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THAILAND COUNTRY-WIDE Slum Upgrading - Ms. Thipparat Noppaladarom

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THAILAND COUNTRY-WIDE Slum Upgrading - Ms. Thipparat Noppaladarom - Third Expert Meeting of the Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group (RSUWG) - 29th. of November to the 1st. of December 2015 in Laleh International Hotel, Tehran, I.R. of Iran

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THAILAND COUNTRY-WIDE Slum Upgrading - Ms. Thipparat Noppaladarom

  1. 1. THAILAND COUNTRY-WIDE Slum Upgrading By Thipparat Noppaladarom Community Organizations Development Institute (Public Organization),Thailand
  2. 2. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT & HUMAN SECURITY THAILAND
  3. 3. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (CODI) (PUBLIC ORGANIZATION) THE MERGER OF 2 ORGANIZATIONS IN 2000 UBRAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (UCDO) 61,62 US.MIL.$ (2,156.69 MB.) RURAL DEVELOPMENT FUND (RDF) 21.23 US.MIL.$ (743.04 MB.) CODI 82.85 US.MIL.$ (2,899.73 MB.) 3
  4. 4. 4 CODI MISSION 1.Supporting and assisting community organizations and their networks in improving standard of living, income earning, housing and environment development both in urban and rural through integrated development process. 2.Providing financial support to community organization and their networks. 3.Coordinating with offices / agencies both government and non government agencies in providing support and assistance for community organizations and their networks’ development. 4.Building cooperation among community organizations and their networks at local, provincial and national levels.
  5. 5. Community Development Committee Academics Supported Agencies NGOs Local Authorities Others CODI Network Network Network WELFARE LAND - HOUSING SAVINGS - CREDIT COMMUNITY ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENT OTHERS 5
  6. 6. 6 Example of Current Development Program & Activities 1. City-Wide Slum Upgrading “Baan Mankong” 2. Community Welfare 3. Sub-district Community Organizations councils 4. Land and Housing in Southern Provinces and in Rural Area 5. Community Organization Certification 6. Rehabilitation of Disaster affected Communities 7. Communities Natural Resource Management 8. Community Master Plan 9. Community Economic Development Programme etc.
  7. 7. Thailand city – wide slum upgrading “Baan Mankong” by CODI 7 Launched in 2003, the program aims at solving housing and land insecurity of slum dwellers on a city-wide scale. The process involves slum surveys, community plans and designs, infrastructure improvement subsidy, and housing and land loans. The cabinet has approved the target of 200,015 housing units. Throughout the process, community organizations and local authorities are encouraged to be the key driving forces in solving city-wide slums.
  8. 8. 8  Total 5,500 Low-income communities in 300 cities, population 8.25 million  3,700 insecure land - 65% land rental with no secure contact - 35% squatting - 445 communities having threat of eviction  70-80% cannot afford housing in market & public system SLUM AND SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS IN THAILAND
  9. 9. Location of Slums and Squatter Communities in Bangkok 9
  10. 10. Slums and Squatter Settlements in Nakornsawan 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12 • Urbanization started in 1960s,intensified 80s • Today 65% rural 35% urban • National Housing Authority set up 1973 - Construction flats and Complete houses since 1970s - Sites & services 1977-1980s - Slum upgrading by govt. 1977-2000s • Housing is not generally responsibilities of Local Authority • Urban Community Development office set up 1992 - Community Development Fund • Community Organizations Development Institute (CODI) set up 2002 - to employee community Organization Urbanization
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. SLUM UPGRADING (since 1977) • Improve and maintain existing community structure and people’s established life and add value of already existed investment • Improve better environment and infrastructure conditions and its link with city • Still lack security of tenure • Insufficient housing improvement Government subsidy of 25,000 Bht/family and about 125,000 units have been improved 14
  15. 15. The forms of housing solutions- Flat and High Rise Housing • Higher density • Higher investment cost require higher subsidy • Too rigid forms, do not applicable to urban poor people ways of life, losing community structure • Problems of transfering rights Total 30,000 units constructed 15
  16. 16. REBLOCKING •Adjustment of existing community structure, linking circulations and adjusting plots •Implemented in communities having security of tenure by purchasing existing slum land from former rental arrangement •Gradual housing improvement 16
  17. 17. Resettlement near to former slum •Communities can still stay near to former place •Need for reconstruction •Having security of tenure former Klongtoey slum After relocation on nearby area same group as above Before After 17
  18. 18. LAND SHARING PROJECT Ban Manangkhasila Before After 18
  19. 19. Housing cooperatives of the Rafters in Pitsanuloke 19
  20. 20. Housing Development Activities by Community: Townhouses at Samut Prakan 20
  21. 21. MAIN TOOLS OF BAAN MANKONG • Flexible finance • Collaboration • Saving groups • Collective • Horizontal support • Technical support 21
  22. 22. Process and linkages of local housing development partnership “ Baan Mankong ” City-widesurvey / joint planning, search for solutions together Find various solutions suitable for all communities in city Academics Municipality Community Other dev. agencies On-site Upgrading Land-sharing& reconstruction Reblocking & readjustment Resettlements Row-house Flat Detach house Row-housing Flat Mixed approach 22
  23. 23. Financial Framework providing Flexible Financial Support for City-wide Upgrading by Communities Government Subsidy 1) Upgrading of Infrastructure and Social Facilities 25,000 – 45,000 Bht. x No. of Families 2) 5% of 1) for Local Management 3) Support for Community Exchange, Capacity Building, Seminars, Coordinator Loans From CODI Revolving Fund Communities Total Subsidy per family/unit 80,000 Bhts. Interest 4 % Members Members Members 3) Housing Improvement/Development 20,000 Bht. x No.of Families (Max 15 yr. Max. 300,000 Bht./unit) 23 (1us $ ~ 35 Bht.)
  24. 24. มั่นคงสว่างแสงศรี On-site upgrading KHONKAEN หนองคะเน โชคชัย นาโพธิ์ โนนแหลมทอง หนองตาไก้ กุดชุมแพพรานราษฎร์ หนองใส หนองโดน Nearby Relocation - Land lease - Purchase new land ซื้อที่ดินใหม่ เช่าที่ดินราชพัสดุ เช่าที่ดินสาธารณะประโยชน์ เช่าที่ดินราชพัสดุ ซื้อที่ดินใหม่ ซื้อที่ดินใหม่ ซื้อที่ดินใหม่ เช่าที่ดินราชพัสดุ เช่าที่ดินราชพัสดุ ไผ่กุดหิน ที่ดินตนเอง โนนแหลมทอง โชคชัย หนองโดน กุดชุมแพ พรานราษฎร์ ชุมแพ นาโพธิ์ หนองตาไก้ ศรีมงคล หนองขาม หนองคะเน หนองใส ไผ่กุดหิน Development Approach BAAN MANGKONG PROJECT : CHUMPHAE CITY, NORTHEAST CHUMPHAE 24
  25. 25. 1 5 3 4 2 (Development on Public land) ที่ดินสาธารณะประโยชน์ ที่สามารถรองรับโครงการ โนนห้วยตับเต่า พื้นที่ 85ไร่ 2 งาน 27 ตารางวา 1 หนองอีเลิง พื้นที่ 10ไร่ 2 บ้านนาโพธิ์ พื้นที่ 29ไร่ 80 ตารางวา 3 หนองใส พื้นที่10 ไร่ 2 งาน 4 แซงกระเทิบ พื้นที่119ไร่ 3 งาน 5 CHUMPHAE BAAN MANGKONG PROJECT : CHUMPHAE CITY, NORTHEAST KHONKAEN 25
  26. 26. ROM YEN COMMUNITY 26
  27. 27. ROM YEN COMMUNITY 27
  28. 28. BEFORE AFTER WAT PHOTHI WARARAM COMMUNITY 28
  29. 29. Process Compare with the scale Saam-Huang CommunityBAAN MANKONG Samutprakarn 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. TAMANSRIJAYA COMMUNITY : YALA 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Housing Model : by Community 33
  34. 34. 34 ศูนย์พัฒนาเด็ก เล็ก สหกรณ์ร้านค้า มัสยิด กลุ่มอาคารศาลาเอนกประสงค์ PANARAE : PATTANI
  35. 35. 35 PU-POH : PATTANI
  36. 36. PU-POH : PATTANI 36
  37. 37. 37 SAMAKKI RUAMJAI COMMUNITY BANGBUA : BANGKHENBEFORE AFTER
  38. 38. BANGBUA (BEFORE IMPROVEMENT) 38
  39. 39. BANGBUA (AFTER IMPROVEMENT) 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Sub-group Sub-group Sub-group Sub-group Bon kai Patanna Cooperative Sub-group system • Group guarantee • Collaborative work • Land rent and loan repayment collection Sub-group management system • Sub-group funding • Daily money collection • Monthly meeting • Deliver the collected money to the Cooperative Interest Rate 2% per year CODI Bon kai Sub-group System CommunityCreditUnion on lend to members at 4 % interest using margin for communitydevelopment, management and welfare
  42. 42. Input : Government subsidy 2,000 $ • Loan for land/housing average 4,500 $ ( to be repaid) • Community contribution 500 $ • Other contribution 500 $ Total investment 7,500 $ (govt. less than 30%) Urban poor housing development is an investment, rather than a social expense 42
  43. 43. • Collective land ownership, or lease • Community savings and fund (acting as community bank) • Welfare activities : scholarship, children, youth, elderly, sick and advantaged, dead • Active linking with community network and city organizations and regular meetings • Collective management • Active citizens, closer and regular link with local authority Impacts: Building a New and Secure Community 43
  44. 44. Baan Mankong-Performance since 2004 • Implementation in 71(of77) provinces, 300 cities • 850+ projects approved; cover 1,660 communities and 96,000 families • loan granted per family is about 3,000-7,000 USD average about 5,000 USD /family • Total government upgrading subsidy granted about US$150 mil (about $2,500/family) • US$185 mil granted in loans from CODI revolving Fund (4% interest). Repayment 97.5%! 44
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