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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra

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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra - Third Expert Meeting of the Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group (RSUWG) - 29th. of November to the 1st. of December 2015 in Laleh International Hotel, Tehran, I.R. of Iran

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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra

  1. 1. THE THIRD MEETING OF THE REGIONAL SLUM UPGRADING WORKING GROUP APMCHUD TEHRAN BEST PRACTICES IN COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN SLUM REHABILITATION IN INDIA Rajiv Ranjan Mishra Joint Secretary to the Government of India Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
  2. 2. SLUM POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA- 2001 & 2011 2001 2011 Urban Households (Million) 55.83 80.89 Slum Households (Million) 10.15 13.92 Slum Households Size 5.2 4.7 Slum Population(Million) 52.37 65.49 % of Slum HHs to urban HHs 18.2% 17.2% % of Slum population to urban population 18.3% 17.4%
  3. 3. 846.3 1028.6 1210.2 1523 217.6 286.1 377.1 598 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1991 2001 2011 2030 Total Population Urban Population  Cities are likely to house 40% of India’s population by 2030  Around 600 million people will live in cities by 2030  India’s economy is likely to produce about 120 million jobs in cities  India will have 68 cities with population of more than 1 million by 2030 Source: Census, High Powered Expert Committeeon Urban Infrastructure,and UN Population Division URBANIZATION TRENDS : INDIA IS STARING AT AN URBAN FUTURE
  4. 4. INDIA’S URBAN AND SLUM UPGRADING CHALLENGES  Reduction in the proportion of slum population to urban population, but increase in slum and urban poor populations in absolute terms.  Significant improvement in infrastructure and services required  Land tenability and ownership issues  Growth in informal housing in large cities  Private markets out of reach of majority of the urban population  Lack of comprehensive urban poor livelihood models
  5. 5. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 1. Community Participation in Slum Free City Plan Preparation- A Case of Gangtok, Sikkim ( RSUWG_India_BP-2_Gangtok.pdf )  Effective use of existing institutional resources by UD&H Department such as community structure, lead NGO and Project technical Cell;  Unleashing strength of existing community based organization “Samaj” for mobilization of slum residents.  City wide awareness generation on the project through large hoarding across the city;  Effective engagement of local councillors to decide development strategy based on ground situation coupled with community for greater ownership;  Special focus on women participation in community meetings and decision making;  Meaningful use of participatory tools such as “problem matrix” for realistic community participation and identification of local needs;  Formation of slum dwellers federation by transparent voting process - avoiding political pressure.
  6. 6. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 2. Community Participation in Slum of Karikalan Street- Trichy ( RSUWG_India_BP-3_Trichy.pdf )  Well-coordinated effort by State Slum Clearance Board (TNSCB) to engage multiple stakeholders for faster and robust Detailed Project Report formulation; (community leaders, SHG groups, councillor, technical college)  Effective role of community in decision making- Need identification, selection of beneficiary and housing model/ design  Intensive community participation resulted in contribution of labour in construction of houses maintaining quality and faster construction;  Engagement of local engineering college for continuous testing and quality management.  Capacity constraints of the beneficiaries to pay about Indian Rs. 50,000/- in a single instalment as beneficries’ contribution. It has been addressed by TNSCB project implementation unit by collecting the beneficiary’s contribution in monthly instalments.
  7. 7. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 3. Community Participation in SNBB- A Case of Jaipur ( RSUWG_India_BP- 4_Jaipur.pdf )  Active community involvement resulting in greater ownership and close monitoring of project implementation;  The slum dwellers federation - “kacchi Basti Vikas Mahasangh” played as catalyst in fastracking of Detailed Project Report preparation, speedy submission of DPR for approval.  Monthly meeting with Kacchi Basti Commissioner along with concerned officials and community in monitoring progress and to sort out issues;  Close monitoring during implementation phase resulting in replacement of sub- standard material used (bricks)/ water supply provision missed in kitchen / placement of toilet door and design of window.
  8. 8. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 4. Role of NGO in Community Mobilisation in Development of Kailash Nagar Slum - A Case of Ahmedabad ( RSUWG_India_BP-5_Ahmedabad.pdf )  NGO (Mahila Housing Trust) played a vital role as a facilitator between the ULB, developer and the community in the implementation of the project.  Awareness generation about the government policy and the developer’s proposal to the community.  Facilitated in conducting community surveys for identification of beneficiaries  Convinced all the three parties (community, ULB & developer) in entering a tripartite agreement.  Facilitated in issuing family Identity Cards (IDs) jointly authorized by the builder and Municipal Corporation to avoid discrepancies during allotment.  Negotiated in fixing the rent to be paid by developer for transit accommodation. Formation of beneficiary groups for supervision and quality checks.
  9. 9. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 5. Slum Networking Project- A Case of Ahmedabad ( RSUWG_India_BP- 1_AMC.pdf )  Transformed the urban environment with the approach to provide basic infrastructure services at the household and slum level in an affordable and sustainable way  Municipal Corporation (AMC) provided a package of infrastructure services in consultation with communities/CBOs, NGOs and the Private sector;  Resource Mobilization: Establishment of a Resident’s Association for release of community contributions from the Banks to AMC at different stages of completion of infrastructure works and for managing the operation and maintenance; contributions of individual households through deposits;  Transparent process: Monthly Monitoring Meeting of stakeholders; Joint Planning; Trainings and capacity building; Interaction with stakeholders;
  10. 10. PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA(PMAY)- PRIME MINISTER’S HOUSING SCHEME  Launched on 25th June 2015 by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India  Aims to provide ‘Housing for All’ by 2022 – 20 million units  Coverage - All 4041 statutory towns in 3 phases  Beneficiaries - EWS and LIG categories  EWS: family with income upto Rs. 3 lakh;  LIG: family with income from Rs. 3-6 lakh;
  11. 11. PMAY- MISSION COMPONENTS  Credit Linked subsidy component is Central Sector Scheme while other 3 to be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme.  Beneficiary can take advantage under one component only 1 2 3 4
  12. 12. IN-SITU SLUM REDEVELOPMENT  Using land as a resource with private participation  Slums on Central Government land/State Government land/ULB land  Slum rehabilitation grant of Rs. 1 lakh per house, on an average.  Flexibility to States/Cities to deploy this central grant for other slums being redeveloped  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to make projects financially viable  Land cost not to be charged by Central Govt. agencies  Slums on Private Owned Land  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to land owner as per its policy; No Central Assistance  State/UTs shall decide: Eligibility criteria; Beneficiary contribution; allotment basis; etc.  Identify all tenable slums and their parameters; Examine financial and technical viability  Two Components: slum rehabilitation component; free sale component: available to developers for selling in the market so as to cross subsidize the project  Private partner to be selected through open bidding process
  13. 13. Thank you

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