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Slum Upgrading Index (SUI) 2015 - Dr. Mozaffar Sarrafi

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Third Expert Meeting of the Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group (RSUWG) - Session IV : Slum Upgrading Indicators - 29th. of November to the 1st. of December 2015 in Laleh International Hotel, Tehran, I.R. of Iran - http://www.rsuwgmeeting.org

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Slum Upgrading Index (SUI) 2015 - Dr. Mozaffar Sarrafi

  1. 1. Presented by: Mozaffar Sarrafi, PhD. Alireza Mohammadi & Nasibeh Hashemi Iranian Urban Development & Revitalization Corporation In the Name of God 3rd Meeting of “RSUWG” 29 Nov – 1 Dec 2015, Tehran Slum Upgrading Index ( SUI )
  2. 2. On Slum Upgrading Index: 1. Urban poverty: A global & Asian challenge 2. The necessity to upgrade slums 3. Our understanding of slum upgrading 4. Fields of intervention for slum upgrading 5. Review of experienced global and local indices 6. Contextualizing “CPI” for slum upgrading evaluation 7. Conclusion: “SUI” components & composition IranBrazil
  3. 3. 1970 Rural 63% Urban 37% 2000 2030 Rural 53% Urban 47% Rural 40% Urban 60% The Change of Urban Population in the World Urban poverty: A global and Asian challenge • Over 90 % of urban population growth is in developing countries • About half of this growth will end up in living in slums • Asian has the biggest number of urban population & urban poor
  4. 4. Urban poverty: A global and Asian challenge • The rate of return on capital is greater than the rate of economic growth and thus, surging inequality • World economy is dominated by inherited wealth Thomas Picketty:
  5. 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Urban Population Rural Population Slum Population Billion Year: 1850 1950 20001900 20502030 UN-HABITAT: Global Urban Observatory World’s Population Urban poverty: A global and Asian challenge
  6. 6. The necessity to upgrade slums • Reality of slums as solutions and not only as problems • Humane & ethical cause: Human rights and responsibilities for poverty eradication • Security & developmental cause: Great human resources but “double edged sword” A room shared by 5 people 3 generations Sao Paulo: Tale of two cities
  7. 7. The necessity to upgrade slums “If cities do not begin to deal more constructively with poverty, poverty may begin to deal more destructively with cities.” Former World Bank president: R. McNamara Arab spring: Picture of Mohammad Bouazizi in Protesters’ hands South America Egypt
  8. 8. Our understanding of slum upgrading Dualities in upgrading actions: • Building vs. Neighborhood • Physical vs. Socio- economical • Objective vs. Subjective • Product vs. Process • Standards vs. Affordable • Exogenous vs. Endogenous • Needs vs. Assets • Resettlement vs. In-situ • Redevelopment vs. Regeneration Bandar Abbas, South of Iran
  9. 9. Our understanding of slum upgrading Conventional Approach New Approach Building houses Creating neighborhoods Hardware & physical engineering Software & social organizing Isolated complexes Integrated quarters Standard & show-off Affordable & scaling-up Supply-based provision Asset-based facilitation Exogenous actions Endogenous actions Economic growth Sustainable development Endowing Products Enabling Processes
  10. 10. Our understanding of slum upgrading Community enabling approach through slum upgrading should facilitates: • Building human capital • Strengthening social capital • Institutional capacity building • Pride of place and human dignity • Sense of safety & belonging • City-wide integration … and finally, sustainable community development. Addressing all the causes, with integrative solutions
  11. 11. Our understanding of slum upgrading Slum upgrading is first of all, about “people prosperity” and not only, “place prosperity”. It must lead to integration of slum areas with the rest of city (de-marginalization of poor) Physical upgrading should be coincided with socio-economic uplifting of slum community. China India
  12. 12. Our understanding of slum upgrading Community building/strengthening is the pivotal strategy for sustainable upgrading. Participatory planning is instrumental to the process of community empowerment. Urban regeneration should be pursued concomitant to slum upgrading Isfehan, Iran Shahre Ghods, Iran
  13. 13. Fields of intervention for slum upgrading Country City Slum Area Programs, Projects India Mumbai Dharavi slum improvement program, 1971, slum upgrading program (SUP), 1985, The Prime Ministers Grant Project (PMGP), Slum Redevelopment Scheme, 1991, Slum Rehabilitation, 1995, Deharavi rehabilitation project (DRP), 2004 Kenya Nairobi Kibera Slum Upgrading Project (KENSUP), 2005, Informal Settlement Improvement Program, 2011 Brazil São Paulo Guarapirang a Brazil Slum Upgrading Program “BSUP”, 2005, Primary and secondary infrastructure project for the collection and treatment of wastewater, Regulatory and legal framework development project, Guarapiranga Upgrading Project, 1993- 2000 Brazil Salvador Alagados Alagados Integrated Slum Upgrading Program, Urban Infrastructure Development Program, PRODUR,1990, Ribier Azul Urban Poverty Reduction Program, 1999, Technical and Social Support Project " PATZ", 2001-2006. Bangladesh Dhaka All slums Slum Improvement Project, 1985, Back to Home, 1991, Bhashantek Rehabilitation Project, 2006, Urban Basic Services Delivery Project, 1992, Integrated Secondary Towns Flood Protection , 1992, Secondary Towns Infrastructure Development Project, 1992, Community Empowerment for Urban Poverty Alleviation, 1992 Morocco Casablanc a Villes Sans Bidonvilles “Initiative nationale de developpement humain” Program, 2005, Villes Sans Bidonvilles Project, 2004, Moukawalati Program Indonesia Surabaya & Bandung Tamansari National Development Plan: NDP, Tamansari Project, Boezem Morokrembangan, Kampung Improvement Program ( KIP), The Area Based Slum Upgrading Project, Community Life Improvement Program Thailand Bangkok All slums Baan Mankong Project, Baan Ua Arthorn Project Egypt Alexandri a Abdel- Moneim Riad Informal Settlements Development Program (ISDP), 2004, Informal settlement belting program , Ezzbet Abd El Meniem Upgrading Program Ghana Kumasi All slums Urban Environment Sanitation Program (UESP) I, II. European Union Micro Projects (EUMP) Community Infrastructure Upgrading, Government Accountability Improvement Trust (GAIT), Urban Poverty Reduction Project (UPRP), Un- Habitat Slum Upgrading Facility (SUF), The Program, Development Strategy
  14. 14. Fields of intervention for slum upgrading Fields of intervention: • Social • Economic • Physical • Environmental • Institutional Scales of intervention: • National • City • Community • Household Outcomes: • Lands • Buildings • Infrastructures • Services • Governance Impacts: • Poverty • Equity • Hazards • Environ’mt • Health • Education • Income • Hope • Happiness
  15. 15. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Economic Growth through production and productivity Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Increase in GDP and income per capita
  16. 16. National and Regional Index City and local Index Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  17. 17. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Enlarging choices through human capacities and capabilities Poverty reduction and people-based development Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  18. 18. National and Regional Index City and local Index life expectancy educational attainment income per capita Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  19. 19. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Meeting the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet there own needs Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Preventionofdepletionanddegradationofenvironmentalresources whileenhancingqualityoflife andreducingpoverty
  20. 20. National and Regional Index City and local Index A series of social, economic, and environmental indicators Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  21. 21. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Costeffectiveness& environmentaleconomics,people’swellbeing Concomitant growth of quality and quantity of national economies within ecological limits Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  22. 22. National and Regional Index City and local Index Conventional economic well being Sustainable economic well being Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  23. 23. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Evaluation of economic progress, sustainability of goals and strategies according to 1992 Rio agenda Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Prevention of resource depletion, preservation of ecological balance, enhancing quality of life and poverty reduction
  24. 24. National and Regional Index City and local Index Socio-economic development Sustainable production & consumption Social capital Population changes Public health Climate change & energy Good governance Global participationNatural Resources Sustainable transportation Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  25. 25. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Thriving local & regional economy, Social well being Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Development & progress of economic state, competitiveness opportunities
  26. 26. National and Regional Index City and local Index PeopleBusiness Place Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  27. 27. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Enhancement of people’s well being while evaluating economic performance Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Wealth growth and social progress of people
  28. 28. National and Regional Index City and local Index Sustainability Quality of lifeMaterial needs of life Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  29. 29. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept National welfare using comprehensive/ composite index substituting GDP Promotion of economic competitiveness, increase of human welfare and satisfaction Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  30. 30. National and Regional Index City and local Index Comparative livability Economic welfare Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  31. 31. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Redefinition of prosperity emphasizing fulfilling material needs, life expectancy, infant mortality and education , coping with economic crisis Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Sustainability of well being and attaining sustainable economy
  32. 32. National and Regional Index City and local Index Individual capabilities Socio- psychological needs Material Needs Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  33. 33. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Socialdevelopmentonthebasesofsubjective wellbeingofpeople Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Social progress and people’s well being
  34. 34. National and Regional Index City and local Index Social well being Personal well being Sense of goodness, life satisfaction, happiness, self confidence, flexibility Supportive relationships, social trust, sense of belonging Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  35. 35. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Revision of 1992 Rio sustainable development index in fulfilling basic needs while considering future needs Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Enabling people to meet their needs while enjoying quality of life within ecological limits
  36. 36. National and Regional Index City and local Index Enhancement of Environment Natural resources protection Climate change & energy Sustainable production & consumption Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  37. 37. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Increasing productivity and achieving economic development through comparative advantages of countries Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Uplifting status of countries and cities by enhancing competitiveness
  38. 38. National and Regional Index City and local Index Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  39. 39. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Capacity and ability to achieve higher state in different economic development dimensions Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Economicdevelopmentviahumancapital,higherproductivity,highervalueadded,quality ofproducts,innovationandreachinghighqualityoflifewithhighcapabilityincompetition
  40. 40. National and Regional Index City and local Index Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  41. 41. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Same as human development concept at city level, emphasizing equal opportunity, well being, city services and facilities Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Poverty reduction, equity, balanced and people-oriented development,
  42. 42. National and Regional Index City and local Index HEALTH PRODUC TIVITY INFRASTR AUCTURE CDI WASTE Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  43. 43. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Poverty reduction, quality of life, preservation of balanced environment Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Preservation of natural resources, sustainability of urban environment
  44. 44. National and Regional Index City and local Index Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  45. 45. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Interrelated growth and development of different sectors of city Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Sustainable development and determination of city functions in different sectors of city structure
  46. 46. National and Regional Index City and local Index Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices
  47. 47. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Recognition of latent capability and powers of cities for competitiveness and moving towards sustainability Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Capital investment attraction, provision of socio-economic and environmental security/ safety
  48. 48. Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices National and Regional Index City and local Index
  49. 49. National and Regional Index City and local Index Concept Responding to impacts and challenges of hasty growth of cities, attaining balanced and harmonious development, increasing citizens’ satisfaction Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices Well being and better quality of life for every one, achievement of good, sustainable, and prosperous city
  50. 50. Reviewofexperiencedglobalandlocalindices National and Regional Index City and local Index Productivity Infrastructure Environmental sustainability Quality of life Equity & social inclusion Contributes to economic growth and development, generates income, provides decent jobs and equal opportunities for all through effective economic policies and reforms. Ensures equitable (re)distribution of the benefits of prosperity, reduces poverty and the incidence of slums, protects the rights of minority and vulnerable groups, enhances gender equality, and ensures civic participation in the social, political and cultural spheres. Provides adequate infrastructure – water, sanitation, roads, information and communication technology – in order to improve living standards and enhance productivity, mobility and connectivity. Enhances the use of public spaces for the sake of community cohesion and civic identity, and guarantees individual and material safety and security. Values the protection of the urban environment and natural assets while ensuring growth, pursues energy efficiency, reduces pressure on surrounding land and natural resources, reduces environmental losses through creative, environment-enhancing solutions.
  51. 51. Review of experienced global & local indices The Wheel of Urban Prosperity UN-Habitat 2012 City Prosperity Index: 1. Productivity 2. Infrastructure 3. Quality of Life 4. Equity & Social Inclusion 5. Environmental Sustainability
  52. 52. Review of experienced global & local indices The UN-Habitat City Prosperity Index, 2012-2013 Dimensions Definitions/variables Productivity The productivity index is measured through the city product, which is composed of the variables: capital investment, formal/informal employment,inflation, trade, savings, export/importand household income/ consumption.The city product representsthe total output of goods and services (value added) produced by a city’s population during a specific year. Quality of life The quality of life index is a combination of four sub-indices: education, health, safety/security, social capital and public space. The sub-index education includes literacy, primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment.The sub-index health includes life expectancy, under-five mortality rates, HIV/AIDS, morbidity and nutrition variables. Infrastructure development The infrastructuredevelopmentindex combines two sub-indices: one for infrastructure,and another for housing. The infrastructure sub-index includes: connection to services (piped water, sewerage, electricity and ICT), waste management, knowledge infrastructure,health infrastructure, transport and road infrastructure.The housing sub-index includes building materials and living space. Environmental sustainability The environmentalsustainabilityindex is made of four sub-indices: air quality (PM10), CO2 emissions, energy and indoor pollution. Equity & social inclusion The equity and social inclusion index combines statistical measures of inequality of income/consumption (Gini coefficient)and social and gender inequality of access to services and infrastructure.
  53. 53. Contextualizing “CPI” for slum upgrading evaluation Proposition: Prosperity in slum areas is a collective achievement. Community spirit will lead to sense of belonging, hope and striving parallel to outsiders’ efforts. Community is essential for achieving sustainable development (social integration and environmental stewardship). Old Neighborhood Fist in Ramedan, Tehran FGDs in Slum Areas of Iran
  54. 54. Contextualizing “CPI” for slum upgrading evaluation: “ SUI ” Quality of Life Equity & Social Inclusion Infrastructure Productivity Environmental Sustainability Community Development Slum Upgrading Index
  55. 55. “SUI” is more about outcomes and less about outputs. “SUI” is not addressing causes and process. “SUI” is concentrated on outcome of slum upgrading efforts with emphasis on societal results as well as social solidarity with the city. “SUI” can be calculated as two main components separately: First, 5 measures like CPI and second, community development index to be combined later. Contextualizing “CPI” for slum upgrading evaluation: “ SUI ”
  56. 56. Conclusion: “ SUI ” components & composition Slum Upgrading Index 2015 Productivity The productivity index is measured through the slum area product, which is composed of the variables: capital investment, formal/informal employment, inflation, trade, savings, export/import and household income/ consumption. The slum area product represents the total output of goods and services (value added) produced by a slum’s population during a specific year. Quality of life The quality of life index is a combination of four sub-indices: education, health, safety/security, social capital and public space. The sub-index education includes literacy, primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment. The sub-index health includes life expectancy, under-five mortality rates, HIV/AIDS, morbidity and nutrition variables. Infrastructure development The infrastructure development index combines two sub-indices: one for infrastructure, and another for housing. The infrastructure sub-index includes: connection to services (piped water, sewerage, electricity and ICT), waste management, knowledge infrastructure, health infrastructure, transport and road infrastructure. The housing sub-index includes building materials and living space. Environmental sustainability The environmental sustainability index is made of four sub-indices: air quality (PM10), CO2 emissions, energy and indoor pollution. Equity & social inclusion The equity and social inclusion index combines statistical measures of inequality of income/consumption (Gini coefficient) and social and gender inequality of access to services and infrastructure. Community Development The community development index combines 5 sub-indices for: spiritual health (suicide, crime, mental disorder, faith based membership), social integration (sport & cultural events, representation, court cases), public participation (voting, CBO, NGO, CSO), and urban facilities (town hall, sport & recreation, police & fire station).
  57. 57. Conclusion: “SUI” components & composition Some topics to be discussed:  Are the proposed indices representative of community development?  Should we just follow the slum households criteria (i.e., water, sanitation, durable housing, sufficient living area, security of tenure)?  How to incorporate the evaluation of progress and continuity of efforts?  Can we consider proactive measures?  What methods of data gathering is best for these indicators?  Do the indicators have equal weight in “SUI”?
  58. 58. Dilapidated old urbanfabric,Iran Thank you for your attention Iranian Urban Development & Revitalization Corporation The Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group: “RSUWG”

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