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Enhanced genetic resources - Flagship Project 1 overview, ISTRC 2018


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Luis Augusto Becerra presents an overview of Flagship Project 1 'Enhanced genetic resources' of the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB), during the 18th Triennial Symposium of the International Society of Tropical Roots Crops (ISTRC) in October 2018.

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Enhanced genetic resources - Flagship Project 1 overview, ISTRC 2018

  1. 1. S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 8 Flagship Project 1: Enhanced Genetic Resources LUIS AUGUSTO BECERRA • RTB ISC ANNUAL F2F MEETING
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Flagship overview • Key scientific achievements 2018 • Looking ahead: opportunities and challenges
  3. 3. Flagship overview The objective of Flagship project 1 (FP1) is to develop and apply leading-edge science toward faster and more precise development of user-demanded varieties, and to enhance the long-term conservation and use of genetic diversity.
  4. 4. Clusters and Cluster Leaders Dr Ted Carey DI1.1 – Breeding Community of Practices Dr Marc Ghislain DI1.3 – Game-changing Traits Dr Ehsan Dulloo and Dr Michael Abberton DI1.4 – Tapping into RTB genetic diversity Dr Ismail Rabbi DI1.2 – NextGen Breeding
  5. 5. Level of funding by window and cluster : FP1 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DI 1.4 DI 1.3 DI 1.2 D I1.1 0.9 0.6 1.3 1.0 0.2 0.7 1.7 1.1 0.2 0.4 1.5 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 Millions Cluster Funding by Cluster W1&2 W3 BILATERAL OWN FUNDS W1&2 35% W3 34% BILATERAL 27% OWN FUND 4% Funding by Window W1&2 W3 BILATERAL OWN FUND TOTAL FP1 3.8 3.8 2.9 0.4 10.9
  6. 6. Key scientific achievements 2017-18
  7. 7. DI1.1 RTB Breeding Community of Practice
  8. 8. RTB Interactions with EiB • EiB Module 1 • StageGate system for breeding pipelines- inputs from Ted Carey and M Friedmann on RTB crop issues of specific traits, bulking of planting material for advancement, etc. • EiB Module 2 • Portal to share strategies and tools-to coordinate with RTB BCoP portal • Breeding program optimization; workflows-to adjust to RTB crops as well • EiB Module 3 • Access to genotyping platforms- being used by RTB Scientists (cassava, potato, and yam). • EiB Module 4 • NIRS experiences from RTB scientists and looking into ground penetrating radar for early bulking trait screening • EiB Module 5 • RTB databases (eg cassavabase, sweetpotatobase) and contributions to BrAPI for database inter-operability.
  9. 9. Integrating gender: trait preferences for cassava
  10. 10. DI1.2 Next Generation Breeding for root, tubers and bananas
  11. 11. Consequences of interspecificity and structural variations on chromosome segregation and recombination in A/B allopolyploid bananas BANANA
  12. 12. Proof of Concept of Marker-Assisted Selection (Cassava) put forward to the cassava community by IITA • Tier 1 traits: Pest and disease resistance, micronutrient density and dry matter content • Resistance to CMD (6 SNPs) • Resistance to CBSD (NaCRRI – Uganda) (not finalized yet) • Resistance to CGM (NRCRI) (14 SNPs) • Provitamin A content (17 SNPs) • Dry matter content (15 SNPs) • CIAT is currently working on developing and validating molecular markers to whiteflies resistant and complementing the work by IITA on the high accumulation of β-carotene. • CIAT through partnership with Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Dr Winter) sources of CBSD immunity has been found – currently developing segregating progenies for both CBSD and CMD CASSAVA
  13. 13. CASSAVA
  14. 14. DI1.3 Game changing traits
  15. 15. Cross-cutting: Stewardship and regulation of biotech products Results from a DI1.3 workshop (Nairobi, September, 2017) Biotech potato and Banana Project / Product issues: • Quality control: for both crops, tools are available to ensure product integrity • Regulatory strategy: country by country approvals by CG and NARS • Market confusion: difficult to maintain susceptible variety, but new trait / new variety • Crop cultivation and utilization: NARS will have to take monitoring & compliance responsibility Organizational / Operational issues: • Competencies: train CG and NARS and take on achievable responsibilities • Integrating regulatory and stewardship requirements: clear instructions to responsible staff • Tracking / inventory: establish a traceability system • Documentation / Archiving: assign resources to safeguard archives • Contractual obligations: stewardship compliance included in MTA, agreements, contracts Genome editing • During research and product development, CG and NARS will have to handle gene-edited crops as genetically engineered crops • Approval and release will be dictated by national legislation.
  16. 16. Genome Editing at IITA BANANA
  17. 17. Genome Editing to Remove a Selectable Marker Gene from Late Blight Resistant Potato for Africa Joseph Kpakpo Quaye, Jens Boch Leibniz Universität Hannover Design of the editing tools (sgRNAs ) of target sequence - nptII CRISP/Cas9 in vitro cleavage analyses • 4 sgRNAs came out as promising candidates • Next step is to do it on protoplasts of a good lead transgenic event and regenerate potato plants Figure: sgRNAL14, lane + has all components and show cleavage while other lack 1, 2, or 3 = negative controls) POTATO
  18. 18. Genome Editing at CIAT CASSAVA
  19. 19. DI1.4 Genetic Diversity
  20. 20. Rapid Appraisal of diversity in hotspots of RTB crops
  21. 21. Cassava agrobiodiversity of the Yanesha communities of Peru • Rapid diversity assessment surveys nearly complete • 300 hh, 12 communities Zona baja Nuevo Progreso Hanswald San Juan de Pachitea Huacamayo Zona media Centro Esperanza Pampa Cocha Loma Linda Santo Domingo Zona alta Gramazu Miraflores Alto Yurinaki El Milagro
  22. 22. RTB-DI1.4.2.2 : Seed storage behavior of wild banana seeds
  23. 23. Potato Cryobank at CIP
  24. 24. Looking ahead: opportunities and challenges
  25. 25. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES • Opportunities • A wealth of genomic resources has been generated for RTBs germplasm (approx. 25% of what's available in Germplasm Banks - GB). This resource can be used to unravel and exploit heterosis. • Great advances on phenotyping approaches have been made (e.g., consumer preference). This will allow characterizing genomic region (genes discovery) for traits of economic and agronomic importance • Genome editing approaches for gene(s) involve in climate adaptation and those that will improve use of natural resources • Challenges • Agree on a common analytical platform (genotypic and phenotypic) • Find resources to complete the sequence characterization of RTB-GB • Improve phenotypic platform for RTBs • Find to increase financial investment in this area
  26. 26. Thank you