St. Mary’s Church ApartmentsRuchie KothariSarah Zeigler48-752: Zero Energy Housing                              Image Sour...
ProgramMary Street Apartments is a retrofit project. The originalSt. Mary’s church building is to be retrofit toaccommodat...
Existing Site ConditionsCompletely shaded North facade                                            Vaulted Ceiling, a detai...
Design ObjectivesPassiv Haus		Net Zero Energy					Senior Living								Affordable											Innovative
Benchmark Case
Thermal Boundary
First Floor  Longitudinal Section                  Second Floor- Thermal boundry includes first floor,second floor, new st...
Building Envelope
Wall AssembliesInsulation: Mineralwool Batts             On Grade External Wall (Plan)(replace rockwool batts)Construction...
Floor and Ceiling AssembliesInsulation: Mineralwool Batts(replace rockwool batts)             Ceiling   AssemblyConstructi...
Concerns•	Moisture control•	Air tightness•	Quality (Grade) of construction when using batts for insulation•	Rockwool therm...
Building Systems
Systems OverviewComponents:                              Drawbacks:Heating:                                 Air to Air Hea...
Proposed Case
Thermal Boundary
First FloorLongitudinal Section                Second Floor- Thermal boundry includes first floor,second floor- The new st...
Building Envelope
On Grade External WallInsulation: JM Spiderglass* +                   PlanHoneywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Constru...
Ceiling AssemblyInsulation: JM Spiderglass* +Honeywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Construction: 1.5”x5.5” wood studs @...
Frame Floor AssemblyInsulation: JM Spiderglass* +             Frame FloorHoneywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Construc...
Basement AssembliesInsulation: JM Spiderglass* + Honeywell       Section through Wall cavityClosed cell polyurethane foam ...
Windows and DoorsWindow Areas – 1361sq.ftWindow to Wall Ratio (whole building)– 0.178Window to Floor Ratio (whole building...
Building Systems
Mechanical System
California Loop - closed water loop systemComponents:                                                                     ...
California Loop - Precedent Case StudySawmill BuildingLocation:Lincoln, NebraskaClimate:	Heating dominatedProject Type:Ada...
California LoopBenefits:                                          Drawbacks:Economies of Scale for shared system compo-   ...
Water to Air Closed Loop Heat Pumps - SizingHeating Design Load:	 67.6 kBtu/hrCooling Design Load:	 47.0 kBtu/hrProportion...
Water to Air Heat Pumps - Units                         Heating             Cooling                                       ...
Water to Air Heat Pump - Common Area                                 Heating     Cooling                                  ...
Back-up Heating & DHW Source - BoilerHeating Design Load:	 67.6 kBtu/hrBack up Heating: 	 size for 1/2 of design heating l...
Back-up Cooling & Heat Sink - Evaporative Condenser                                                                       ...
Ventilation System
Energy Recovery Ventilator - Units                           NumberTypical Unit                 10# of Persons per unit   ...
Energy Recovery Ventilator - Common Area                                     NumberCommon Area                            ...
Renewable Energy   Generation
Solar PV ArrayModule Area 					            = 12.5 square feetAvailable Roof Area			       = 1,088 square feet on South roo...
Solar PV Generation     Assumptions:Ideal PV array tilt:Latitude + 15 = 55.5Fixed TiltGrid-tied systemDerate Factor:77%Ele...
Solar PV System Incentives [3]Federal Incentives:Federal Energy Renewable Tax Credit:30% Tax CreditState Incentives:Pennys...
Domestic HotWater System
Solar Domestic Hot Water - Collection        Assumptions:          Minimum Required Flat Plate Solar Collector Area = 276 ...
Solar Domestic Hot Water - Storage        Assumptions:                                              Gallons per day Solar ...
Integrated Building Systems CartoonEquipment LocationBasement (unconditioned):BoilerDesuperheaterSolar DHW Water Storage T...
Lighting & Appliances
Laundry Area: Clothes Washer & Dryer                             Clothes Washer                             Manufacturer:	...
Units: Range Oven & Lighting                                      Range Oven                                      Manufact...
Units: Dishwasher, Refrigerator                              Manufacturer:	Ariston                              Model:		 A...
Energy Comparison: Benchmark Case  Proposed Case
Benchmark Energy Balance SpreadsheetAnnual Energy Balance : convert all site energy to kWh, then use Source multipliers to...
Proposed Model Energy Balance SpreadsheetAnnual Energy Balance : convert all site energy to kWh, then use Source multiplie...
EggsImage Source: iStockPhoto [18]
Vertical Building Integrated PV Spandrel PanelImage Source: CuttingEdgeNews [12]Concept:Building IntegratedPhotovoltaics o...
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Energy-Efficient Retrofit Proposal for St.Mary Church Apartments

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Energy-Efficient Retrofit Proposal for St.Mary Church Apartments

  1. 1. St. Mary’s Church ApartmentsRuchie KothariSarah Zeigler48-752: Zero Energy Housing Image Source: Thoughtful Balance Architects
  2. 2. ProgramMary Street Apartments is a retrofit project. The originalSt. Mary’s church building is to be retrofit toaccommodate affordable housing for the elderly. Theproposed multi-residence housing facility will contain thefollowing facilities:14 Apartment Units:2 Efficiency Units ( ~ 370 sq.ft)10 Typical units ( ~ 530 sq.ft) Typical Unit Plan2 Accessible Units ( ~ 550 sq.ft)Community RoomWashing + Laundry RoomOfficeRooftop Terrace Accessible Unit Plan
  3. 3. Existing Site ConditionsCompletely shaded North facade Vaulted Ceiling, a detailing challenge! Mezzanine at the window- another insulation detailing challenge! Meeting Passiv Haus standards with a rose window- has it been done before?South Facade, excellent for solar systems
  4. 4. Design ObjectivesPassiv Haus Net Zero Energy Senior Living Affordable Innovative
  5. 5. Benchmark Case
  6. 6. Thermal Boundary
  7. 7. First Floor Longitudinal Section Second Floor- Thermal boundry includes first floor,second floor, new staircase and entrance lobby- Unconditioned, insulated basement- Area of Conditioned Space: 11577 sq.ft- Volume of Conditioned Space: 115770 cu.ft
  8. 8. Building Envelope
  9. 9. Wall AssembliesInsulation: Mineralwool Batts On Grade External Wall (Plan)(replace rockwool batts)Construction: 1.5”x5.5” wood studs @16” o/c, double wallCavity R-Value: 52.84 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 7.215 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 0%Overall R-Value: 43.47 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.023 BTU/h °F ft² Basement Wall (Plan)Insulation: Mineralwool Batts ( replacerockwool batts)Construction: 1.5”x3.5” wood studs @16” o/c, standard framingCavity R-Value: 20.06 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 9.435 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 13%Overall R-Value: 16.50 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.060 BTU/h °F ft²
  10. 10. Floor and Ceiling AssembliesInsulation: Mineralwool Batts(replace rockwool batts) Ceiling AssemblyConstruction: Chicago Suspended Ceil-ingCavity R-Value: 33.6 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: -Framing Factor: 0%Overall R-Value: 71.4 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.014 BTU/h °F ft²Insulation: Fibrewool Batts (assump- Frame Floor Assemblytion for sound insulation)Construction: 1.5”x9.5” wood joists @16” o/c, standard framingCavity R-Value: 12.18 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 14.28 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 13%Overall R-Value: 21.27 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.047 BTU/h °F ft²
  11. 11. Concerns• Moisture control• Air tightness• Quality (Grade) of construction when using batts for insulation• Rockwool thermal performance• Insufficient insulation at frame floor (thermal boundary)• Insufficient support at ceiling for maintenance
  12. 12. Building Systems
  13. 13. Systems OverviewComponents: Drawbacks:Heating: Air to Air Heat Pumps:Air Source to Air Heat Pumps sized for Outdoor component and indoor component; siting2+ units is an issue with space constraintsCooling: Air systems are less efficient than hydronicAir Source to Air Heat Pumps size for2+ units More ductwork in unconditioned space: To meet IECC 2012, requires at least R-6Back up Heat Source:Natural Gas Furnace? No individual unit control over heating and cooling: Who gets control? Who gets the odors?Backup Cooling Source:Unknown? Solar Hot Water: 80 - 120 gallons typical residential size; may beVentilation & IAQ: oversized for this demographic; miss out on econo-Energy Recovery Ventilator mies of scale of a commercial system; more spaceDomestic Hot Water: Heating Design Load: 114.4 kBtu/hrSolar Hot Water System sized per unit? Cooling Design Load: 68.4 kBtu/hr
  14. 14. Proposed Case
  15. 15. Thermal Boundary
  16. 16. First FloorLongitudinal Section Second Floor- Thermal boundry includes first floor,second floor- The new staircase and entrance lobby are EXCLUDED- Unconditioned, insulated basement- Area of Conditioned Space: 10752 sq.ft- Volume of Conditioned Space: 107520 cu.ft
  17. 17. Building Envelope
  18. 18. On Grade External WallInsulation: JM Spiderglass* + PlanHoneywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Construction: 1.5”x3.5” wood studs @16” o/c, staggered wall, 2” tiesCavity R-Value: 44.84 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 7.215 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 0%Overall R-Value: 43.45 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.022 BTU/h °F ft² Cavity SectionImproves IAQ - no formaldehyde + SuperiorR-Value + Air Barrier + Mold Resisitent +Adhesive binder prevent settlingNon – Ozone depleting technologyAdvantages :Durability + Moisture Barrier + Air Barrier +Superior R-Value per inch + StructuralStability
  19. 19. Ceiling AssemblyInsulation: JM Spiderglass* +Honeywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Construction: 1.5”x5.5” wood studs @24” o/c, Advanced FramingCavity R-Value: 65.56 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 5.4 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 9%Overall R-Value: 66.66 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.015 BTU/h °F ft²
  20. 20. Frame Floor AssemblyInsulation: JM Spiderglass* + Frame FloorHoneywell Closed cell polyurethanefoam **Construction: 1.5”x9.5” wood studs @16” o/c, Standard FramingCavity R-Value: 39.88 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 9.03 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 13%Overall R-Value: 33.33 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.030BTU/h °F ft² Rim and band joist connectionFor Rim and Band Joist:3.5” exposed closed cell spray foamallowable at rim-joists as per Interna-tional Residential Code (IRC)Closed-cell spray foam better thanopen-cell spray foam for moisturecontrol
  21. 21. Basement AssembliesInsulation: JM Spiderglass* + Honeywell Section through Wall cavityClosed cell polyurethane foam **Construction: 1.5”x3.5” wood studs @ 24”o/c, staggered wall, 2” tiesCavity R-Value: 29.56 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming R-Value: 6.95 ft2.F.h/BTUFraming Factor: 9%Overall R-Value: 27 ft2.F.h/BTUOverall U-Value: 0.037 BTU/h °F ft²Radon MitigationUse of Gravel to allow gas to flow freely under slab itselfProvide vent pipe from roof to gravel to maintain negative pressure under slabProvide vent pipe from roof to gravel to maintain negative pressure under slab
  22. 22. Windows and DoorsWindow Areas – 1361sq.ftWindow to Wall Ratio (whole building)– 0.178Window to Floor Ratio (whole building) – 0.118Window area per typical unit - 67.5 sq.ft.Window orientation – Along the north and south façade. The original windows are dividedinto two parts to accommodate for the second floor addition at mezzanine level. The averagewindow area in each typical unit is 67.5 sq.ft.SeriousWindows 925 Series (9H pack-age) - Casement windows have beenselected for the unit windows and pic-ture windows have been selected forthe rose and round windows on thenorth, south and east facades.Technical SpecificationsWindow Type U-Value R-Value SHGC VTCasement 0.16 6.3 0.41 0.53Picture 0.12 8.3 0.32 0.41Cost - ~ 60 sq.ftDoor: Main door of the building is facing east. Door selected for the church is energy star rat-ed. manufactured by ThermaTru. The door has a u-value of 6.25hr-sq ft-°F/Btu.
  23. 23. Building Systems
  24. 24. Mechanical System
  25. 25. California Loop - closed water loop systemComponents: California Loop DiagramHeating: Units in Heating ModeWater Source to Air Heat Pumps Units in Cooling ModeCooling: Expansion TankWater Source to Air Heat PumpsBack up Heat Source:Natural Gas Boiler Evaporative Condenser Boiler50% capacity of heating design loads Water Source Heat PumpsHeat Sink / Backup Cooling Source: HP HP HPEvaporative Condenser Unit50% capacity of cooling design loads HP HP HPRecapturing of Waste Heat/Cooling:Desuperheater HP HP HPVentilation & IAQ:Energy Recovery Ventilator
  26. 26. California Loop - Precedent Case StudySawmill BuildingLocation:Lincoln, NebraskaClimate: Heating dominatedProject Type:Adaptive reuse of historicalmasonry structureFeatures:Closed Hydronic System withWater Loop Heat Pumps andZoned controls Architect:Light shelves BHV Studios, Lincoln NebraskaLow E, operable windoes Images Source: WRK, LLC[19]
  27. 27. California LoopBenefits: Drawbacks:Economies of Scale for shared system compo- Mostly for commercial applicationsnents (i.e. boiler, ERV, evaporative condenser) Potential oversizing of equipmentHigh Efficiencies and Performance Innovative & UnconventionalHydronic Systems - 1 cubic foot of watertransfers the same amount of heat as over Requires savvy HVAC engineer3,000 cubic feet of air [6] Potential higher expensesLimited amount of duct work Requires more skilled Operations &Smaller profile piping for hydronic systems Maintenance workersMost system components located withinconditioned spaceIndividual unit control over heating and coolingRecapture of Waste Heat and Cooling
  28. 28. Water to Air Closed Loop Heat Pumps - SizingHeating Design Load: 67.6 kBtu/hrCooling Design Load: 47.0 kBtu/hrProportional Heating Factor per sq.ft. = Heating Design Load / Conditioned Floor AreaProportional Cooling Factor per sq.ft. = Cooling Design Load / Conditioned Floor AreaHeating Capacity Needed = Proportional Heating Factor x Floor AreaCooling Capacity Needed = Proportional Cooling Factor x Floor Area Capacity Area Heating Capacity Cooling Capacity Pump Capacity Zone Needed (sq.ft.) Needed (Btuh) Needed (Btuh) (tons per unit) (tons)Typical Unit 530 1.06 3,249 2,259 1/2 tonsEfficiency Unit 370 0.74 2,268 1,577 1/2 tonsAccessible 560 1.12 3,432 2,386 1/2 tonsUnitCommon Area 3,592 7.18 22,016 15,307 3 tons& CorridorsSubtotal 7,160 14.32 43,866 30,512
  29. 29. Water to Air Heat Pumps - Units Heating Cooling Height Width Depth Fuel Manufacturer Model Capacity Capacity COP EER HSPF GPM Watts (in) (in) (in) Source (Btuh) (Btuh) Trane GEH 006-02 9700 7500 38 51 43 4.8 12.5 16.4 1.8 600 Elec.COP = Coefficient of Performanceratio of energy input to energy outputhigher is betterEER = Energy Efficiency Ratioratio of output cooling to input electrical power11.6+ is considered high efficiencyHSPF = Heating Seasonal Performance Factorhigher is better8+ is considered high efficiencyGPM = Gallons per Minute Image Source: Trane [7]
  30. 30. Water to Air Heat Pump - Common Area Heating Cooling Height Width Depth Fuel Manufacturer Model Capacity Capacity COP EER HSPF GPM Watts (in) (in) (in) Source (Btuh) (Btuh) American Std. A1GX036 38,000 34,500 45 37 34 6.1 19.6 20.8 9.0 900 Elec.COP = Coefficient of Performanceratio of energy input to energy outputhigher is betterEER = Energy Efficiency Ratioratio of output cooling to input electrical power11.6+ is considered high efficiencyHSPF = Heating Seasonal Performance Factorhigher is better8+ is considered high efficiencyGPM = Gallons per Minute Image Source: American Standard [8]
  31. 31. Back-up Heating & DHW Source - BoilerHeating Design Load: 67.6 kBtu/hrBack up Heating: size for 1/2 of design heating load = 33.8 kBtu/hrBack up DHW: capacity = 18.2 kBtu/hr Heating Eae PE Ef Width Height Depth Fuel Manufacturer Model Capacity AFUE kwH/yr watts (MMBtu/yr) (in) (in) (in) Source (MBTUH) Natural Bosch ZBR 16-3 52 96.1% 382 100 50.0 17.4 33.5 13.9 GasAFUE = Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiencymeasure of thermal efficiencyhigher is better90%+ is considered high efficencyEae = Average Annual Auxillary Electrical EnergyConsumptionlower is better Image Source: Bosch [9]
  32. 32. Back-up Cooling & Heat Sink - Evaporative Condenser Note: AHRI does not certify commercial evaporative condensers nor does Energy Star Base Heat Pump Air Flow Spray Fan Motor Height Width Depth Fuel Manufacturer Model Rejection Motor Rate Flow Rate (HP) (in) (in) (in) Source (MBtuh) (HP) (CFM) (GPM) Baltimore Air VC-10 147 0.5 1/3 2,900 35 79.5 47.5 36 Elec. CoilHP = Horsepowerunit of powerfor our goals, lower is betterGPM = Gallons per Minutemeasure of volumetric flowCFM = Cubic feet per Minutemeasure of volumetric flowHas Variable Frequency Drive Image Source: Baltimore Air Coil [10]
  33. 33. Ventilation System
  34. 34. Energy Recovery Ventilator - Units NumberTypical Unit 10# of Persons per unit 1Conditioned Floor Area 530 sq.ft.CFM per person 7.5 Required Ventilation Calculation per ASHRAE 62.2-2010CFM per floor area 5.3 7.5 CFM per person + 1 CFM per 100 sq.ft. of conditioned areaUnit Ventilation (cfm) 12.8Total Ventilation (cfm) 128 Total Units System CFM required = 176.4 CFM Number Total Units System Power Cosumed = 157 wattsEfficiency Unit 2# of Persons per unit 1Conditioned Floor Area 370 sq.ft.CFM per person 7.5 Manufacturer Model Exhaust Air Ext. Static Ext. Static Transfer Ratio Pressure (Pa) PressureCFM per floor area 3.7 (in wg)Unit Ventilation (cfm) 11.2 Renewaire EV200 0.03@50 50 0.2Total Ventilation (cfm) 22.4 LLC Pa/0.2inwg NumberAccessible Unit 2 Net Air Sensible Recovery Total Recover# of Persons per unit 1 Flow Efficiency Efficiency Latent RecoveryConditioned Floor Area 550 sq.ft. (CFM)CFM per person 7.5 Heating 181 78 - 0.62CFM per floor area 5.5 Cooling 180 - 52 -Unit Ventilation (cfm) 13.0Total Ventilation (cfm) 26.0
  35. 35. Energy Recovery Ventilator - Common Area NumberCommon Area 1# of Persons per unit 14Conditioned Floor Area 3,606 sq.ft.CFM all persons 105 Required Ventilation Calculation per ASHRAE 62.2-2010CFM per floor area 36.06 7.5 CFM per person + 1 CFM per 100 sq.ft. of conditioned areaUnit Ventilation (cfm) 141.06Total Ventilation (cfm) 141.06 Common Area CFA = Floors 1 & 2 on same ERV unit Total Common Area System CFM required = 141.06 CFM Total Units System Power Cosumed = 102 watts Manufacturer Model Exhaust Air Ext. Static Ext. Static Transfer Ratio Pressure (Pa) Pressure (in wg) Renewaire EV200 0.02@50 50 0.2 LLC Pa/0.2inwg Net Air Sensible Recovery Total Recover Flow Latent Recovery Efficiency Efficiency (CFM)Image Source: Renewaire LLC [11] Heating 181 78 - 0.62 Cooling 180 - 52 -
  36. 36. Renewable Energy Generation
  37. 37. Solar PV ArrayModule Area = 12.5 square feetAvailable Roof Area = 1,088 square feet on South roof facadeNumber of modules = 75 modulesTotal array power output = 15,000 watts or 15.0 kilowatts
  38. 38. Solar PV Generation Assumptions:Ideal PV array tilt:Latitude + 15 = 55.5Fixed TiltGrid-tied systemDerate Factor:77%Electrical Utility:Duquesne Light16.7 cents/kWhAnticipated AnnualElectricity Generation:15,500 kWh per year
  39. 39. Solar PV System Incentives [3]Federal Incentives:Federal Energy Renewable Tax Credit:30% Tax CreditState Incentives:Pennyslvania State Solar Rebate Program:$1.25/W DC (<=10.00kW) ($12,500.00 or 35% max)Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission Image Source: City of Berkeley [1]Solar Alternative Energy Credits:$0.40/kWh - 10 year(s)Pennsylvania Green Energy Loan FundLoans of $100,000 - $2.5 millionInterest rate of 4.5% - 6%Pennsylvania Energy Devleopment Authority Grantup to $1 million per projectDCED - High Performancb Buildings Incentives ProgramGrants: Lesser of 10% of project costs or $500,000 Image Source: energyselfreliantstates.org [2]
  40. 40. Domestic HotWater System
  41. 41. Solar Domestic Hot Water - Collection Assumptions: Minimum Required Flat Plate Solar Collector Area = 276 sq. ft. Panel Sizes = 4 ft. x 10 ft. = 40 sq. ft.Ideal Solar DHW array tilt: Rougly 8 panels neededLatitude = 40.5 Configuration = 4 columns at 4 ft. wide x 2 rows at 10 ft. high 20 ft.Fixed TiltSouth Roof Facade 16 ft.System Type:Flat Plate CollectorGallons to Area Factor:1 gallon to 1 sq. ft.Manufacturer:SolvolexModel:Manual Glycol Horizontal Array Configuration Image Source: solarhotusa.com [5]
  42. 42. Solar Domestic Hot Water - Storage Assumptions: Gallons per day Solar Collector Area Function # of Type Required (sq.ft.)Ideal Solar DHW array tilt: Units 14 252 252Latitude = 40.5 Laundry 2 24 24 Subtotal - 276 276Fixed Tilt Tank Tank Manufacturer Model Dia. LengthBack-up System: Capacity MaterialsNatural Gas Boiler stainless AO Smith HD36-300 300 gallons 36” 71” steelSystem Type:Indirect Forced CirculationWater Usage per person:15 gallons per daySystem Losses:20% Image Source: A.O. Smith [4]
  43. 43. Integrated Building Systems CartoonEquipment LocationBasement (unconditioned):BoilerDesuperheaterSolar DHW Water Storage TankUnits (conditioned):Water Source Heat PumpsCorridor Plenum (conditioned):Energy Recovery VentilatorsSteeple (unconditioned):Evaporative Condenser(replace existing wood louvers with metal louvers)South Facade Roof (unconditioned):Solar Photovoltaic ArraySolar Domestic Hot Water ArraySouth Facade Spandrel (unconditioned):Vertical Builidng Integrated Photovoltaics(held off of spandrel for venting)
  44. 44. Lighting & Appliances
  45. 45. Laundry Area: Clothes Washer & Dryer Clothes Washer Manufacturer: Ariston Model: ARXL129+# Fuel Type: Electricty Capacity: 1.82 cubic feet Energy Use: 105 kWh/year Water Use: 3,541 gal/year Features: Low energy & water consumptionImage Source: Ariston [17] Clothes Dryer Manufacturer: Bosch Model: WTV76100US Fuel Type: Electricty Capacity: 3.9 cubic feet Efficiency: 110 CFM High Air Flow Features: Low energy & stackable *No Energy Star Rating for DryersImage Source: Bosch [18]
  46. 46. Units: Range Oven & Lighting Range Oven Manufacturer: General Electric Model: JAS02SNSS Fuel Type: Electricty Width: 24 inches Capacity: 3.0 cubic feet Breaker Size: 40 amps Features: Compact; not oversized *No Energy Star Rating for Range OvensImage Source: General Electric [15] Diffused LED Lighting Manufacturer: ZetaLux Model: ZETA7 Fuel Type: Electricty Watts: 7- equivalent to 50 watt incandescent Color: cool white Features: “Elderly report able to read under bluer light for hours without eyestrain, compared to severe eyestrain in less Image Source: ZetaLux [16] than 30 minutes with incandescent lighting” [11]. *Requirements don’t allow LED lighting despite higher efficiency
  47. 47. Units: Dishwasher, Refrigerator Manufacturer: Ariston Model: ARXL129+# Fuel Type: Electricty Capacity: 1.82 cubic feet Energy Use: 105 kWh/year Water Use: 3,541 gal/year Features: Low energy & water consumptionImage Source: Ariston [14] Manufacturer: SunFrost Model: RF-12 Type: Compact Fuel Type: Electricty Capacity: 10.1 cubic feet Energy Use: 171 kWh/year Features: Low energy consumptionImage Source: SunFrost [13]
  48. 48. Energy Comparison: Benchmark Case Proposed Case
  49. 49. Benchmark Energy Balance SpreadsheetAnnual Energy Balance : convert all site energy to kWh, then use Source multipliers to do the same for Source Energy. Site Energy (include renewable energy consumed) Source EnergyNatural gas, oil, propane, biomass, biofuel MBTUs MJ kWh MBTUs MJElectricity (kWh)Heating 56,000 4,594 16,408 16,177 15,460Cooling 12,200 1,001 3,575 3,524 3,368Lighting & Appliances 318,300 26,113 93,262 91,951 87,871Total Energy Consumed (kWh) 386,500 31,708 113,245 111,653 106,699Renewable Energy MBTUs MJ kWh MBTUs MJProduced on siteImported or derived from on-site processesPurchasedTotal Renewable Energy 0 0 0 0 0Net Balance in kWh (Renewable Energy Provided-Total Energy Consumed) 113,245Conditioned Floor Area = 11,577 sq.ft. Site EUI 33.38516023Net Zero: NOComments: Assumes same appliances and lighting selection as the proposed model; higher heating and cooling loads with out renewable energy generation result in higher Energy Use Intensity
  50. 50. Proposed Model Energy Balance SpreadsheetAnnual Energy Balance : convert all site energy to kWh, then use Source multipliers to do the same for Source Energy. Site Energy (include renewable energy consumed) Source EnergyNatural gas, oil, propane, biomass, biofuel MBTUs MJ kWh MBTUs MJ kWhElectricity (kWh)Heating 42,900 3520 12,570 12,393 42,297Cooling 11,600 952 3,399 3,351 11,437Lighting & Appliances 318,300 26113 93,262 91,951 313,826Total Energy Consumed (kWh) 372,800 30585 109,230 107,695 367,560Renewable Energy MBTUs MJ kWh MBTUs MJ kWhProduced on siteSolar PV Array (roof) 54,900 4,504 16,086 54,900 54,128Solar PV Array (vertical) 100 96 343 100 1,154Imported or derived from on-site processesPurchasedTotal Renewable Energy 55,000 4,600 16,429 55,000 55,283Net Balance in kWh (Renewable Energy Provided-Total Energy Consumed) 92,802 312,278CFA = 10,752 sq.ft.Site EUI = MBTUs/sq.ft. 29.55725Net Zero: NOComments: Anticipated Annual Energy Consumption from REM Rate Model yields realistic EUI
  51. 51. EggsImage Source: iStockPhoto [18]
  52. 52. Vertical Building Integrated PV Spandrel PanelImage Source: CuttingEdgeNews [12]Concept:Building IntegratedPhotovoltaics on Spandrel Estimated Electricity GenerationPanel on South Facade

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