Ad Hominem : Latin for "to the man." An arguer who uses ad hominems attacks the person instead of the argument. Whenever an arguer cannot defend his position with evidence, facts or reason, he or she may resort to attacking an opponent either through: labeling, straw man arguments, name calling, offensive remarks and anger. In politics this is quite frequent as politicians slanders the character of their opponent.
Appeal to ignorance as evidence for something. As our book says “We have no evidence that God doesnt exist, therefore, he must exist”Simply put, lack of existence is not evidence itself to conclude something exist or to negate its existence.
A conclusion supported, simply because it has long believed to be „true‟. Example Until Early modern period, predominant belief was that Earth was Flat. Now we know that was not the case, and we were wrong. Tradition cannot be used as evidence as traditions themselves can be prone to errors.
A small step toward something will inevitably lead toward a chain of events resulting in an significant impact. Example: If you stay home and watch TV all day, you will get fat. If you get fat you‟ll not get a girlfriend. If you don‟t get a girlfriend you can‟t marry. If you don‟t marry your life will be miserable.
False dilemma occurs when one is given only two alternatives, while there could be more than two. Example: 1. Claim X is true or claim Y is true (both could be false) 2. Claim Y is false 3. Claim X is true
This fallacy occurs when one draws conclusion on a population with out taking a proper sample size into consideration.Example: Suzy goes to 24 hr fitness near house and she realizes the atmosphere is not amicable, thus she concludes all 24 hr fitness stores are horrible.Many of us are guilty of committing hasty generalization with race and religion. A few Arabs are political fanatics and terrorist does that mean all Arabs are fanatics terrorist? There are 20-30 million Christian Arabs who does not fit this criteria thus such generalization are invalid and misleading.
Fallacy of non-sequitor (non-sequitor in latin means „‟it does not follow” ) is an argument in which its conclusion does not follow its premises. Example: A lunar eclipse is a sign of bad luck for an Amazon Tribe, they believe the spirits comes down from heaven and watches them and if they do not honor the spirit bad luck will occur. The year of the lunar eclipse saw the Amazon tribes gather less and less haunt. The lack of haunting game can be attributed to deforestation rather than the lunar eclipse.
Something has validity because everyone else is adhering to it.Bandwagon fallacies are quite common in fashion. Example: A few years back the black/white and red/white Palestinian scarf was became a must have fashion accessory after it was seen on some celebrity.Example: A lot of products claim to be # 1 or most popular, the popularity of the product does not prove its effectiveness. The popularity might have occurred because of good marketing strategy.
Arguer attempts to reach the audience threshold by appealing to their pity. Example: Pro life campaigners use a strategy to show visual of aborted fetuses which usually repel people and turn them against abortion.