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Principles of Teaching 2:Developing a lesson


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Principles of Teaching 2:Developing a lesson

  1. 1. Developing a lesson “Instructional Planning” By: Rea R. Tiangson
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to: 1. Define lesson and linstructional planning; 2. Identify the instructional planning sequence; 3.Enumerate the functions and phases of instructional planning; 4. Name the levels of instructional planning types of lesson plan, and 5. Write a lesson plan .
  3. 3. Motive Question: What is a lesson?
  4. 4.  A lesson is: * a piece of instruction; • A reading or exercise to be studied by a pupil; • * something learned by study or experience • First Use: 13th century Synonyms: assignment;reading
  5. 5. Developing a lesson takes the process of planning: what to to teach, how to teach and how to evaluate learning. As mentioned earlier in our discussion effective teaching aligns the three major components of instruction namely: learning objectives;instructional activities and assessment. Therefore, in the planning or process of developing a lesson these three should be taken into consideration. Introduction:
  6. 6. What is instructional planning ?
  7. 7. Instructional Planning is defined as:  Visualizing- the ability to visualize the future classroom events  Guidance-provides the type of roadmap or guide in creating a flow of events that has a starting and ending point  Managing- a way of managing time and events  Decision making-allows one to make decisions about the hows and whats of teaching based on the three primary considerations
  8. 8. Three Primary Considerations in Decision-Making Student’s prior learning experiences Content derived from curriculum guides, Context and conditions on which the instruction will take place
  9. 9. Functions of Planning 1. To give an overview of the instruction 2. To facilitate good management of instruction 3. To make learning purposeful 4. To tie instructional events with community services
  10. 10. 4. To provide sequencing and pacing 5. To economize time 6. To provide for a variety of instructional activities 7. To make learner’s success more measurable which assists in re-teaching 8. To create the opportunity for higher-level questioning 9. To assist in ordering supplies 10. To guide substitute teachers
  11. 11. 11.To provide opportunities for an individual student or a group of students to benefit maximmally from participation in selected learning activities 12. To provide teachers an opportunity to rehearse mentally and on paper what will take place when they teach.
  12. 12. Instructional Planning Sequence
  13. 13. Assessing the Learners’ Needs -motivation -self-concept -prior learning -achievement level -intelligence level Reading comprehension Mapping the Plan -Unit -Daily Giving Instructions -Methods -Materials -Grouping Evaluating -Placement -Formative -Diagnostic Summative Stating the School Goals
  15. 15. Preplanning Activity:Mental Plan Post Planning Activity: Evaluate Plan Active Planning: Written Plan Ongoing Planning Activity:Tune Plan LEARNER CONTENT CONTEXT
  16. 16. Levels of Instructional Planning
  17. 17. Levels of IP Yearly Planning Unit Planning Weekly Planning Term Planning Daily Planning
  18. 18. Goals: * establish general content * establish basic curriculum and content *ordering and reserving materials Sources of Information: *Students *resources available *curriculum guidelines Form of Plan: General outline Basic Contents and possible ideas in each subject area Yearly Planning
  19. 19. Goals: *Details the content to be discovered in the next three months * Establish a weekly schedule for term that conforms to goals Sources of Info: * direct contact with students *Time constraints set by school schedule Form of Plan: *Elaboration of outlines * a weeklyschedule outline specifying activities and time Term Planning
  20. 20. Goals: * Develop a well-organized learning experiences * Establish aweekly schedule for term that conforms to goals. Sources of Info: * students abilities * materials length of lessons; set-up, time, demaand, format *School objectives *facilitates for available activities Form of Plan: * List or outline activities and content *List and sequenced activites * Notes in plan books Unit Planning
  21. 21. Goals: * Lay out the week’s activities within the framework of the weekly schedule *Adjust schedule for interruptions and specific needs * Maintain continuity and regularity of activities Sources of Info: * students’ performance in proceeding days and weeks * scheduled school interruptions; materials, aids and other resources Form of Plan: * Names and Time of activities * Day divided into four instructional blocks modified by schedule Weekly Planning
  22. 22. Goals: *Set up and arrange the classroom for the next day *Specific activity components *Fitting daily schedule to last minute instruction Sources of Info: * instruction in materials materials to be used *Set-up time required for activities *Assessment of class disposition at the start of the day Daily Planning
  23. 23. *Continued interest,involvement and enthusiasm Form of Plan: * Schedule for the day written on the chalkboard and discussed with students * Preparation and arrangement of materials and facilities in the classroom
  24. 24. What are the components of a plan?
  25. 25. Components of a Plan Objectives Content Skills Learning Activities Resources and Materials Evaluation Procedures