The Listening Process<br />Dianne Siriban English One DLSC<br />
Hearing vs Listening<br />HEARING - Physiological Process<br />LISTENING – involves a series of cognitive steps<br />Receiving<br />Understanding<br />Remembering<br />Evaluating<br />Responding <br />
Receiving<br />Verbal and non-verbal messages<br />Words, gestures, facial expression, variation in volume and rate.<br />The expressed and the omitted.<br />
Receiving (how to improve)<br />Focus your attention on the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages, on what is said and on what isn’t said.<br />Avoid distractions in the environment.<br />Focus your attention on the speaker rather than on what you’ll say next.<br />Maintain your role as listener and avoid interrupting<br />
Understanding<br />Learning what speaker “means.”<br />How to improve:<br /><ul><li>Relate the new information to what you already know.
See the speaker’s messages from his/her point of view; avoid judging until you fully understand the intention.
Ask questions for clarification details, examples.
Rephrase (paraphrase) the speaker’s ideas.</li></li></ul><li>Remembering<br />Retaining information<br />Augmenting memory: notetaking, recording, etc. <br />Memory is reconstructive (not reproductive).<br />What you remember is not actually what was said but what you think (or remember) was said.<br />
Look at the words and try to remember as many as you can for 15 seconds. <br />Bed<br />Rest<br />Wake <br />Tired<br />Dream<br />Awake<br />Night<br />Eat<br />Comfort<br />Sound<br />Slumber<br />Snore<br />
Remembering (how to improve)<br />Identify the central ideas and the major support advanced.<br />Summarize the message in a more easily retained form, but be careful not to ignore crucial details or qualification.<br />Repeat names and key concepts to yourself or, if appropriate, aloud.<br />
Evaluating<br />Judging, putting value (gradient: positive to negative)<br />Critical Analysis. For example, in listening to project proposals, as in group work, you might ask: Is it practical? Will everybody be given a chance to participate? Will it gain a good grade?<br />
Evaluating (how to improve)<br />Resist evaluation until you fully understand the speaker’s point of view.<br />Assume goodwill, give benefit of any doubt, clarify positions to which you feel you might object.<br />Distinguish facts from inferences, opinions, and personal interpretations.<br />Identify any biases, self-interests, or prejudices that may lead the speaker to slant unfairly what is presented.<br />
Responding<br />Feedback<br />1) back-channeling cues (the speaker know that you are listening; modify or modulate)<br />2) responses after the speaker has finished delivering the message (more elaborate and might include empathy, asking for clarification, challenging, and agreeing. )<br />
Responding<br />Be supportive of the speaker throughout the speaker’s talk by using and varying your back channeling cues; using only one back-channeling cue—for example saying “uh-huh” throughout—will make it appear that you’re not listening but are on automatic pilot.<br />Express support for the speaker in your final responses.<br />Be honest; the speaker has the right to expect honest responses, even if they express disagreement.<br />Own your responses; state your thoughts and feelings as your own, and use I-messages.<br /> <br />