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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra


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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra - Third Expert Meeting of the Regional Slum Upgrading Working Group (RSUWG) - 29th. of November to the 1st. of December 2015 in Laleh International Hotel, Tehran, I.R. of Iran

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Best Practices in community engagement in slum rehabilitation in India - Rajiv Ranjan Mishra

  2. 2. SLUM POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA- 2001 & 2011 2001 2011 Urban Households (Million) 55.83 80.89 Slum Households (Million) 10.15 13.92 Slum Households Size 5.2 4.7 Slum Population(Million) 52.37 65.49 % of Slum HHs to urban HHs 18.2% 17.2% % of Slum population to urban population 18.3% 17.4%
  3. 3. 846.3 1028.6 1210.2 1523 217.6 286.1 377.1 598 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1991 2001 2011 2030 Total Population Urban Population  Cities are likely to house 40% of India’s population by 2030  Around 600 million people will live in cities by 2030  India’s economy is likely to produce about 120 million jobs in cities  India will have 68 cities with population of more than 1 million by 2030 Source: Census, High Powered Expert Committeeon Urban Infrastructure,and UN Population Division URBANIZATION TRENDS : INDIA IS STARING AT AN URBAN FUTURE
  4. 4. INDIA’S URBAN AND SLUM UPGRADING CHALLENGES  Reduction in the proportion of slum population to urban population, but increase in slum and urban poor populations in absolute terms.  Significant improvement in infrastructure and services required  Land tenability and ownership issues  Growth in informal housing in large cities  Private markets out of reach of majority of the urban population  Lack of comprehensive urban poor livelihood models
  5. 5. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 1. Community Participation in Slum Free City Plan Preparation- A Case of Gangtok, Sikkim ( RSUWG_India_BP-2_Gangtok.pdf )  Effective use of existing institutional resources by UD&H Department such as community structure, lead NGO and Project technical Cell;  Unleashing strength of existing community based organization “Samaj” for mobilization of slum residents.  City wide awareness generation on the project through large hoarding across the city;  Effective engagement of local councillors to decide development strategy based on ground situation coupled with community for greater ownership;  Special focus on women participation in community meetings and decision making;  Meaningful use of participatory tools such as “problem matrix” for realistic community participation and identification of local needs;  Formation of slum dwellers federation by transparent voting process - avoiding political pressure.
  6. 6. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 2. Community Participation in Slum of Karikalan Street- Trichy ( RSUWG_India_BP-3_Trichy.pdf )  Well-coordinated effort by State Slum Clearance Board (TNSCB) to engage multiple stakeholders for faster and robust Detailed Project Report formulation; (community leaders, SHG groups, councillor, technical college)  Effective role of community in decision making- Need identification, selection of beneficiary and housing model/ design  Intensive community participation resulted in contribution of labour in construction of houses maintaining quality and faster construction;  Engagement of local engineering college for continuous testing and quality management.  Capacity constraints of the beneficiaries to pay about Indian Rs. 50,000/- in a single instalment as beneficries’ contribution. It has been addressed by TNSCB project implementation unit by collecting the beneficiary’s contribution in monthly instalments.
  7. 7. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 3. Community Participation in SNBB- A Case of Jaipur ( RSUWG_India_BP- 4_Jaipur.pdf )  Active community involvement resulting in greater ownership and close monitoring of project implementation;  The slum dwellers federation - “kacchi Basti Vikas Mahasangh” played as catalyst in fastracking of Detailed Project Report preparation, speedy submission of DPR for approval.  Monthly meeting with Kacchi Basti Commissioner along with concerned officials and community in monitoring progress and to sort out issues;  Close monitoring during implementation phase resulting in replacement of sub- standard material used (bricks)/ water supply provision missed in kitchen / placement of toilet door and design of window.
  8. 8. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 4. Role of NGO in Community Mobilisation in Development of Kailash Nagar Slum - A Case of Ahmedabad ( RSUWG_India_BP-5_Ahmedabad.pdf )  NGO (Mahila Housing Trust) played a vital role as a facilitator between the ULB, developer and the community in the implementation of the project.  Awareness generation about the government policy and the developer’s proposal to the community.  Facilitated in conducting community surveys for identification of beneficiaries  Convinced all the three parties (community, ULB & developer) in entering a tripartite agreement.  Facilitated in issuing family Identity Cards (IDs) jointly authorized by the builder and Municipal Corporation to avoid discrepancies during allotment.  Negotiated in fixing the rent to be paid by developer for transit accommodation. Formation of beneficiary groups for supervision and quality checks.
  9. 9. SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT MODELS- KEY FEATURES Case 5. Slum Networking Project- A Case of Ahmedabad ( RSUWG_India_BP- 1_AMC.pdf )  Transformed the urban environment with the approach to provide basic infrastructure services at the household and slum level in an affordable and sustainable way  Municipal Corporation (AMC) provided a package of infrastructure services in consultation with communities/CBOs, NGOs and the Private sector;  Resource Mobilization: Establishment of a Resident’s Association for release of community contributions from the Banks to AMC at different stages of completion of infrastructure works and for managing the operation and maintenance; contributions of individual households through deposits;  Transparent process: Monthly Monitoring Meeting of stakeholders; Joint Planning; Trainings and capacity building; Interaction with stakeholders;
  10. 10. PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA(PMAY)- PRIME MINISTER’S HOUSING SCHEME  Launched on 25th June 2015 by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India  Aims to provide ‘Housing for All’ by 2022 – 20 million units  Coverage - All 4041 statutory towns in 3 phases  Beneficiaries - EWS and LIG categories  EWS: family with income upto Rs. 3 lakh;  LIG: family with income from Rs. 3-6 lakh;
  11. 11. PMAY- MISSION COMPONENTS  Credit Linked subsidy component is Central Sector Scheme while other 3 to be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme.  Beneficiary can take advantage under one component only 1 2 3 4
  12. 12. IN-SITU SLUM REDEVELOPMENT  Using land as a resource with private participation  Slums on Central Government land/State Government land/ULB land  Slum rehabilitation grant of Rs. 1 lakh per house, on an average.  Flexibility to States/Cities to deploy this central grant for other slums being redeveloped  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to make projects financially viable  Land cost not to be charged by Central Govt. agencies  Slums on Private Owned Land  States/Cities provide additional FSI/FAR or TDR to land owner as per its policy; No Central Assistance  State/UTs shall decide: Eligibility criteria; Beneficiary contribution; allotment basis; etc.  Identify all tenable slums and their parameters; Examine financial and technical viability  Two Components: slum rehabilitation component; free sale component: available to developers for selling in the market so as to cross subsidize the project  Private partner to be selected through open bidding process
  13. 13. Thank you