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There is no ‘I’ in Marketing
Quick!
A bat and a ball cost
$1.10 in total.
The bat costs $1 more
than the ball. How
much does the ball
cost?
Most common answer:
• Bat = $1.00
• Ball = $0.10
Right answer:
• Bat = $1.05
• Ball = $0.05
A bat and a ball cost
$1.10 in...
There is no ‘I’ in Marketing
1. The ‘I’ illusion: irrational biases in individual
decision-making.
2. The ‘we’ species: a ...
Part 1
The ‘I’ Illusion
Irrational biases in
individual decision-making
Daniel Kahneman
• Psychologist
• Nobel prize in
economics (2002)
• System 1 and system 2
• Irrational biases
Daniel Kahneman
Daniel Kahneman
Anchoring
Anchoring is a cognitive bias that
describes the common human tendency to rely
too heavily on th...
• Is the height of the tallest
redwood more or less than
365 meter? Best guess?
• Is the height of the tallest
redwood mor...
• Did Mahatma Ghandi die
before or after age 9? Best
guess?
• Did Mahatma Ghandi die
before or after age 140?
Best guess?
...
Daniel Kahneman
Anchoring
Daniel Kahneman
Loss Aversion
In economics and decision theory, loss aversion
refers to people's tendency to strongly pref...
Daniel Kahneman
Loss Aversion
Daniel Kahneman
Loss Aversion
‘The things you own end
up owning you.’
Tyler Durden
Loss Aversion
Barry Schwartz
The Paradox of Choice
• Psychologist
• Too much choice
makes people
unhappy.
• The Jam
Experiment
Barry Schwartz
The Paradox of Choice
6 varieties
available for tasting
All 24 varieties
available for tasting
Stopped at t...
Barry Schwartz
The Paradox of Choice
Barry Schwartz
The Paradox of Choice
The negative effects of too
much choice:
1. Decision paralysis
2. Uncertainty (have I...
Solomon Asch
Conformity experiments
Solomon Asch
Conformity experiments
On average
32%
At least once
74%
12 critical trials
Never
26%
Fear of being ridiculed ...
Corpos –
Rotterdam
2002
Reli-Rockers
Rotterdam
2006
Veggies –
Zürich
2012
http://www.exactitudes.com/
Flowerpower –
Rotterdam
2007
Flexmanagers –
Rotterdam/Paris
2008
Les filles du 7eme –
Paris
2008
Auntie Never Ever –
Rotterdam
2010
http://www.exactitudes.com/
‘You're not a beautiful and
unique snowflake.’
Tyler Durden
The ‘I’ Illusion
Part 2
A ‘We’ species
The Super Social Ape
• We’re not suited for
survival as lone
individuals.
• We developed as super
social apes.
• Social is our core
evolutionar...
Groups > Individuals
• Protection and shelter.
• More mating partners.
• Better organization for hunting larger animals.
•...
Freud:
‘Ich’ is set at birth
and never changes.
"the individual mind can exist only in relation to
other minds with shared meanings“
• One of the founders of social psych...
ME
• “Me" is the organized set of
attitudes of others which an
individual assumes
• “Me" is self as object.
• “Me” represe...
"the individual mind can exist only in relation to
other minds with shared meanings“
Social Behaviorism
George Herbert Mead
Marilynn Brewer (2004)
Social Psychologist
“… all of the building blocks of human psychology –
cognition, emotion, movivat...
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Self-esteem as a sociometer
Monitor
inclusionary status
Activatie social pain
Restore
inclusi...
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Self-esteem as a sociometer
A system that continuouly monitors the inclusionary status
of the...
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Self-esteem as a sociometer
Monitor
inclusionary status
Activate social pain
Restore
inclusio...
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Social Pain
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Social Pain
Sociometer Theory
Mark Leary
Self-esteem as a sociometer
Monitor
inclusionary status
Activate social pain
Restore
inclusio...
Cast Away
"L'enfer, c'est les autres"
Part 3
understanding social behaviour
= understanding consumer behaviour
Diffusion of Innovations Model
Everett Rogers
‘Diffusion = the process by which an innovation is
communicated through cert...
We got ourselves a movement !
The innovator
The opinion leader
The early/late majority
The laggards
The tipping point
‘The leader embraces him as an equal.
It’s not about the leader anymore, it’s
now about them’
The Imaginative Innovator
Mo...
‘The first follower is what turns a lone
nut into a leader’
The opinion leader adds social relevance.
‘Three is a crowd and a crowd is news’
Word-of-Mouth spreads the idea
‘This is the tipping point. Now we have
a movement.’
‘The tipping point is that magic moment when
an idea, trend, or socia...
‘As more people join in it’s less risky ...
‘Eventually they will be ridiculed for
not joining in’
The laggard has to join in, in order to avoid
social disapproval.
The Innovator
• Authentic = true to their values
OR low susceptability to normative influence
OR low self-monitoring (not ...
The Opinion Leader
• Pragmatic = linking opportunities to needs.
High susceptability to normative influence
• Social risk-...
Part 4
What does this mean for marketing?
1.Start with WHY
1. Start with why
Starting with why makes you
consistent and authentic.
Authenticity is a sign of passion
and dedication. ...
“I don’t believe you.”
Create a world where everyone gets to mingle, and connect
with people of various cultures and backgrounds.
Rent rooms.
Create a world where
everyone gets to mingle, and
connect with people of
various cultures and
backgrounds.
Part 4
What does this mean for marketing?
2. Advertising
Join the Conversation
Traditional Advertising:
Stimulate individual behavior
Join the Conversation:
Stimulate social behavior
Join the Conversat...
Join the Conversation
The power of word-of-mouth
Nielsen Survey: Global Trust in Advertising and Brand Messages (2012)
Ads...
Traditional Advertising:
Stimulate individual behavior
Join the Conversation:
Stimulate social behavior
Join the Conversat...
the self The brand
emerges from
social interactions.
Join the Conversation
The power of a crowd
Join the Conversation
the self The brand
emerges from
social interactions.
1. Authentic and meaningful
2. The power of opinion leaders
3. Curios...
Join the Conversation
The power of a crowd
So it starts with an
authentic and
meaningful product.
But what makes a
message...
The power of
tastemakers /
opinion leaders.
Scarcity /
Confidentiality
increases curiosity.
Curiosity = social value.
Red Bull gives you wings
Add surprise / unexpectedness
to your WHY.
Red Bull is a media company that
happens to sell energy drinks
Storytelling. Give
meaning. Be relevant.
Start the conversation.
Be the conversation.
"We used to record demos and then just burn them onto
CDs and give them away at gigs … So the fans just used to
send them ...
What is the social value
of your message?
Think about …
1. Authentic and meaningful
2. The power of opinion leaders
3. Cur...
Part 4
What does this mean for marketing?
3. Co-create.
Open up your brand. Engage your fans.
Time to reinvent market research …
Traditional
• Long and boring
• Monologue
• One-shot
Insight Shop
Survey Anyplace
…
• S...
1988
R&D / Innovation
2015
To inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup
and one neighborhood at a time.
INSIGHT SHOP
BELIEVE
Insight Shop believes every shop can work
together with their clients in a fun, engaging
and permanen...
INSIGHT SHOP
CO-CREATION PROCESS
2 3 4
Ideation Concept
finetuning
Concept
workshop
1
Scope
5
Voorstelling
eindresultaat
There is no ‘I’ in Marketing
1. The ‘I’ illusion: irrational biases in individual
decision-making.
2. The ‘we’ species: a ...
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015
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There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015

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Human beings were not designed as isolated individuals. We're essentially super social apes. This has major implications on how we, marketeers, influence our audiences.

This presentations elaborates on popular theories from social psychology and translates them into learnings for marketing.

This presentation was given at the university of Antwerp for an audience of master students in applied economics.

Published in: Marketing
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There is no 'I' in marketing - Gastles UA 2015

  1. 1. There is no ‘I’ in Marketing
  2. 2. Quick! A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?
  3. 3. Most common answer: • Bat = $1.00 • Ball = $0.10 Right answer: • Bat = $1.05 • Ball = $0.05 A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?
  4. 4. There is no ‘I’ in Marketing 1. The ‘I’ illusion: irrational biases in individual decision-making. 2. The ‘we’ species: a super social ape. 3. understanding social behaviour = understanding consumer behaviour 4. What does this mean for marketing? – Start with WHY – Join the conversation – Co-creation
  5. 5. Part 1 The ‘I’ Illusion Irrational biases in individual decision-making
  6. 6. Daniel Kahneman • Psychologist • Nobel prize in economics (2002) • System 1 and system 2 • Irrational biases
  7. 7. Daniel Kahneman
  8. 8. Daniel Kahneman Anchoring Anchoring is a cognitive bias that describes the common human tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions.
  9. 9. • Is the height of the tallest redwood more or less than 365 meter? Best guess? • Is the height of the tallest redwood more or less than 55 meter? Best guess? Avg. = 257m Daniel Kahneman Anchoring Avg. = 86m Anchoring Index = 55%
  10. 10. • Did Mahatma Ghandi die before or after age 9? Best guess? • Did Mahatma Ghandi die before or after age 140? Best guess? Avg. = 50 Daniel Kahneman Anchoring Avg. = 67 Anchoring Index = 13%
  11. 11. Daniel Kahneman Anchoring
  12. 12. Daniel Kahneman Loss Aversion In economics and decision theory, loss aversion refers to people's tendency to strongly prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains.
  13. 13. Daniel Kahneman Loss Aversion
  14. 14. Daniel Kahneman Loss Aversion
  15. 15. ‘The things you own end up owning you.’ Tyler Durden Loss Aversion
  16. 16. Barry Schwartz The Paradox of Choice • Psychologist • Too much choice makes people unhappy. • The Jam Experiment
  17. 17. Barry Schwartz The Paradox of Choice 6 varieties available for tasting All 24 varieties available for tasting Stopped at table 40% Stopped at table 60% Bought 30% Bought 3%
  18. 18. Barry Schwartz The Paradox of Choice
  19. 19. Barry Schwartz The Paradox of Choice The negative effects of too much choice: 1. Decision paralysis 2. Uncertainty (have I made the right choice?)
  20. 20. Solomon Asch Conformity experiments
  21. 21. Solomon Asch Conformity experiments On average 32% At least once 74% 12 critical trials Never 26% Fear of being ridiculed or thought "peculiar". A few of them said that they really did believe the group's answers were correct. Conform %
  22. 22. Corpos – Rotterdam 2002
  23. 23. Reli-Rockers Rotterdam 2006
  24. 24. Veggies – Zürich 2012 http://www.exactitudes.com/
  25. 25. Flowerpower – Rotterdam 2007
  26. 26. Flexmanagers – Rotterdam/Paris 2008
  27. 27. Les filles du 7eme – Paris 2008
  28. 28. Auntie Never Ever – Rotterdam 2010 http://www.exactitudes.com/
  29. 29. ‘You're not a beautiful and unique snowflake.’ Tyler Durden The ‘I’ Illusion
  30. 30. Part 2 A ‘We’ species The Super Social Ape
  31. 31. • We’re not suited for survival as lone individuals. • We developed as super social apes. • Social is our core evolutionary strategy. A ‘WE’ Species The Super Social Ape
  32. 32. Groups > Individuals • Protection and shelter. • More mating partners. • Better organization for hunting larger animals. • Take and defend a larger territory against predators / other tribes. • Develop collective knowledge needed for – tool making – hunting tactics – Omnivourness – … A ‘WE’ Species The Super Social Ape
  33. 33. Freud: ‘Ich’ is set at birth and never changes.
  34. 34. "the individual mind can exist only in relation to other minds with shared meanings“ • One of the founders of social psychology • ‘Mind, Self and Society’ • Social behaviorism = the self emerges from social interactions. • “Me” and “I”. Social Behaviorism George Herbert Mead
  35. 35. ME • “Me" is the organized set of attitudes of others which an individual assumes • “Me" is self as object. • “Me” represents learned behaviors, attitudes, and expectations of others and of society. I • "I" is the response of an individual to the attitudes of others • "I" is self as subject. • “I” represents the individual’s identity based on response to the “me”. Social Behaviorism George Herbert Mead
  36. 36. "the individual mind can exist only in relation to other minds with shared meanings“ Social Behaviorism George Herbert Mead
  37. 37. Marilynn Brewer (2004) Social Psychologist “… all of the building blocks of human psychology – cognition, emotion, movivation – have been shaped by the demands of social interdependence.” A ‘WE’ Species The Super Social Ape
  38. 38. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Self-esteem as a sociometer Monitor inclusionary status Activatie social pain Restore inclusionary status
  39. 39. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Self-esteem as a sociometer A system that continuouly monitors the inclusionary status of the individual. The system monitors cues that connote disapproval, rejection or exclusion.
  40. 40. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Self-esteem as a sociometer Monitor inclusionary status Activate social pain Restore inclusionary status
  41. 41. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Social Pain
  42. 42. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Social Pain
  43. 43. Sociometer Theory Mark Leary Self-esteem as a sociometer Monitor inclusionary status Activate social pain Restore inclusionary status
  44. 44. Cast Away
  45. 45. "L'enfer, c'est les autres"
  46. 46. Part 3 understanding social behaviour = understanding consumer behaviour
  47. 47. Diffusion of Innovations Model Everett Rogers ‘Diffusion = the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.’ Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971 Chasm Loss Aversion Paradox of Choice Conformity
  48. 48. We got ourselves a movement ! The innovator The opinion leader The early/late majority The laggards The tipping point
  49. 49. ‘The leader embraces him as an equal. It’s not about the leader anymore, it’s now about them’ The Imaginative Innovator Motivation: follow their gut feeling
  50. 50. ‘The first follower is what turns a lone nut into a leader’ The opinion leader adds social relevance.
  51. 51. ‘Three is a crowd and a crowd is news’ Word-of-Mouth spreads the idea
  52. 52. ‘This is the tipping point. Now we have a movement.’ ‘The tipping point is that magic moment when an idea, trend, or social behavior crosses a threshold, tips, and spreads like wildfire. Malcolm Gladwell The Tipping Point
  53. 53. ‘As more people join in it’s less risky ...
  54. 54. ‘Eventually they will be ridiculed for not joining in’ The laggard has to join in, in order to avoid social disapproval.
  55. 55. The Innovator • Authentic = true to their values OR low susceptability to normative influence OR low self-monitoring (not conforming) • Functional risk-taking. What if my investments (in time, resources, health, …) result in a unwanted result. • R&D centers of a tribe / social context. – Domain specialisation. – Look for specialized information.
  56. 56. The Opinion Leader • Pragmatic = linking opportunities to needs. High susceptability to normative influence • Social risk-taking: what if the introduction would proof to be irrelevant for the social followers. • Central nervous system of a tribe / social context – Less domain specialisation. – Look for socially valuable information. – Fully aware of the environment of the group. – Fully aware of relevant trends.
  57. 57. Part 4 What does this mean for marketing? 1.Start with WHY
  58. 58. 1. Start with why Starting with why makes you consistent and authentic. Authenticity is a sign of passion and dedication. It’s a certificate for quality. Authenticity reassures the opinion leader this innovation is well thought-out.
  59. 59. “I don’t believe you.”
  60. 60. Create a world where everyone gets to mingle, and connect with people of various cultures and backgrounds.
  61. 61. Rent rooms. Create a world where everyone gets to mingle, and connect with people of various cultures and backgrounds.
  62. 62. Part 4 What does this mean for marketing? 2. Advertising Join the Conversation
  63. 63. Traditional Advertising: Stimulate individual behavior Join the Conversation: Stimulate social behavior Join the Conversation Joseph Jaffe
  64. 64. Join the Conversation The power of word-of-mouth Nielsen Survey: Global Trust in Advertising and Brand Messages (2012) Ads on TV: 47% Ads in magazines: 47%
  65. 65. Traditional Advertising: Stimulate individual behavior Join the Conversation: Stimulate social behavior Join the Conversation Joseph Jaffe
  66. 66. the self The brand emerges from social interactions. Join the Conversation The power of a crowd
  67. 67. Join the Conversation
  68. 68. the self The brand emerges from social interactions. 1. Authentic and meaningful 2. The power of opinion leaders 3. Curiosity 4. Unexpected 5. Storytelling 6. Easy to share Join the Conversation The power of a crowd
  69. 69. Join the Conversation The power of a crowd So it starts with an authentic and meaningful product. But what makes a message spread?
  70. 70. The power of tastemakers / opinion leaders.
  71. 71. Scarcity / Confidentiality increases curiosity. Curiosity = social value.
  72. 72. Red Bull gives you wings
  73. 73. Add surprise / unexpectedness to your WHY.
  74. 74. Red Bull is a media company that happens to sell energy drinks
  75. 75. Storytelling. Give meaning. Be relevant. Start the conversation. Be the conversation.
  76. 76. "We used to record demos and then just burn them onto CDs and give them away at gigs … So the fans just used to send them to each other, which didn't bother us because we never made those demos to make money or anything … And it made the gigs better, because people knew the words and came and sang along. We can't complain about it." Make your message easy to share. Facilitate your fans.
  77. 77. What is the social value of your message? Think about … 1. Authentic and meaningful 2. The power of opinion leaders 3. Curiosity 4. Unexpected 5. Storytelling 6. Easy to share
  78. 78. Part 4 What does this mean for marketing? 3. Co-create. Open up your brand. Engage your fans.
  79. 79. Time to reinvent market research … Traditional • Long and boring • Monologue • One-shot Insight Shop Survey Anyplace … • Short and Fun • Engaging • Start of a conversation https://www.getfeedback.com/surveys/23471 9/build/preview/desktop
  80. 80. 1988 R&D / Innovation
  81. 81. 2015
  82. 82. To inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time.
  83. 83. INSIGHT SHOP BELIEVE Insight Shop believes every shop can work together with their clients in a fun, engaging and permanent way in order to increase their shop (experience, communication, offer, …).
  84. 84. INSIGHT SHOP CO-CREATION PROCESS 2 3 4 Ideation Concept finetuning Concept workshop 1 Scope 5 Voorstelling eindresultaat
  85. 85. There is no ‘I’ in Marketing 1. The ‘I’ illusion: irrational biases in individual decision-making. 2. The ‘we’ species: a super social ape. 3. understanding social behaviour = understanding consumer behaviour 4. What does this mean for marketing? – Start with WHY – Join the conversation – Co-creation

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