took by Krishna were wrong in some or the other way when it came to ethics but then it was already said the means are never important 7. Commitment • Bhishma did not fight a warrior like Shikhandi because of his personal commitment.
  31. 31. CONCLUDING STRATEGIES Here goes the strategy you could apply to your startup and win against all odds in your way:  Prepare before hand and turn your weakness in to your Strength  Make powerful Allies  Share your responsibilities  Teamwork succeeds where individual efforts fails  The Right Managers : To inspire, invigorate, counsel in crisis .
  32. 32.  The right team is made by selecting right individuals, get the right man for the right job and you make great symphony.  The best man for the job is not the one with the best capabilities but one with the greatest commitment  Hire Right Manager who can inspire, take risks and exploit weaknesses of the enemy  Know Ground realities. Accept different ideologies. Cooperate.  Empower Women, balance the equation

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