Philippine Military History

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This is the Power Point presentation for Philippine Military History. This file is uploaded for the benefit of ROTC Cadets.

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  •   The first recorded organized resistance against foreign aggressor took place in the Visayas during the Battle of Mactan on 27 Apr 1521 when the native chieftain named Lapu-lapu, the acknowledge father of the AFP fought against the Spaniards led by Magellan in the latter’s effort to subdue the former. Lapu-lapu refused to pay homage to the King of Spain. Under estimating the capability of the natives, the foreigners lost in the battle and Magellan was killed.
  • Spanish Occupation  Some islands of the archipelago were successfully occupied by the Spaniards. In 1570, they tried to land in Manila, however, the Muslim leader, Rajah Soliman resisted their effort. In 1571, Legaspi conquered Manila and made it as the capital of the Philippines. Pockets of rebellion took place. Notable of which was the uprising led by Diego Silang where he displayed his exemplary military leadership style and tactics in defeating the Spaniards.  The Filipino soldiers were also organized to fight for Spain and to support some expeditions. Filipino forces were also sent to reinforce Spanish troops during the Chinese revolt in 1603.
  • General Jose Prim dethroned Queen Isabela II of Spain in 1868. The latter espoused liberal principles of democracy. This paved the way for the exposure of the Filipinos in foreign culture leading to the development of strong sense of nationalism among Filipinos. The works of famous propagandists Marcelo H del Pilar, Graceano Lopez Jaena and Jose Rizal further nurtured the national spirit. Andres Bonifacio, who is considered as the father of the Philippine Army, founded a more radical group called the “Katipunan” on 7 Jul 1892. In August 23, 1896, the Cry of PugadLawin signaled the start of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. This was followed by pockets of rebellion which inflicted so much loss to the Spaniards. While Katipunan was gaining strength, two factions emerged – the Magdalo led by Aguinaldo and the Magdiwang led by Bonifacio. On 22 Mar 1897, the Tejeros Convention was called to resolve the conflict between the two factions. As a result, Aguinaldo won the presidency. The occasion also gave birth to the Philippine Army.
  • American Influence  As the war broke out between the United States and Spain on April 23, 1898, the Americans convinced the Filipinos to cooperate with the Americans against Spain with the promise that the United States will grant independence to the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared war against Spain. In June 12, 1898, the Philippine Independence from Spain was declared in Kawit, Cavite. Later on, the Philippine Navy was created 22 June 22, 1898 by the Revolutionary Army.
  • With the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Finding the archipelago as a lucrative place for some economic activities, the United States strengthened their presence in the Philippines. This prompted the Filipinos to again unite and fight for the freedom they have just won. Significant battles followed suit exemplifying the fighting spirit and skills of the Filipino soldiers against formidable opponents. The capture of General Aguinaldo by the Americans in Palanan, Isabela in March 23, 1901 and the laying down of arms of General Malvar in April 16, 1902 ended the organized resistance against the American forces.
  • The Japanese Occupation  Consequent to the declaration of war by Japan with the United States, the invading Japanese Forces landed in Vigan and Aparriin Luzon on December 10, 1945. Un-able to withstand the very strong adversary and to save more lives and properties from destruction, the combined military forces of the United States and the Filipinos withdrew to Bataan for the implementation of War Plan Orange. Un-abated Japanese strikes caused the fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942 and Corregidor on May 6, 1942. These events ended the organized resistance against the Japanese invasion.  The defeat of the Fil-Am forces did not end the armed struggle in the Philippines. Those who refused to surrender went underground and waged a guerilla fighting against the Japanese. The activities of the guerilla forces were very instrumental in the successful come back of the liberating US Forces under Gen Douglas Mc Arthur who landed in Leyte on October 20, 1944.
  • The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program has gone a long way in the Philippine history. The Commonwealth Act Number 1 otherwise known as the National Defense Act provided the legal basis for the conduct of ROTC instruction, the need for a citizen reserve force had been realized as early as before the American occupation of the Philippines. In fact, it was utilized even during the long and arduous Spanish colonial rule in the archipelago. A military training course, that time, became inevitable in the light of the constant   As the result of the so called Seven Year’s War in Europe between France and Great Britain, a British flotilla of thirteen ships, headed by Admiral Samuel Cornish and General William Draper, arrived in the Colony on September 22,1762. The Philippines got entangled in this European power struggle because the monarchs of Spain and France both belonged to the Bourbon Dynasty. On the one side where the combined French and Spanish forces together with their colonies; on the other, the rising tide of British colonialism in Asia. In retaliation for this entanglement, a military expedition from Madras was sent to India, then a British colony.
  • Spanish authorities in the colony were ill- prepared for such kind of international assault. During this tumultuous period, the Philippines was headed by Archbishop Manuel Rojo, a situation clearly indicative of the unstable political situation in the archipelago. Father Domingo Collantes, OP, Rector and chancellor of the University of Sto Tomas, organized a group of around two hundred (200) students from UST and Colegio de San Juan de Letran who underwent military training at Sto Tomas Plaza in Intramuros, Manila. Father Collantes was assisted by a sergeant in the Royal Spanish Army in setting up a battalion of young students for military instruction.  These students were immediately sent to action together with 500 Hispano-Filipino regulars (in the King’s Regiment ) and 80 Filipinos to counter the 7000 strong British Regiment. Though obviously mismatched against the British force, the ragtag force assembled by Spanish authorities was able to somehow temporarily ward - off the advancing enemies. Their skirmish lasted for five days, and the defenders suffered much in terms of the number of casualties and injuries. Realizing the futility of continuous fighting, Governor-Archbishop Rojo surrendered Manila and Cavite to Lieutenant General Dawsonne Drake on October 6, 1762. Though not so well known in the Philippine history, our country did become a British colony foe a while until June 1764. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, the Seven Year’s War ended and the British consequently left the archipelago for good.
  • According to Brigadier General Jose Syjuco, author of the Military education in the Philippines, most military historians marked the year 1912 as the beginning of the genuine ROTC instruction in the country. In that year, the Philippine Constabulary (PC) started conducting military instructions at the University of the Philippines (UP) on the old Padre Faura Campus. All able- bodied male students in all colleges, institutes, and schools of the university were required to undergo military training that focused initially on infantry and use of rifles. Appointed as the first military instructor was Captain Silvino Gallardo, who assumed office in the first semester of 1912. The need for reserve officer was further realized with the advent of the First World War in Europe, even though the Philippines had no direct military participation in that international squabble.
  • In 1912, during the American regime, UP and Ateneo de Manila started to offer military training. But their graduates could not find a career in military unless they joined the PC or the Philippine Scouts (PS). Governor General Leonard Wood encouraged the development of ROTC units, which were quite similar to those he had organized in the United States, in the Philippines. With representation from the UP Board of Regents to the US War Department, the services of an American Army officer was obtained. This officer was later appointed as professor of Military Science.
  • On March 17, 1922, the Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST) was formally organized in UP. Among the department’s objectives were to: 1) develop patriotic, physically sound, upright and disciplined citizens; 2) create a corps of trained officers for the reserve force; and 3) take the lead in fostering the university spirit. On July 3, 1922, with the first ROTC unit in the country having been organized, formal military instruction began in UP. Since then, basic course in infantry became compulsory and a pre-requisite for graduation from the university. On October 26, 1929, the field artillery unit of UP was organized with the issuance of 75mm field guns. In 1935, a mounted battery unit, equipped with 2.95-inch guns was also put in place.
  • Under the American tutelage, Commonwealth Act Number 1 provided the legal basis for the mandatory citizen military training in the Philippines. The country’s national defense plan was put into motion by the combined efforts of General Douglas McArthur and Manuel Quezon. The defense plan envisioned an organization on citizen army consisting of two major components: 1) a regular force of about 10,000 men (including PC) and 2) a reserve force to number 400,000 by end of ten-year period. The second component was to be accomplished by way of continuing program to train 21-year old able bodied men for a period of more than five months. Quezon personally hand-picked Gen McArthur to become the military adviser of the Commonwealth, with the responsibility of formulating the Philippine Defense system. (Quezon later conferred the status of “Field Marshall”, the highest military rank known in international usage, on McArthur). At the opening session of the National Assembly on November 26, 1935, Quezon re-iterated the need for a defense plan. According to him “ Self defense is the supreme right of mankind no more sacred to the individual than to the nation, the interests of which are immeasurably of greater significance and extent . . . In my opinion, the plan reflects the lessons of history, the conclusion of the acknowledge masters of warfare and of statesmanship, and the sentiments and aspirations of the Filipino people. It is founded upon enduring principles that are fundamental to any plan applicable to our needs,”
  • The strongest clamor for its abolition occurred in March 2001 as a consequence of the death of University of Santo Tomas ROTC Cadet Mark Chua who was allegedly hazed by senior ROTC cadets for his expose’ of several malpractices in the ROTC program. This incident was exploited by some leftist organizations who staged rallies demanding the abolition of the ROTC. This clamor prompted both Houses to file separate bills on the ROTC program. The House of Representatives filed House Bill Number 3593 and The Senate filed Senate Bill Number 1824 which led to the enactment of Republic Act 9163 otherwise known as the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001, making the ROTC as just one of the three components of the NSTP where the students can choose from. The ROTC training period was also reduced from two years to one year. Students can also select any component of the NSTP, thus making ROTC optional.
  • The NSTP has three (3) components namely: the ROTC, which is designed to provide military training to students to prepare for national defense, the Department of National Defense (DND) is the lead agency in the implementation of the ROTC component, the Literacy Training Service (LTS), which is designed to train students to become teachers to school children, out of school youth and other segments of the society who are in dire need of their service, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is the lead agency in the implementation of the LTS component and the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), which will involve the students to activities to contribute to general welfare and betterment of life, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is the lead agency in the implementation of CWTS component. The students can select any of the three (3) components as a requirement for their baccalaureate degree or two-year vocational course.
  • Philippine Military History

    1. 1. PHILIPPINE MILITARY HISTORY OVERVIEW OF THE SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN PHILIPPINE MILITARY HISTORY
    2. 2. HISTORY DEFINED o History is any integrated narrative description, or analysis of past events or facts written in a spirit of critical inquiry for the whole truth. o Military History is officially defined as an objective, accurate, descriptive, and interpretive record of all activities of the Armed Forces in peace and war.
    3. 3. PRE-SPANISH OCCUPATION Battle of Mactan on 27 Apr 1521 • first recorded organized resistance took place in the Visayas • Lapu-lapu: father of AFP • He fought against the Spaniards led by Magellan • The foreigners lost in the battle and Magellan was killed.
    4. 4. SPANISH OCCUPATION • Rajah Soliman: the Muslim leader • In 1570, he resisted the Spaniards’ efforts to land in Manila. • In 1571, Legaspi conquered Manila and made it as the capital of the Philippines. • Diego Silang led an uprising which displayed his exemplary military leadership style and tactics in defeating the Spaniards. • Filipino soldiers were also organized to fight for Spain and to support some expedition.
    5. 5. SPANISH OCCUPATION • Marcelo H del Pilar, Graceano Lopez Jaena and Jose Rizal: famous propagandists whose works nurtured the national spirit. • Andres Bonifacio: father of the Philippine Army, founded a more radical group called the “Katipunan” on 7 Jul 1892 • In August 23, 1896, the Cry of Pugad Lawin signaled the start of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. • Magdalo led by Aguinaldo and the Magdiwang led by Bonifacio • On 22 Mar 1897, Tejeros Convention resolved conflict between the 2 factions. • Aguinaldo won the presidency and this occasion also gave birth to Philippine Army.
    6. 6. AMERICAN INFLUENCE • On 23 April 1898, the Americans convinced to cooperate with the Americans against Spain. • Aguinaldo declared war against Spain. • 12 June 1898, Philippine Independence from Spain declared in Kawit, Cavite. • 22 June 1898, the Philippine Navy was created by the Revolutionary Army.
    7. 7. AMERICAN INFLUENCE • Treaty of Paris (February 10, 1763): Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. • Finding the archipelago as a lucrative place for some economic activities, the United States strengthened their presence in the Philippines. • This prompted the Filipinos to again unite and fight for the freedom they have just won. • The capture of General Aguinaldo by the Americans in Palanan, Isabela in March 23, 1901 and the laying down of arms of General Malvar in April 16, 1902 ended the organized resistance against the American forces.
    8. 8. AMERICAN INFLUENCE • The Philippine Constabulary was organized on August 8, 1901 • Followed by the establishment of the Philippine Military Academy on February 7, 1905. • On December 21, 1935, the National Defense Act was enacted which created the AFP. • The Philippine Air Force was later established on July 1, 1947.
    9. 9. JAPANESE OCCUPATION • Invading Japanese Forces landed in Vigan and Aparri in Luzon on December 10, 1945. • Japanese strikes caused the fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942 and Corregidor on May 6, 1942. • Successful come back of the liberating US Forces under Gen Douglas Mc Arthur who landed in Leyte on October 20, 1944.
    10. 10. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) • Commonwealth Act Number 1: National Defense Act provided the legal basis for the conduct of ROTC instruction, the need for a citizen reserve force had been realized as early as before the American occupation of the Philippines.
    11. 11. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • Fr. Domingo Collantes, OP (University of Sto Tomas) • He organized a group of around two hundred (200) students from UST and Colegio de San Juan de Letran who underwent military training at Sto Tomas Plaza in Intramuros, Manila. • Father Collantes was assisted by a sergeant in the Royal Spanish Army in setting up a battalion of young students for military instruction.
    12. 12. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • Brigadier General Jose Syjuco, author of the Military education in the Philippines: most military historians marked the year 1912 as the beginning of the genuine ROTC instruction in the country. • In that year, the Philippine Constabulary (PC) started conducting military instructions at the University of the Philippines (UP) • All able- bodied male students in all colleges, institutes, and schools of the university were required to undergo military training that focused initially on infantry and use of rifles. • Appointed as the first military instructor was Captain Silvino Gallardo, who assumed office in the first semester of 1912.
    13. 13. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • In 1912, during the American regime, UP and Ateneo de Manila started to offer military training. • But their graduates could not find a career in military unless they joined the PC or the Philippine Scouts (PS). • Governor General Leonard Wood encouraged the development of ROTC units, which were quite similar to those he had organized in the United States.
    14. 14. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • March 17, 1922, the Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST) was formally organized in UP. • Objectives were to: 1) develop patriotic, physically sound, upright and disciplined citizens; 2) create a corps of trained officers for the reserve force; and 3) take the lead in fostering the university spirit. • On July 3, 1922, with the first ROTC unit in the country having been organized, formal military instruction began in UP.
    15. 15. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • The country’s national defense plan was put into motion by the combined efforts of Gen Douglas McArthur and Manuel Quezon. • Quezon personally hand-picked Gen McArthur to become the military adviser of the Commonwealth, with the responsibility of formulating the Philippine Defense system. • Quezon later conferred the status of “Field Marshall”, the highest military rank known in international usage, on McArthur.
    16. 16. EVOLUTION AND ROLE OF THE ROTC IN THE PREVIOUS WARS • March 2001 : death of University of Santo Tomas ROTC Cadet Mark Chua who was allegedly hazed by senior ROTC cadets for his expose’ of several malpractices in the ROTC program. • His death was the strongest clamor for ROTC abolition. • Republic Act 9163 or National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001, making the ROTC as just one of the three components of the NSTP where the students can choose from. • The ROTC training period was also reduced from two years to one year. Students can also select any component of the NSTP, thus making ROTC optional.
    17. 17. NSTP COMPONENTS 1. ROTC - provide military training to students to prepare for national defense, the Department of National Defense (DND) implements the ROTC component. 2. Literacy Training Service (LTS) - train students to become teachers to school children, out of school youth and other segments of the society who are in dire need of their service, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) implements the LTS component. 3. Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), which will involve the students to activities to contribute to general welfare and betterment of life, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) implements the CWTS component.

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