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Empire landfill drainage_channel[1]

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Empire landfill drainage_channel[1]

  1. 1. CASE HISTORYEmpire Landfill This landfill was designed and constructed as a state-of-the-art waste containment site with all phases of the construction to meet or exceed current design guidelines. Empire has perimeter down chute channel protection using a cellular confinement system with concrete infill. By John Henry, ACF Environmental. Inc.: Nelson Benedict, Martin & Martin. Inc.: Rob Sochovka. Empire Landfill, Inc.: Rick Bodner. P.E., Martin & Martin. Inc.: Andy Lister. InterSol Engineering, Inc.: and, Bruce W. Adams, ACF Environmental. Inc. Empire Landfill in Taylor, was chosen which consists of a 4-in. thick Both the primary and secondary liners are E PA is situated on a 600-acre site, with 203 acres currently under permit for waste dis- posal. In anticipant of cur-rent and future environmental concerns,the management of Empire Landfill, Inc. cellular confinement system, underlain with a nonwoven geotextile and infilled with concrete. The cellular confinement technology was originally developed in the late 1970s in cooperation with the Army Corps of Engineers. Cellular con- made of a minimum of 100-mil thick, high-density polyethylene. This thickness exceeds state requirements. In addition, Empire goes beyond normal requirements relative to storm water management.has ensured that the landfill exceeds finement technology is based on confine- Project Backgroundtoday’s design and operational guide- ment principles of granular materials in a Empire Landfill first opened in 1987.lines. cellular system. The cellular confinement Over the past several years, Empire has Empire Landfill features double-lined system is an engineered expandable, continued to prepare a new cell as onecells, with a “geosynthetic sandwich” of polyethylene, honeycomb-like cellular cell is being filled and another cell isgeotextile, two 100 mil HDPE liners, and structure. being constructed. In 1995, Martin &stone aggregate atop a clayey soil sub- Empire Landfill, located northeast of Martin, an engineering consulting andbase. A complete storm water manage- Scranton, PA, receives approximately design firm, was retained to design thement system for surface run-on and run- 4,000 to 5,000 tons/day (tpd) of munici- construction and closure of the landfill.off includes a series of This design was tochannels, with high ero- include all the necessarysion potential in the components of an effec-diversion and interceptor tive, cost efficient andchannels. long-lasting system to Interceptor channels protect the facility andfollow the landfill toe, surrounding area fromwith a gradient ranging accelerated erosion,from 2 to 16%. These while accommodatingchannels are in a trape- the flows from a 100-zoidal configuration, year, 24-hour storm.with an eight-foot wide Empire was designedbottom and 2:l side and constructed as aslopes. In the past, 18-in. state-of-the-art wastethick rock-filled baskets containment site withor shot rock were being all phases of the con-employed to protect the struction to meet orinterceptor channels exceed current designfrom erosion. Alternate Installation of the Geoweb system was completed by a three-person crew guidelines. As an exam- [one equipment operator and two laborers].hard armor systems were ple, Pennsylvaniaconsidered in an attempt requires the primaryto enhance the storm water management pal solid waste from the tri-state area. liner to be 50-mil HDPE and the sec-system and to minimize labor and site The landfill itself features tomorrow’s ondary liner to be 30-mil HDPE. Empiredisturbance required with the installation technology, today. It is built with double- has and continues to use 100-mil HDPEof the 18-in. baskets. lined construction, offering quality con- in the construction of the primary and An alternate channel armament system trol in an environmentally sound landfill. secondary liner systems. 1 The site is32 SWT June 1999 http://www.SolidWasteTech.com
  2. 2. CASE HISTORYbeing constructed in phases. New cells are tems be designed to accommodate 100- brane cap system; thereby maximizingconstructed as required and the filled cells year, 24-hour storm events for run-on run-off that the storm water system mustare capped. control, and 25-year, 24-hour events for accommodate. run-off management. These systems Martin & Martin was familiar withThe Problem include both run-on diversion and run-off methods of accomplishing the task of Current regulations from EPA Subtitle interceptors around the site perimeter, as storm water management on the landfillD, and Pennsylvania Department of well as channels and down drains from site and especially the removal of stormEnvironmental Protection, Chapter 273, the terraced landfill area. On the landfill water from diversions, interceptors, andrequire that storm water management sys- footprint, regulations require a geomem- from each capped cell. In the past, rock filled gabion baskets and/or rip rap lined channels had been used to construct a series of channels to remove surface rain- water. While these systems are effective, Empire was interested in pursuing more cost-and-time efficient alternatives which would adequately handle the flows, and be easy to maintain. The Solution Empire and Martin & Martin worked with ACE Environmental, Inc. looking for some potential alternate means of con- structing the perimeter storm water chan- nels. Empire, in analyzing the cost of gabion baskets and the stone to place in the baskets, realized that substantial exca- vation was required to fit the .457 meter thick (18-in.) gabion baskets into the trapezoidal configuration. An important factor in considering any alternate product was that it had to meet the requirements of the State Department of Environmental Protection. ACE sug- gested that a product called Geoweb, a cellular confinement system, be evaluated for this application. Cellular confinement of soil, aggregate or concrete infill materials has been used successfully since its development in the late 1970s by the Army Corps of Engineers and Presto Products for: Protection and stabilization of steep slope surfaces Protective linings of channels and hydraulic structures Static and dynamic load support on weak subgrade soils Multi-layered earth retention structures For this project, a 100-mm (4-in.) con- crete filled textured Geoweb system with tendon and J pin anchorage was able to satisfy all of the design objectives and requirements. The textured Geoweb maxi- mizes the mechanical bond between the concrete and cell walls, locking the con- crete infill into the individual cells of the system. High strength concrete infill into the individual cells of the system. High strength LDPE coated polyester tendons inserted through the Geoweb provide a connection element for the J pin anchors. 34 SWT June 1999 http://www.SolidWasteTech.com
  3. 3. CASE HISTORYThe function of the 170g/m 2 (6 oz./yd 2)was to provide drainage and soil filtration.The Design Solution Martin & Martin and Empire’s internaldesign staff worked with Presto Products’consultant InterSol Engineering to deter-mine the flow conditions in each channelsection. The following project parameters The sequence ofwere used to determine the type of construction wasGeoweb lining system required. to first excavate the channel and Maximum bed slope = 16.2% place the nonwo- Discharge = 6.0 m3/sec (210 ft3/sec) ven geotextile. Velocity = 7.22 m/sec (23.7 ft/sec) ............................... Critical interface friction (soil/geotex-tile) = 28° contact with the ground surface prior to, solutions to problems such as the removal Factor of safety downstream sliding = 1.3 during the filling process, and during peak of storm water with the concrete filled A channel analysis program developed flow conditions. Geoweb lined channels, it continues toby InterSol Engineering was used to ana- lead the industry into the 21st century.lyze the stability against sliding due to Construction The Geoweb has handled the storm waterdrag forces of the Geoweb channel lining Installation of the Geoweb system was during one of the wettest summers onsystem. The program calculates downs- completed by a three-person crew (one record in the east.lope and downstream driving and resisting equipment operator and two laborers).forces, and calculates a resultant factor of The total area protected was 2,839 m 2 Acknowledgmentssafety for each element of the channel (20,560 ft2), which resulted in a channel The authors would like to acknowledgecross section. Elements are the compo- length of 582 m ( 1,910 ft). the help and support of the Pennsylvanianents (i.e., invert, slide slopes of flood The sequence of construction was to Department of Environmental Protection,plains) of a single cross section defined by first excavate the channel and place the all of the personnel at Empire Landfill andthe user. nonwoven geotextile. The nonwoven geo- those involved with the project at Martin Considerable testing has been carried textile was temporarily pinned in place to & Martin.out on various block systems to establish prevent movement while expanding the For more information, contact thethe limiting velocities in relation to block Geoweb sections. Tendons were then cut author, John Henry, at 800-223-9021; orweight and system flexibility. The find- to measured lengths that included the visit the Presto web site atings of a number of such tests have been length of the expanded Geoweb sections, http://www.prestogeo.com or e-mail thempublished by the U.S. Department of with an allowance for knots to be tied at at info@prestogeo.comCommerce2 and CIRIA3 together with rec- either end. The tendons were insertedommended maximum flow velocities as through the factory drilled holes in the Referencesfollows: Geoweb sections. Knots were tied at Thomas Nabor, “Welcome to 1. Blocks the face-to-face contact length either end to hold the tendons in place Pennsylvania’s Dream Landfill,” Wasteless than 75%; Maximum design velocity while the Geoweb sections were expanded Alternatives, December 1998.6 m/sec (20 ft/sec) into position. Simons, Li & Associates, National2. Blocks with face-to-face contact length The Geoweb sections were then Technical Information Service,greater than 75%; Maximum design expanded longitudinally down the channel “Hydraulic Stability of Articulatedvelocity 8 m/sec (26 ft/sec) invert. Adjacent sections were then Concrete Block Revetment Systems A minimum superficial mass of 125 mechanically attached by interweaving During Overtopping Flow,” Professionalkg/m2 (28 lb/ft2 is also required. the ends of outside cells and stapling with Paper, November 1989. The selected 100-mm (4-in.) thick con- a pneumatic stapler, The expanded CIRIA Report 116, “Design ofcrete-filled Geoweb lining system meets Geoweb sections were then anchored into Reinforced Grass Waterways,”the requirements of the higher limiting position the J pin earth anchors. Each J Construction Industry Research andvelocity, due to its 100% face-to-face con- pin was hooked over a tendon at the speci- Information Association, London, U.K.tact and a superficial mass of 238 kg/m2 fied spacing and driven flush with the 1967. SWT(49.5 lb/ft2). ground surface. Concrete was then placed The Geoweb extended up the channel into the Geoweb using a 0.8 m3 (1 yd3)side slopes a distance of 1.2 m (4 ft). It track backhoe and filled level with the topwas determined that J pin anchors, 13 mm of the cells. The concrete was then given aby 600 mm (0.5-in. by 24-in.) would be raked finish.required at 812 mm (32 in.) by 488 mm(19.2 in.) centers in conjunction with the Conclusionthree tendons per section to anchor the Empire Sanitary Landfill continues to system. This not only facilitates the place- operate a state-of-the-art landfill in north- ment of the Geoweb, but ensures intimate eastern Pennsylvania. With innovativehttp://www.SolidWasteTech.com June 1999 SWT 35

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