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Rajiv Ranjan Mishra
Joint Secretary to the Government of India
Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation
 India’s urban a...
Slum upgrading as part of MDG Goal 7 on
Ensuring Environmental Sustainability : India
 Target 7D : by 2020, to have achie...
Slum Population and Households in
India- 2001 & 2011
2001 2011
Urban Households (Million) 55.83 80.89
Slum Households (Mil...
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation
 India’s urban a...
Parameter EIUS
1989
ILCS
1980
UBSP
1990
NSDP
1996
VAMBAY
2001
JnNURM
2005
AHIP
2009
ISHUP
2009
RAY 2012
~Size USD Mil 150 ...
Parameter Indore
SNP
Parivartan
Ahmedaba
d SNP
In-situ
Rehab-
Ahmedabad
Thane
-BSUP
SRA
Mumbai
Vijayawada Pimpri
Shelter
U...
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation
 India’s urban a...
846.3
1028.6
1210.2
1523
217.6
286.1
377.1
598
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1991 2001 2011 2030
Total Population
...
India faces significant urban challenges in the future
48994 51688
56311
2008-09 2002 1993-94
While the number of
slums ar...
Slums population is also expected to grow …
Data Source: Census of India 2001, 2011 and REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SLUM ST...
43.0
32.0
2008-09 2002
Slums are spreading into private land rapidly
 Slums on GoI Lands, such as
Railways, etc between 4...
Slums are growing in vulnerable areas
 In 2002, 24.4% of total slums
were situated in vulnerableareas
– such as nallahs, ...
Growth in formal housing has stagnated in large cities
Working with the market, A new approach to slum development in Indi...
And even better managed cities are facing formal
housing shortage problems …
Working with the market, A new approach to sl...
India’s urban and slum upgrading
challenges
 Reduction in the proportion of slum population to
urban population, but incr...
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation
and urban poverty...
A Bold New Vision:
“A slum free India”
Clear Policy Direction for Inclusion:
“Assign property rights to people living in
s...
Dwelling Units based Whole Slum – whole city based
Limited involvement of
communities Central role of communities
Flexibil...
Features of the RAY program
o Large scale financial support from the Centre to States for planning,
upgrading and redevelo...
Slum Free India
Every citizen has right to civic services,
social services and shelter
Property Rights
to all
Reform Pilla...
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation and
urban poverty...
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(PMAY)-
Prime Minister’s Housing Scheme
 Launched on 25th June 2015 by Hon’ble Prime
Minister o...
PMAY- Mission components
 Credit Linked subsidy component is Central Sector Scheme while
other 3 to be implemented as Cen...
In-Situ Slum Redevelopment
 Using land as a resource with private participation
 Slums on Central Government land/State ...
Slum Redevelopment using land as Resource
Contents of the presentation
 The MDG Context
 Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation
and urban poverty...
Slum up-gradation projects in India
Economically Weaker Section housing
under JNNURM
Best Practices
Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD
 In 1995, AMC initiated Slum Networking Project
through a unique partnership betw...
SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD
 Situation Before the Initiative:
 People in slums lived in conditions that incl...
SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD
 Transparent processes through:
 Monthly Monitoring Meeting of stakeholders
 Jo...
Slum up-gradation projects in India
Before After
B
e
f
o
r
e
Ahmedabad
SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)- INDORE
 Slum networking is an integrated upgrading scheme wherein
the city building proces...
SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)- INDORE
 The infrastructure is upgraded using the network of slum
settlements as a starting...
Slum up-gradation projects in India
Indore SNP
Land sharing model under PPP in Vijayawada,
Andhra Pradesh
 Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) required 1000 acre lan...
Land sharing model under PPP in Vijayawada,
Andhra Pradesh
 Unique features of this project:
 Method is participatory th...
Thank you
Slum Statistics in India -2011
Slum Statistics in India -2011
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National Policies & Programs for Slum Upgrading in India: Bridging the Gap between Policy & Practices - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra

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National Policies & Programs for Slum Upgrading in India: Bridging the Gap between Policy & Practices - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra - Third Expert Meeting of the Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group (RSUWG) - 29th. of November to the 1st. of December 2015 in Laleh International Hotel, Tehran, I.R. of Iran

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National Policies & Programs for Slum Upgrading in India: Bridging the Gap between Policy & Practices - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra

  1. 1. Rajiv Ranjan Mishra Joint Secretary to the Government of India Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
  2. 2. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)  Slum Upgrading under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)  Pictures of some projects
  3. 3. Slum upgrading as part of MDG Goal 7 on Ensuring Environmental Sustainability : India  Target 7D : by 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers  “The target of improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers has already been achieved twice-over…. more than 200 million slum dwellers have gained access to improved water, sanitation or durable and less crowded housing..”  As per Census of India, in 2011, 65.5 mn people, i.e. 17.4 % of urban population lived in slums, reduced from 18.3% in 2001  “India has been successful in improving the lives of slum dwellers, having helped 59.7 million out of dire conditions since the year 2000…”, State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011: Bridging the Urban Divide, UN-HABITAT.
  4. 4. Slum Population and Households in India- 2001 & 2011 2001 2011 Urban Households (Million) 55.83 80.89 Slum Households (Million) 10.15 13.92 Slum Households Size 5.2 4.7 Slum Population(Million) 52.37 65.49 % of Slum HHs to urban HHs 18.2% 17.2% % of Slum population to urban population 18.3% 17.4%
  5. 5. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yojana  Slum Upgrading under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)  Pictures of some projects
  6. 6. Parameter EIUS 1989 ILCS 1980 UBSP 1990 NSDP 1996 VAMBAY 2001 JnNURM 2005 AHIP 2009 ISHUP 2009 RAY 2012 ~Size USD Mil 150 75 30 775 200 13,333 (5350) 1100 132 Shelter Urban Basic Services Toilets Toilets Community Infra Land & Tenure Policy Changes Access to credit Integrating real estate markets PPP Scale of the programme Past National Programs on Slum upgrading: Steady progression In JNNURM a program for urban infrastructure improvement 40% of the resources have been allocated for slum upgrading and housing where as RAY is a slum-free India Project.
  7. 7. Parameter Indore SNP Parivartan Ahmedaba d SNP In-situ Rehab- Ahmedabad Thane -BSUP SRA Mumbai Vijayawada Pimpri Shelter Urban Basic Services Community Infra Livelihood Land & Tenure Policy Changes Access to credit SEWA Loans Integrating real estate markets PPP Scale of the programme Important City (or) State level initiatives
  8. 8. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yogana  Slum Upgrading under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)  Pictures of some projects
  9. 9. 846.3 1028.6 1210.2 1523 217.6 286.1 377.1 598 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1991 2001 2011 2030 Total Population Urban Population  Cities are likely to house 40% of India’s population by 2030  Around 600 million people will live in cities by 2030  India’s economy is likely to produce about 120 million jobs in cities  India will have 68 cities with population of more than 1 million by 2030 Source: Census, High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Infrastructure, and UN Population Division Urbanization Trends : India is staring at an urban future
  10. 10. India faces significant urban challenges in the future 48994 51688 56311 2008-09 2002 1993-94 While the number of slums are steadily decreasing … The growth in urban poor population has yet to be arrested … Data Sources: 11th FYP, Tendulkar Committee (URP), Projections for 2010-11, NSSO Round 65 75.176.3 80.8 86.1 2010-11 2004-05 1999-00 1987-88 FiguresinMillion
  11. 11. Slums population is also expected to grow … Data Source: Census of India 2001, 2011 and REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SLUM STATISTICS/CENSUS; NATIONAL BUILDINGS ORGANISATION MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION; Published in Aug 2010
  12. 12. 43.0 32.0 2008-09 2002 Slums are spreading into private land rapidly  Slums on GoI Lands, such as Railways, etc between 4.4 – 16.1%  Public Lands owned by State Governmentsand Urban Local Bodies, ranging between 40.9% to 56.3%  In 2002, only 32% of slums were located in private land  In 2008-09, this had increased to 43%  Private land ownership makes this problem difficult to solve Slums are expanding more in private and in other lands % of Slums Data Source: NSSO Round 65, 2008-09, Published in May 2010
  13. 13. Slums are growing in vulnerable areas  In 2002, 24.4% of total slums were situated in vulnerableareas – such as nallahs, river beds and river banks.  In 2008-09, this has grown to 32%  Relocating these slums which are untenable, will become necessary, thus increasing the costs 32.0 24.4 2008-09 2002 % of Slums Data Source: NSSO Round 65, 2008-09, Published in May 2010
  14. 14. Growth in formal housing has stagnated in large cities Working with the market, A new approach to slum development in India, Patricia Annez et al.
  15. 15. And even better managed cities are facing formal housing shortage problems … Working with the market, A new approach to slum development in India, Patricia Annez et al.
  16. 16. India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  Reduction in the proportion of slum population to urban population, but increase in slum and urban poor populations in absolute terms.  Significant improvement in infrastructure and services required  Land tenability and ownership issues  Growth in informal housing in large cities  Private markets out of reach of majority of the urban population  Lack of comprehensive urban poor livelihood models
  17. 17. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation and urban poverty reduction  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  The New Framework for Urban Poverty Reduction  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yojana  Slum Upgrading under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
  18. 18. A Bold New Vision: “A slum free India” Clear Policy Direction for Inclusion: “Assign property rights to people living in slum areas” Rajiv Awas Yojana
  19. 19. Dwelling Units based Whole Slum – whole city based Limited involvement of communities Central role of communities Flexibility of property right assignment Property right assignment commitment upfront Limited preparation- funding Allocated time and resources for preparation Policy reform limited to 7 yrs Comprehensive policy package including preventive strategy JNNURM RAY Limited PPP opportunity Encouragement in private sector engagement (PPP) Rental Housing / worker housing not funded Focus on Rental Housing and worker housing
  20. 20. Features of the RAY program o Large scale financial support from the Centre to States for planning, upgrading and redeveloping existing slums in cities, 100% for upgrading and upto 50% for housing. o Support to cover whole city requirement to ensure that no slum/ no- slum dweller is left out o States expected to assign property rights for slum dwellers o State funding to be used to massively upgrade infrastructure and services in slums to same level as the rest of the city o Concurrently, Central Government working with banks to enable large – scale credit for EWS/ LIG housing, both in-situ and fresh stock o Credit Guarantee Fund o Mandatory earmarking of land for the poor as part of preventive strategy
  21. 21. Slum Free India Every citizen has right to civic services, social services and shelter Property Rights to all Reform Pillar 1 Reservation of land Reform Pillar 2 Earmarking of funds Reform Pillar 3 Shift from project approach to Whole city, All slum approach Community Participation Shelter for Homeless/ slum renters Transit housing Insitu - basic services Insitu Revelopment Limited Relocation Rental Housing Worker dormitories Slum Up- gradation Curative Strategy Providing shelter and services for growth Preventive Strategy Support for investments Policies for scale and sustainability
  22. 22. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation and urban poverty reduction  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  The New Framework for Urban Poverty Reduction  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)  Slum Upgrading under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)  Pictures of some projects
  23. 23. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(PMAY)- Prime Minister’s Housing Scheme  Launched on 25th June 2015 by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India  Aims to provide ‘Housing for All’ by 2022 – 20 million units  Coverage - All 4041 statutory towns in 3 phases  Beneficiaries - EWS and LIG categories  EWS: family with income upto Rs. 3 lakh;  LIG: family with income from Rs. 3-6 lakh;
  24. 24. PMAY- Mission components  Credit Linked subsidy component is Central Sector Scheme while other 3 to be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme.  Beneficiary can take advantage underone component only 1 2 3 4
  25. 25. In-Situ Slum Redevelopment  Using land as a resource with private participation  Slums on Central Government land/State Government land/ULB land  Slum rehabilitation grant of Rs. 1 lakh per house, on an average.  Flexibility to States/Cities to deploy this central grant for other slums being redeveloped  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to make projects financially viable  Land cost not to be charged by Central Govt. agencies  Slums on Private Owned Land  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to land owner as per its policy; No Central Assistance  State/UTs shall decide: Eligibility criteria; Beneficiary contribution; allotment basis; etc.  Identify all tenable slums and their parameters; Examine financial and technical viability  Two Components: slum rehabilitation component; free sale component: available to developers for selling in the market so as to cross subsidize the project  Private partner to be selected through open bidding process
  26. 26. Slum Redevelopment using land as Resource
  27. 27. Contents of the presentation  The MDG Context  Past National/State/City programs for slum up-gradation and urban poverty reduction  India’s urban and slum upgrading challenges  The New Framework for Urban Poverty Reduction  Slum Upgrading under Rajiv Awas Yojana  Pictures of some projects
  28. 28. Slum up-gradation projects in India
  29. 29. Economically Weaker Section housing under JNNURM
  30. 30. Best Practices
  31. 31. Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
  32. 32. Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
  33. 33. Slum Rehabilitation Scheme-Maharashtra
  34. 34. SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD  In 1995, AMC initiated Slum Networking Project through a unique partnership between Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and NGOs.  Objective of the SNP:  to transform the urban environment with the approach to provide basic infrastructure services at the household and slum level in an affordable and sustainable way.  Received The Dubai International Award for, in 2005, Best Practice to improve the living Environment.
  35. 35. SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD  Situation Before the Initiative:  People in slums lived in conditions that included total or partial absence of critical infrastructure like water supply, drainage, roads, toilets and street lighting, Over populated and congested, temporary structures with inadequate maintenance, the lack of basic minimum education, insufficient skills, low incomes, poor standard of living mark this population.  Of the 710 slums, 190 slums comprising of 47,300 families were living with absolutely abysmal facilities.  Implementation Strategies:  AMC to provide a package of infrastructure services in consultation with communities/CBOs, NGOs and the Private sector;  establishment of a Resident’s Association for release of community contributions from the Banks to AMC at different stages of completion of infrastructure works and for managing the operation and maintenance  Resource Mobilization:  contributions of individual households through deposits  annual budgetary provisions for SNP by AMC  funds under GoI’s NSDP, and loan from HUDCO
  36. 36. SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)-AHMEDABAD  Transparent processes through:  Monthly Monitoring Meeting of stakeholders  Joint Planning  Trainings and capacity building  Interactionwith Public  Result and Impacts  The SNP program as on November 2006, has reached 8,703 families, making a significant contribution in the lives of 43,515 people in 41 slum communities of Ahmedabad.  Strong and substantial partnership among various stakeholders.
  37. 37. Slum up-gradation projects in India Before After B e f o r e Ahmedabad
  38. 38. SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)- INDORE  Slum networking is an integrated upgrading scheme wherein the city building process is used to transform the slums into settlements while mainstreaming the poor into the urban population.  Indore slum networking project is a holistic approach to a community-based sanitation and environmental improvement programe,  Started in 1987, Indore Development Authority (IDA) initiated Slum Networking Project through a partnership approach and completed in 1997.  Objective of the SNP:  to transform the urban environment with the approach to provide basic infrastructure services at the household and slum level in an affordable and sustainableway.
  39. 39. SLUM NETWORKING PROJECT (SNP)- INDORE  The infrastructure is upgraded using the network of slum settlements as a starting point;  Infrastructure provided: road, water supply, drainage, solid waste management, public facilities, and community development  The project encompasses the entire city of 3218 sq.km, with a total of 183 slums within the slum networking system.  Partnership between IDA, Overseas Development Corporation (ODA), NGOs and civil society.  Funding: 10% private sources (beneficiaries) and 90% public sources, out of which 90% international source(ODA)
  40. 40. Slum up-gradation projects in India Indore SNP
  41. 41. Land sharing model under PPP in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh  Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) required 1000 acre land for construction of 50,000 dwelling units under JNNURM / RAY for EWS beneficiaries living in the city slums.  VMC introduced a Land Sharing Model through Public Private Partnership (PPP) approach.  Acquired 226.54 acre land at Gollapudi and Jakkampudi villages under PPP between land-owning farmers and the State Government.  Land sharing agreement in 60:40 ratios wherein:  i40% of the total land area can be taken possession by the Revenue Department;  i60% land shall be retained by the land owners with land use conversion, approval of layout by the UDA and Government and development of infrastructure with funds from Social Welfare Department.
  42. 42. Land sharing model under PPP in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh  Unique features of this project:  Method is participatory through negotiations for land sharing  Less time consuming ,as there are generally no objections from farmers  Financially this is a win –win model for both Government & farmers- better compensation to land owners and more land available to the Govt.  Farmers save on the following :  Land use conversion charge which is 10% of the land value,  Registration charge which is 10% of the land value, and  Layout development charge which is Rs.100 per sq. yd
  43. 43. Thank you
  44. 44. Slum Statistics in India -2011
  45. 45. Slum Statistics in India -2011

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