Research, Technology, and Engagement


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  • The ETX tabletop display that I build while at the Pervasive Technology Labs at IU…

    I really engaging multi-user in-gallery tool that was VERY popular with visitors to the museum…

    Failure in my estimation because the novelty of the tool eclipsed any engagement with the art or its meaning and historical context… essentially a fancy video game and an ephemeral experience, not one that lasts or creates a deeper connection with art.
  • This is an image from the occupy wall street movement in NYC… demonstrates an evidence that social capital related to corporations is bankrupt.
  • Research, Technology, and Engagement

    1. 1. RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY ENGAGEMENT Robert Stein Deputy Director for Research Technology, and Engagement Indianapolis Museum of Art Flickr Credit ~heardsy for staff at the Art Institute of Chicago
    3. 3. Some facts About the IMATHE INDIANAPOLIS MUSEUM OF ART 152 ACRES 300 STAFF 127 YEARS
    4. 4. Enrich Permanent CollectionTHE INDIANAPOLIS MUSEUM OF ART 381,000 VISITORS 1M WEB VISITORS 54,000 OBJECTS
    5. 5. A BIT ABOUT ME
    6. 6. Flickr Credit ~chocolatedisco
    7. 7. Flickr Credit ~spiffy0777
    8. 8. National Center for Supercomputing Applications
    9. 9. Flickr Credit ~benchilada
    10. 10. Indiana University Pervasive Technology Labs
    12. 12. chocolatedisco/
    13. 13. 2006 Robert Stein Chief Information Officer Network Administrator Systems Administrator Database Administrator Help Desk
    14. 14. 2008 Robert Stein Chief Information Officer Director of IT Operations Systems Administrator Database Administrator Help Desk Software Developer Software Developer Director of New Media New Media Project Manager Video Producer Video Producer Head of Libraries and Archives Reference Librarian Catalogue Librarian Periodicals Archivist
    15. 15. 2010 Robert Stein Chief Information Officer Director of IT Operations AV Systems Director of Publishing and Media New Media Publications Photography Head of Libraries and Archives Archives IMA Lab Software Project Manager Software Developer (x4) Web Designer (x2) Conservation Objects Lab Paintings Lab Textiles Lab Paper Lab Conservation Imaging Conservation Science Audience Engagement Docent Programs Research and Evaluation Public Programs
    17. 17. IMA STRATEGIC PLAN 1. Collection and Program Vitality 2. Financial Strength and Stewardship 3. Research Leadership
    19. 19. RESEARCH LEADERSHIP 1. Establish the IMA as a research leader among its peers in the areas of: • Art History • Conservation Science • Information Science • Visitor Studies
    21. 21. RESEARCH LEADERSHIP KEY OBJECTIVES Create an institutional culture that fosters creative thinking and the production of new knowledge through experimentation, evaluation, in- depth analysis, and critical reasoning
    22. 22. RESEARCH LEADERSHIP KEY OBJECTIVES Become a leader among museums in the production and sharing of open content and scholarship
    23. 23. RESEARCH LEADERSHIP KEY OBJECTIVES Become an organization where models for evaluation are conceived, implemented, and shared; commit to long-term evaluation and the analysis of results as part of routine planning processes
    24. 24. RESEARCH LEADERSHIP KEY OBJECTIVES Develop collaborative relationships with researchers and institutions that enhance the IMA’s research capacity internationally
    25. 25. 3 MAJOR SHIFTS SO FAR
    26. 26. 3 MAJOR SHIFTS SO FAR 1.Creation of a Research Division 2.Merging of Publishing, New Media, & Photography 3.Change from Education to Audience Engagement
    27. 27. WHY ENGAGEMENT?
    28. 28. Art museums have for decades described their role as interpreter of cultural inheritance. In our new socially networked world, interpretation is no longer a one- or two-way street. Transparency changes the museum dynamic from registrarial fortress to public square. Interactivity allows for questioning, augmentation, and dispute of official interpretations by scholars and informed observers. Art museums host conversations among experts and enthusiasts, rather than privileged glimpses into the working methods of curators. Works of art themselves ‘converse’ through loans and exhibitions. Teachers, students, and museum staff and volunteers exchange ideas about the objects in our care and the experiences to be had in our facilities and on our websites. Visitor comments and market research initiate conversations that permeate the former comfort zone of institutional remove. Blogging by museum staff and by others about museums opens up new engagement, exchange, and conversation. Maxwell Anderson, The Art Newspaper, June 2010. GATHER STEWARD CONVERSE
    29. 29. If museums had just one purpose, our jobs would be much easier. But museums address multiple needs, regardless of the era in which we find ourselves. For art museums, those needs include collecting and caring for examples of cultural heritage and providing the public with avenues to understanding the intentions of artists in their time and the relevance of works to the present. But the Web has altered this last- mentioned obligation, from dispensing information alone to soliciting new forms of participation. And while museum professionals will always offer the “official” interpretation of objects in our care, we also should welcome the opportunity to attract the notice and to encourage the engagement of people anywhere. Maxwell Anderson, Dallas Museum of Art GIVING THE PUBLIC A VOICE
    30. 30. In a world shaped by immediate access to a vast sea of digital data, museums will serve as: sources, sharing information emerging from their collecting and research; aggregators, finding and integrating information from the many sources touched by their work; curators, selecting and annotating content to help people find reliable information; and educators, providing context and commentary. Technology will enable museums to scale up these core functions, which are already embedded in their work. In the future, museums also will become mentors, recruiting and training people to contribute and interpret content; and moderators, encouraging people to engage with content, sharing views, opinions, and their own expertise. And museums will continue to be welcome havens of respite and retreat, where people can unplug, disconnect, and immerse themselves in silence, beauty, and wonder. Elizabeth Merritt, Center for the Future of Museums AGGREGATORS, CURATORS, MENTORS, AND MORE
    31. 31. PARTICIPATORY CULTURE A participatory culture is a culture with relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations, and some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices. A participatory culture is also one in which members believe their contributions matter, and feel some degree of social connection with one another… Participatory culture is emerging as the culture absorbs and responds to the explosion of new media technologies that make it possible for average consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate media content in powerful new ways. Jenkins, Henry. 2006. “Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century.”
    32. 32. The work of organizing museums has not kept pace with the times. The United States is far behind the spirit of its own people… This can not long continue. The museum of the past must be set aside, reconstructed, transformed from a cemetery of bric-a-brac into a nursery of living thoughts. Goode, G. Brown. 1891. The Museums of the Future. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Goode, G. Brown. 1891. The Museums of the Future. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. A NURSERY OF LIVING THOUGHTS
    33. 33. Flickr Credit ~adforce1 ENGAGEMENT BUILDING A NEW DEPARTMENT
    34. 34. “Usually, I am drawn to art because it is visually appealing or relates to a technique I am familiar with. However, when I first viewed Utagawa Kunisada's painting, I was visually and viscerally jarred. As I looked and realized a child was in her arms, the painting became emotionally powerful to me. I realized and related to, the overwhelming need to create, right now, regardless of other obligations. With sons 18 & 20 it's been a long time since I was the nursing mom I took her to be. Between first coming to the Viewing Project and returning to it to write this, I have toured and enjoyed most of this floor. The image – visually not a favorite – continues to haunt me.” Utagawa Kunisada Japanese, 1786-1864 Nakamura Shikan in the role of the Fox Kuzunoha(Kuzunoha kitsune), 1861 Color woodblock print
    35. 35. “You know that moment when something completely takes over your being? Like when you get the news that a loved one has died and you never got to say goodbye. That moment – when you can't feel anything – the world suddenly slows down and you're part of it. All you hear is the slow thud of your heart. This was like sharing that moment. I've never viewed art like this. 33 year old nursing student. Avid lover of art and reading. Lost about every physical one I have ever had in the last year. Trying to find ways to cope and feel normal - sought refuge or salvation here.” Bill Viola American, 1951 The Quintet of the Silent DVD, Panasonic Plasma screen, line doubler, surge supressor, DVD player
    36. 36. Flickr Credit ~measter2 WHAT’S MODEL? THE RIGHT
    37. 37. Flickr Credit ~shutterhacks A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1.Pekarick and Doering 2.Pittman and Korn 3.Falk and Dierking
    38. 38. IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove
    39. 39. Developed by Andrew Pekarick and Zahava Doering at the Smithsonian Office for Policy and Analysis Results from a series of surveys of exhibitions at the national museums IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove
    40. 40. Visitors tend to favor interpretive materials that focus on one of either ideas, objects, or people IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove
    41. 41. IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove Ideas Gaining information or insight Enriching my understanding Objects Seeing rare, valuable, or uncommon things People Finding out what its like to live in a different time or place Getting a sense of the everyday lives of others Reflection Reflecting on the meaning of what I see Being moved by beauty
    42. 42. These predispositions tend to drive the experiences they seek out – and are highly correlated to exit-satisfaction results for those types of experiences. IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove
    43. 43. “Visitors are happiest when they encounter experiences that are unexpectedly satisfying” IDEAS PEOPLE OBJECTS Flickr Credit ~ellenlove “Experientially richer visits seem to be rated higher”
    44. 44. Flickr Credit ~da100fotos ATTRACT, ENGAGE, FLIP “Most of the visitors we observed and interviewed revealed a primary orientation, but—if given the right contents or presentation—could flip to unexpected discoveries of a different type.”
    45. 45. VISUAL VELCRO Flickr Credit ~quinnanya
    46. 46. VISUAL VELCRO To illustrate, let us imagine the humble Velcro patch. It consists of a strip of tiny loops, originally inspired by a burr caught in dog fur or velvet’s fuzzy surface. Now imagine a sensory impression, in this case an artwork, arriving in your perceptual field. Unless the visual impression has a hook that can fit into one of the loops on your specific LTM “patch,” it will glide right by and be forever forgotten. If there is something in the artwork, however, that strikes you—a figure, a vivid color, a bodily sensation resulting from the artwork’s massive or minuscule scale, a memory trigger or implied narrative connection—then we can say that artwork has “Visual Velcro.”It has hooked into your cognitive structure and stands a chance of remaining in your memory. Peter Samis, New Technologies as Part of a Comprehensive Interpretive Plan, 2007. quinnanya/
    47. 47. Photo Credit Alan Levine The work of interpretation, then, is to give cognitive hooks to the hookless, and assure that these hooks are sufficiently varied so that they can successfully land in the mental fabric of a broad array of visitors. Once visitors have a framework, all kinds of sensory impressions, emotions and reflections can weave themselves into the fabric of perception. Peter Samis, New Technologies as Part of a Comprehensive Interpretive Plan, 2007.
    48. 48. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33
    49. 49. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33 A Study by Randi Korn and Bonnie Pitman at the Dallas Museum of Art 2003-2008 To establish a “Framework for Engaging with Art” A Conceptual Model to Structure and Evaluate Educational Activities
    51. 51. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33 Observers are somewhat more tentative about looking at art and being in art museums. Among the clusters, they are the least comfortable analyzing or talking about their experience with art, though almost half have some educational background in art and art history, and the majority stay informed on exhibitions and related events. Some Observers may be new to looking at art and visiting the museums, as they do not recall in detail their experiences with works of art. But most return to the Museum after an initial visit, and their membership participation is similar to that of the more demonstrably engaged Participants and Independents. OBSERVERS
    52. 52. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33 People in this cluster enjoy the learning and social aspects of their experiences in art museums and are comfortable looking at most types of art. They have a strong knowledge of and interest in art, and they like to connect with works of art through music, dance, dramatic performances, readings, and a variety of other ways. Participants easily provide thoughtful descriptions of what a meaningful experience in an art museum is, value “real” works of art, and actively use interpretive resources and programs. PARTICIPANTS
    53. 53. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33 Independents like to view art on their own and develop their own explanations and interpretation. Their interactions with works of art are intense. They are confident about their art knowledge, have strong educational background in art, and are comfortable with art terminology. They talk easily with others about art and have passionate responses to art. They feel the Museum needs to create a setting that encourages and allows visitors to slow down and look at works of art. INDEPENDENTS
    54. 54. Flickr Credit ~pobrecito33 Forming the largest segment of onsite visitors, Enthusiasts are confident, knowledgeable, and enjoy looking at all types of art. They connect with works of art emotionally, both directly and through the performing arts. They participate actively in a wide variety of Museum programming and use interpretive resources in the galleries. They have the strongest art background. They like discussing the meaning of a work of art with friends, and they are interested in the artist’s materials and techniques. Enthusiasts frequently visit the Museum and, among the clusters are the most likely to be members. ENTHUSIASTS
    55. 55. Pitman, Bonnie, and Ellen Cochran. Hirzy. Ignite the Power of Art: Advancing Visitor Engagement in Museums. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art, 2010. Print.
    56. 56. Looking at works of art Reading explanatory wall text Performances in the galleries Watching video in the galleries Responding to art by creating art Taking a guided tour Using reading areas in the galleries Using computers to learn about art Pitman, Bonnie, and Ellen Cochran. Hirzy. Ignite the Power of Art: Advancing Visitor Engagement in Museums. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art, 2010. Print.
    57. 57. Flickr Credit ~phineasx THE MUSEUM VISIT CAN HAVE MANY FACETS
    58. 58. Founder of Institute for Learning Innovation Professor Learning and Science Education at Oregon State University Research conducted primarily at zoos, aquaria, and science centers. But also with art museums including the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Denver Art Museum JOHN FALK
    60. 60. FREE-CHOICE LEARNING According to tourism researcher Jan Packer, most people visit museums, parks, and other similar venues in order to “experience learning” or what she calls “learning for fun” Falk suggests that learning and leisure are becoming one and the same experience
    61. 61. LEARNING AND IDENTITY British education researcher, Holmes, theorized that there is an inverse relationship between learning for performance and learning for identity building … By contrast, in learning situations where jading is minimal and intrinsic motivations predominate—such as is typical of the free- choice learning that occurs in museums— learning is primarily identity-driven
    62. 62. LEARNING AND IDENTITY Most learning research is still predicated on conceptualizations of learning that make sense within academic contexts—learning is about the mastery of facts and concepts in order to orally, or in writing describe or defend an idea or proposition. However, it appears likely that within the world of free-choice learning, learning is typically, if not primarily for personal rather than public reasons and often strongly motivated by the needs of identity formation and reinforcement. In this context, learning tends to take the form of confirmation of existing understandings, attitudes, and skills in order to allow the individual to be able to say “Okay, I now know that I know/believe that.” The goal is not “mastery” in the traditional sense, but rather to provide the individual with a feeling of personal competence.
    64. 64. IDENTITY-RELATED VISIT MOTIVATIONS Explorers: motivated by a need to satisfy personal curiosity and interest in an intellectually challenging environment. Experience seekers: aspire to be exposed to the things and ideas that exemplify what is best and intellectually most important within a culture or community. Professional/Hobbyists: possess the desire to further specific intellectual needs in a setting with a specific subject matter focus. Rechargers: motivated by the yearning to physically, emotionally, and intellectually recharge in a beautiful and refreshing environment. Facilitators: motivated by the wish to engage in a meaningful social experience with someone whom they care about in an educationally supportive environment (parental facilitator and social facilitator).
    65. 65. ENTRANCE Flickr Credit ~aunto NARRATIVE
    66. 66. WHY FALK? Flickr Credit ~aunto • It is simple and easy to understand. • It is fairly well documented in the literature. • It has been tested and used in many museums. • It can be used by more than one department in the museum. • Falk has developed and tested a simple method to identify visitors motivations.
    68. 68. Results (371 participants) The most common visitor types were explorers (22.6%), experience seekers (22.4%), and rechargers (21.8%). Affinity seekers were the least common visitor type (2.7%). 22.4% 21.8% 17.0% 13.5% 2.7% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
    69. 69. Parental vs. Social Facilitators Of the 63 respondents who identified themselves as facilitators, 54% were parental facilitators (visiting with children under the age of 18) and 46% were social facilitators (not visiting with children under the age of 18). These correspond to 9.10% and 7.8% respectively of the total participants. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 parental facilitators social facilitators 54% 46%
    70. 70. Explorers (22.6%) • Who are they? – Not specialists – Repeat visitors – More likely to be attracted by new exhibitions • What do they do once at the museum? – Spend a lot of time in front of what interests them – Non linear visitation patterns – Read labels, wall text, brochures, take guided tours – Likely to participate to programs and lectures – When visiting in a group less likely to interact with other people
    71. 71. Experience seekers (22.4%) • Who are they? – Either first-time or infrequent visitors – Learning is not a priority – Interested in the museum as a destination – Time-conscious • What they do once at the museum? – Go straight to icon objects and exhibits (need orientation and recommendation for that) – Less interested in temporary exhibitions – Like to take pictures – Almost always visit the shop and the café that they see as part of the visit
    72. 72. Rechargers (21.8%) • Who are they? – They see museums as places to recharge and to be inspired – Often repeat visitors – Learning is not a priority • What do they do once at the museum? – They like to wander around and discover for themselves beautiful objects and places – Not likely to participate in programs and lectures – Not interested in blockbuster exhibitions – Only rarely use interpretative material – Not likely to use commercial facilities (shop & café)
    73. 73. Facilitators (17%) • Who are they? – They visit to satisfy the needs of someone else – Do not see the museum as a place for extensive personal learning – Interested also in the entertainment aspect of the visit – They can be time-conscious • What do they do at the museum? – They engage in social interaction – Visit patterns depend on the needs of their companions – (Parental) facilitators need guidance in interpreting the objects for their children – Use café and gift shop
    74. 74. Professional/Hobbyists (13.5%) • Who are they? – They are usually the smallest category of visitors – Most critical visitors – Art students, artists , academic, museum professionals – Repeat visitors • What do they do once at the museum? – They come with specific objectives and follow a specific path – Unlikely to read labels (unless they are students or for specific objects) – Interested in intense behind the scenes access to objects – Attend lectures and programs – Look for specialized books in the gift shop
    75. 75. ACTIVITY INVENTORY Flickr Credit ~zomerstorm
    76. 76. WHAT ABOUT ONLINE VISITORS? Flickr Credit ~quinnanya
    77. 77. 2011 Web Stats 1M Visits (3.6M Hits) +7% 56% (566K) not in Visit 6% 58% (580K) not in IN +5% 2011 Museum Attendance 381,026 (-11%) Mobile 8.8% (2x 2010)
    78. 78. WHAT’S THE ONLINE Flickr Credit ~aunto ENTRANCE NARRATIVE?
    79. 79. Flickr Credit ~measter2 WHAT’S THE RIGHT MODEL? Planning/thinking about a trip to the museum Searching about specific information Teacher told me to do this website Looking for teachers resources or activities Thought it might be interesting site to explore Haley-Goldman & Schaller, 2004
    80. 80. Flickr Credit ~measter2 WHAT’S THE RIGHT MODEL? Gathering information for an upcoming visit to the physical site Engaging in casual browsing Self-motivated research for specific content information Assigned research for specific content information Ellenbogen, Haley-Goldman & Falk, 2008
    81. 81. Flickr Credit ~measter2 WHAT’S THE RIGHT MODEL? Using the site to plan or follow up a visit to the physical site Using the website to locate subject- based information Accessing the website as part of browsing activities on the Web Using the website to interact or transact with the museum Peacock & Brownbill, 2007
    82. 82. Flickr Credit ~measter2 WHAT’S THE RIGHT MODEL? It seems (at least on the surface) that motivations for visits to physical museums are different than for museum websites: Experiences, identity-building vs. communication/information seeking Investment in visiting the physical and virtual museum is not the same Ellenbogen, Haley-Goldman & Falk, 2008
    84. 84. Google Analytics Is Not Enough
    85. 85. Initial Open-Ended Survey
    86. 86. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Plan a Visit Find Specific Content for Professional Reasons Find Specific Content for Personal Reasons Casual Browsing Make a Transaction Coded Results from Open Ended Online Motivations n=113
    87. 87. Follow Up Categorical Survey
    88. 88. A Much Better Response
    89. 89. 5:40 7:09 6:19 5:56 12:00 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Plan a Visit Find Specific Information for Professional Reasons Find Specific Information for Personal Reasons Casually Browse Make a Transaction Online Motivation by Type and Time n=4076 Percent Visits Average time
    90. 90. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Plan a Visit Find Specific Information for Professional Reasons Find Specific Information for Personal Reasons Casual Browsing Make a Transaction Average Time per Page by Motivation Type time/page (sec)
    91. 91. Visitor Flow
    92. 92. Visitor Flow
    93. 93. Visitor Flow
    94. 94. IN THE MEANTIME Flickr Credit ~nicholasjon
    95. 95. LOOKING AND SEEING Flickr Credit ~rocketjim54
    96. 96. Utagawa Hirōshige (Japanese, 1797-1858) - Nihonbashi in the Snow
    97. 97. Utagawa Hirōshige (Japanese, 1797-1858) - Nihonbashi in the Snow
    99. 99. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Silvia Filippini-Fantoni, Audience Engagement Tiffany Leason, Audience Engagement Charlie Moad, IMA Lab Ed Bachta, IMA Lab
    100. 100. Flickr Credit ~hseoane THANK YOU