GOODWIN’S THEORYSIX FEATURES OF A MUSIC VIDEO:1) A relationship between lyrics and visuals2) A relationship between music and visuals: • Illustrate – Music set to images illustrating the meaning of lyrics and genre • Amplify – The meaning of the song is added to by visuals, which add an extra layer of meaning • Disjuncture – The meaning of the song is completely ignored 3) Music videos demonstrate different genre characteristics 4) Record label demands (Close ups of the artists and particular visual styles) 5) Reference to the notion of looking (screens within screens, mirrors and possible voyeuristic treatment of the female body) 6) Intertextual references to films, TV programmes, other media etc.)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LYRICS AND VISUALS “Girl” “So confused”Above are some examples of where the lyrics match with the visuals shown.there is one obvious match with the lyrics and that is “Girls”, there are variouswomenin this production illustrating the fact that the main singer is „attracted‟ to them.However there are not many other examples of where the lyrics match the visuals.This is because the video is heavily stylised and focused towards promoting Katyherself (This was her first official music video) there are not many otherprops/people withinthe production. Most of the lyrics are matched with Visuals of Katy.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUSIC AND VISUALSThis can be any of the following three:• Illustrate – Music set to images illustrating themeaning of lyrics and genre•Amplify - The meaning of the song is added to byvisuals, which add an extra layer of meaning•Disjuncture – The meaning of the song is completelyignoredThis video is an example where visuals in a music video amplify the meaning of a song.There are no exact matches to the visuals and music but some lyrics are conveyed in a none obvious way, withexamples below. Body language is used to show the feelings that are being conveyed. Along with mise-en-scene. This is shown in different ways:• Eye contact with the camera• Glances away to show „cheeky‟ behaviour• Ambient lighting to create a seductive and sexual atmosphere• Props such as lace fans and Basques creating a slightly burlesque feel• Soft focus reminds us of a cheap porn video
MUSIC VIDEOS DEMONSTRATE DIFFERENT GENRE CHARACTERISTICSGenre characteristics for example could include: Staging inmetal videos or aspiration inHip hop. This video demonstrates typical genre characteristicsfor a pop video but it has beendone in a slightly different way. The first recognisable element ofa pop video would be a dance routine, in parts of the video wesee Katy performing a dance routine with the backing dancers.However we also see her dancing on her own, which suggestsheavy marketing of the singer for the record company, which isanother genre characteristic of pop music.As well as production values there is also an important elementof promoting „Celebrity culture‟. Katy throughout all of her videosis constantly being promoted and shown as a star to encouragefans to buy her music and ultimately idolise her. This is animportant factor within popular music as the most successfulartists (Rihanna, Lady Gaga etc..) are all promoted and shown inthe same way (Glamorous, floral and pretty). Perry‟s videos areconfident and girly, showing off the female side of pop andmaking her a star in the eye‟s of young girls.
RECORD LABELDEMANDSThere are frequent close ups of Katy Perry throughout the video to promote her as both anartist andA celebrity. The use of ambient lighting shows her to be a beautiful woman (soft skin, glowingeyes). ItAlso sells sex appeal as well through the clothing and amount of skin exposed. The materialsused in the close ups we also get a lot of eye contact which makes the viewer feel closerThrough theProduction are luxurious (silk and velvet) this willmirrors what theto want to meet hertheAnd more connected to Katy as a person, which encourage fans record label want andaudience to view Katy as.see herPerform. Throughout Katy‟s videos there is a similar luxurious style to the clothing, hair andmake-upThat she wears. This has developed into a certain style that is seen throughout allproductions of hers.Perry is marketed as a glamorous female with a sense of innocence about her. This issometimes shown through props and colour schemes. In this video innocence is shownthrough the use of the colour pink which suggests a young girl and the use of props like thefluffy kitten and the toy rabbit, shown beside her in bed.
REFERENCE TO THE NOTION OFLOOKINGThe record label that has produced this video wants to focus our attention on Katyand Katy only! The song is about her feelings towards other women and almostevery shot includes her in some way. There is particular voyeuristic treatment ofwomen within the production for example:• Close ups of chest• Close ups of legs• Viewing the female body from behind so that we notice certain features• Ambient lighting to create a burlesque romantic feel, adding to the sexual nature of the song• Clothing that shows skin and flesh, appealing to both female and male audience, It appeals to males as it is sexually attractive and it appeals to females as it shows them what a „perfect‟ body should look like
INTERTEXTUALREFERENCESThere are intertextual references to the film James Bond as the record companyappearTo be marketing Katy as a „Bond Girl‟. We can see this through the way she isdressed (gold dress) and the fact that she is holding a kitten. There are alsoreferences to 1950‟s magazines and glamour girls, again we can see this throughthe way she is styled. Her style resembles that of the 1950‟s icon Marilyn Monroeand her hair and makeup mirror the styles shown in womens magazines such asvogue from the 50‟s. The 1950‟s look is something that is repeated throughout hervideos, especially in „Thinking of You‟ where the video is set in the late 40‟s/50‟sjust after a period of war. This is a continual style that perry is developing andchanging as she goes along in her career,“James Bond” “50’s Glamour”