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Cities Alliance Approach to Slum Upgrading


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Cities Alliance Approach to Slum Upgrading - 6th. APMCHUD,
14-16th December 2016, Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi, India

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Cities Alliance Approach to Slum Upgrading

  1. 1. Approach to Slum Upgrading Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Meeting Addis Ababa, 9 July 2014 1
  2. 2. Urbanisation trends and challenges  Unique speed and scale of urbanisation in Asia - the sheer size of urban population increase defines the challenges in Asia  Currently, one-half of the global population lives in Asia  Over the next 35 years to 2050, Asia’s urban population is expected to increase from around 1.9 billion to 3.2 billion  The largest increases in urban population are expected in India, which will add 497 million to its urban population, China - 341 million, Indonesia - 92 million, Pakistan - 92 million, Bangladesh - 60 million and the Philippines - 56 million 2
  3. 3. Urbanisation trends and challenges  Poverty levels in Asia have declined significantly over the past 25 years and there have been significant improvements in human development indicators but the region still has the largest concentration of poor  There is a direct relation between human development and urbanisation level for Asian countries  There is a positive co-relation between per capita GDP and urbanisation level of Asian countries but urbanisation is a necessary but not the only condition for economic growth  In addition to low income levels, the other manifestation of urban poverty in Asia are: - low access to safe water and adequate sanitation facilities - low access to housing - half of the world’s urban slum-dwellers are estimated to be in the region, • India and China alone account for 65 per cent of the Asian slum population • Region’s group of least developed countries have slum concentration at 72 per cent in urban areas, which is about 30 per cent more than the regional average 3
  4. 4. Improving QoL of Slum-dwellers - Approaches  Re-location to alternative sites  Forcible or through consensus o Brazil now has a guiding policy on voluntary resettlement  Sites and services or built housing units  In-situ redevelopment  Using land as a resource – incentive FSI  VGF  In-situ slum upgrading  Physical, social, economic, organizational and environmental improvements undertaken cooperatively and locally among citizens, community groups, businesses and local authorities 4
  5. 5. In situ Slum Upgrading  Upgrading unserved slum settlements is a sustainable and scalable strategy for improving the living conditions of the urban poor  Upgrading makes a highly visible, immediate, and large difference in the quality of life of the urban poor  Investment in local public goods through upgrading catalyzes private investment by residents, unleashing their vast productive energy and leveraging private capital  the international community has successful experience supporting upgrading  Local authorities lack capacity  to engage multiple stakeholders, particularly communities  Retrofit network services in dense settlements 5
  6. 6. In situ Slum Upgrading Actions  Installing or improving basic infrastructure  Removal or mitigation of environmental hazards  Providing incentives for community management and maintenance  Constructing or rehabilitating community facilities such as nurseries, health posts, community open space  Regularizing security of tenure  Home improvement  Relocation/compensation for the small number of residents dislocated by the improvements  Improving access to health care and education as well as social support programs to address issues of security, violence, among others  Enhancement of income-earning opportunities through training and micro- credit 6
  7. 7. Examples – In Situ SU Programmes City-wide slum upgrading in Thailand  Ban Mankong (secure housing) programme – national slum and squatter settlement upgrading programme  Targets upgrading of housing, infrastructure, living environment and land tenure security covering 200 cities/towns in Thailand  Implemented by Community Organisations Development Institute (CODI) under Ministry of Social Development and Human Security  Programme provides infrastructure subsidies and soft housing loans directly to informal communities, which survey, design and implement their own housing and settlement improvement projects – in the same place where possible or on land in close proximity 7
  8. 8. Examples – In Situ SU Programmes Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA) Programme  Under implementation in 250 Asian cities  The 4 programmatic pillars:  Small grant to communities for small scale infrastructure  Loan to communities for large housing projects  Help communities design housing and infrastructure by providing architectural and planning assistance  Help communities acquire formal land title, by negotiating land purchase, a land grant or a long-term lease from the owners  Major element of the programme is community savings  Often adopts a city-wide approach, linking community savings into a larger City Development Fund  Leverages funds from government and other sources for inclusion in the City Development Fund 8
  9. 9. Examples – National SU Programmes Kampung Improvement Programme (KIP) Indonesia  Government-assisted, self-help community planning programme  Provides three levels of infrastructure  Paved access roads, bridges and footpaths  Water supply, sanitation and drainage canals  Schools and health clinics  These improvements are threaded along existing rights-of-way, with little disturbance to the existing housing.  Although the programme does not offer direct housing assistance, the improved access, flood control and increased economic activity within the kampungs has stimulated home improvement 9
  10. 10. Examples – National SU Programmes Earlier National Slums Upgrading Programme – Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)  Curative and preventive approach - upgrading of existing slums as well as prevention of future growth of slums  ‘Whole City’ approach  Legislative framework for property rights to slum- dwellers  Easing credit availability for urban poor for housing, including interest/capital subsidy  Public-Private Partnerships for affordable housing  New paradigm of inclusive planning - reservation of land for housing the poor in city master plans and security of land tenure to slum-dwellers 10