3 Critical Analysis (1)

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The organisation of a journal article

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  • For tutors: The timings suggested in look at a journal article are only suggestions – the idea is that students should practice reading only what is necessary and therefore become more skilled at extracting information quickly. In the workshop, it could be a good idea to go through one article together as an example. A suggested article to read is: Littlewood, W “Do Asian students really want to listen and obey?” ELT Journal vol. 54/1 January 2000
  • 3 Critical Analysis (1)

    1. 1. Critical Analysis 1 The organisation of a journal article
    2. 2. Critical reflection <ul><li>Reflect on our own experience </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on what we are taught by others </li></ul><ul><li>Own experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less haphazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not jumping to conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not rejecting without consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not accepting unthinkingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what the writer is getting at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relating writer’s ideas to our own situation </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Sources <ul><li>How reliable is my source? </li></ul><ul><li>Books – check covers; check details about author; look at bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Journals – edited? Who is on the board of editors? International? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet sites – check URL; see who has made links to this site; check references cited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a web detective! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.hamiltonschools.org/davies/wd-challenge.htm </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Critical reflection questions <ul><li>For a book or article it might mean asking ourselves such questions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How far is this article/book etc relevant to my needs/interests? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What exactly is it that the writer is trying to get me to accept? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the evidence for the views presented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How far do I accept the writer's argument? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do the ideas presented here relate to the ideas I already have on this subject or have read about in other sources? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Relevance <ul><li>Is this relevant to my needs / interests? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Use an abstract or introduction </li></ul><ul><li>But even if it does not seem relevant now – still keep notes (you may need it in the future) </li></ul>
    6. 6. What exactly is it that the writer is trying to get me to accept? <ul><li>Try looking at the conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Try also the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>General or specific? </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is the evidence for the views presented? <ul><li>Research methodology used </li></ul><ul><li>Type of data produced </li></ul><ul><li>Typical structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction & context </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology chosen and data collected </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the data </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions drawn; recommendations made </li></ul>
    8. 8. How far do I accept the writer's argument? <ul><li>What is the writer trying to get me to accept? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evidence for the views presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the argument valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it reliable? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Validity Reliability <ul><li>The extent to which </li></ul><ul><li>the research has really observed what it claims to observe </li></ul><ul><li>one can generalise the findings from the subjects and situation (that have been researched) to other subjects and situations </li></ul><ul><li>we can exclude other variables from the cause-effect </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which </li></ul><ul><li>an independent researcher, on analysing one's data would reach the same conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>a replication of the study would yield similar results </li></ul>
    10. 10. Making sense of the article <ul><li>How do the ideas presented here relate to the ideas I already have? </li></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Type of research </li></ul><ul><li>Content area </li></ul><ul><li>Context of study </li></ul><ul><li>Main sources in the bibliography </li></ul>
    11. 11. Applying the questions <ul><ul><li>How far is this article/book etc relevant to my needs/interests? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What exactly is it that the writer is trying to get me to accept? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the evidence for the views presented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How far do I accept the writer's argument? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do the ideas presented here relate to the ideas I already have on this subject or have read about in other sources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use notes / diagrams / mind map http:// www.mindgenius.com / </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Tasks <ul><li>Apply the questions to the article you have chosen </li></ul><ul><li>Compare different articles – look for similarities and differences in the ways you would use the articles </li></ul><ul><li>Search for books, articles and WWW sites on a specific topic of interest to you </li></ul>

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