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cytoplasmic inheritance

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Inheritance due to genes located in cytoplasm is called cytoplasmic inheritance.
Since genes governing traits showing cytoplasmic inheritance are located outside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, they are referred to as plasmagenes.

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cytoplasmic inheritance

  1. 1. CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE
  2. 2.  Inheritance due to genes located in cytoplasm (plasmagenes) is called cytoplasmic inheritance.  Since genes governing traits showing cytoplasmic inheritance are located outside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, they are referred to as plasmagenes.  The plasmagenes are located in DNA present in mitochondria (mt DNA) and in chloroplasts (cp DNA).  Together both the DNAs are called organelle DNA. Therefore, this type of inheritance is often referred to as organellar inheritance, plastid inheritance or mitochondrial inheritance.
  3. 3.  In this, generally, the character of only one of the two parents (usually female) is transmitted to the progeny.  Hence such inheritance is usually referred to as extra - nuclear or extra-chromosomal or maternal or uniparental inheritance.  The cytoplasmic inheritance is of two types: 1) Plastid inheritance and 2) mitochondrial inheritance.
  4. 4. 1. Plastidial or chloroplast inheritance  Plastids are self duplicated and have some amount of DNA and plays an important role in cytoplasmic inheritance.  Plastids have green pigments called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain a unique circular DNA (cp DNA) in the stroma that is completely different from the nuclear genome.
  5. 5. Leaf variegation in Mirabilis Jalapa  The conclusive evidence for cytoplasmic inheritance was first presented by C. Correns in Mirabilis jalapa (Four ‘O’ clock plant) in 1909.  He studied inheritance of leaf variegation in M. jalapa.  Variegation refers to the presence of white or yellow spots of variable size on the green background of leaves.  In M. jalapa, leaves may be green, white or variegated. Some branches may have only green, only white or only variegated leaves.  Correns made crosses in all possible combinations among the flowers produced on these three types of branches.
  6. 6.  When flowers from green branch were used as female parent, all the progeny were green irrespective of the phenotype (green, white or variegated) of male parent.  Similarly, progeny from crosses involving flowers bloomed on white branches as female parent were all white irrespective of the phenotype of male parent.  But in progeny from all crosses involving flowers born on variegated branches as female parent, all the three types i.e. green, white and variegated individuals were recovered in variable proportions.
  7. 7.  The green leaf branches have normal chloroplasts, white branches have mutant chloroplasts and variegated have a mixture of both normal and mutant chloroplasts.  The above results indicated that the inheritance is governed by chloroplasts.  Since the cytoplasm is contributed to the zygote mainly by female parent, the plastids are transmitted to the zygote from the female parent.  Thus the plastids are responsible for variation in the crosses of green, white and variegated leaves.
  8. 8. Inheritance of faulty mitochondrial genes (maternal inheritance)  The number of mitochondria in every cell of a person’s body varies from a few, to hundreds.  All of these mitochondria, and therefore the DNA within the mitochondria, descend from the small number of mitochondria present in the original egg cell at the time of that person’s conception.  The sperm contributes very few mitochondria to the baby.
  9. 9.  An individual’s mitochondria are generally only inherited from his or her mother. A change (mutation) in one of the mitochondrial genes that makes it faulty, can therefore be passed by the mother to a child in her egg cells.  This pattern of inheritance is therefore often referred to as maternal inheritance.
  10. 10.  The egg cell contains many mitochondria, each having on average one to several copies of the mitochondrial genes.  If a particular gene in every mitochondrion in an egg cell is faulty, the disruption to energy production would be so severe that the early embryo would probably not survive.  The fact that a person survives to birth and is affected with a mitochondrial condition means that they must have inherited two types of mitochondria from his or her mother: some containing the working copy of the gene, and some containing the faulty gene.
  11. 11.  The working copy of the mitochondrial gene will still be able to send the right instructions, but the amount of energy produced may be impacted and may result in a mitochondrial condition.  On the other hand, having some mitochondria with a faulty gene may cause no problem at all.

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