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Why ruby

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Why ruby

  1. 1. Защо Ruby и Rails ? Радослав Станков Ruby on Rails семинар – Варненски свободен университет 2010
  2. 2. Кой съм аз? @rstankov http://rstankov.com http://blog.rstankov.com http://github.com/rstankov
  3. 3. Ruby Ruby е интерактивен, обектно-ориентиран език за програмиране. Неготово мото е: “Optimized for programmer happiness”
  4. 4. Ruby on Rails Ruby on Rails е framework за уеб приложения. Неготово мото е: “Web development doesn’t hurt”
  5. 5. Ruby Създаден от японеца Юкихиро Мацумото „Мац“. Първата публична версия излиза през 1995. Версия 2.0 се очакава да излезе за Коледа / не се казва коя /
  6. 6. private $_products = null; public function getProducts($categoryId){ if ($this->_products === null){ $this->_products = Product::where(array( 'category_id' => $categoryId )); } return $this->products; }
  7. 7. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  8. 8. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  9. 9. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  10. 10. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  11. 11. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  12. 12. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where({ :category_id => category_id }) end
  13. 13. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where( :category_id => category_id ) end
  14. 14. def products(category_id) @products ||= Product.where :category_id => category_id end
  15. 15. 5.times { puts "Ruby is cool!" } 5.times do puts "Ruby is cool!" end
  16. 16. File.open("some_file.txt") do |file| file << "content" end
  17. 17. [1,2,3,4].each { |value| puts value } # => [1, 2, 3, 4] [1,2,3,4].map { |value| value * value } # => [1, 4, 9, 16] [1,2,3,4].reduce { |a, b| a + b } # => 10
  18. 18. def operate(value) yield value end value = operate(5) { |v| v + 4 } puts value # 9
  19. 19. class Person attr_accessor :fist_name, :last_name def initialize(first_name, last_name) @first_name = first_name @last_name = last_name end def full_name "#{first_name} + #{last_name}" end end me = Person.new("Radoslav", "Stankov") puts me.full_name # Radoslav Stankov
  20. 20. class Person attr_accessor :fist_name, :last_name def initialize(first_name, last_name) @first_name = first_name @last_name = last_name end def full_name first_name + " " + last_name end end me = Person.new("Radoslav", "Stankov") puts me.full_name # Radoslav Stankov
  21. 21. class Person attr_accessor :fist_name, :last_name def initialize(first_name, last_name) @first_name = first_name @last_name = last_name end def full_name first_name + " " + last_name end end me = Person.new("Radoslav", "Stankov") puts me.full_name # Radoslav Stankov
  22. 22. class Person attr_accessor :fist_name, :last_name def initialize(first_name, last_name) @first_name = first_name @last_name = last_name end def full_name first_name + " " + last_name end end me = Person.new("Radoslav", "Stankov") puts me.full_name # Radoslav Stankov
  23. 23. class Person attr_accessor :fist_name, :last_name def initialize(first_name, last_name) @first_name = first_name @last_name = last_name end def full_name first_name + " " + last_name end end me = Person.new("Radoslav", "Stankov") puts me.full_name # Radoslav Stankov
  24. 24. class Person def +(other_person) # ... end end person1 + person2
  25. 25. class Array def first self[0] end def second self[1] end end array = [1, 2, 3, 4] array.first # 1 array.second # 2
  26. 26. class Numeric def plus(x) self + x end end y = 5.plus(6)
  27. 27. Time.now - 2.days == 2.days.ago 1.month.ago + 45.days - 1.year
  28. 28. Ruby • димично определяне на типа данните • модули • отворени класове • блокове • анонимни функции • всяка операция връща резултат • всичко е изпълним код • изчистен синтаксис • мета програмиране • промяна на обектите по време на изпълнение • вградени регулярни изрази
  29. 29. Ruby on Rails Разработен от David Heinemeier Hansson от 37 Signals. Първата публична версия е излиза през юли 2004. Текущата стабилна версия е 3.0.3
  30. 30. 37signals Милиони клиенти ... по-малко от 37 служителя
  31. 31. MVC Архитектура
  32. 32. Начин на работа
  33. 33. Model class Task < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :user has_many :comments validates_presence_of :user, :text validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => ["opened", "completed"] attr_readonly :user_id def editable? status == "opened" end end
  34. 34. Model class Task < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :user has_many :comments validates_presence_of :user, :text validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => ["opened", "completed"] attr_readonly :user_id def editable? status == "opened" end end
  35. 35. Model class Task < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :user has_many :comments validates_presence_of :user, :text validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => ["opened", "completed"] attr_readonly :user_id def editable? status == "opened" end end
  36. 36. Model class Task < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :user has_many :comments validates_presence_of :user, :text validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => ["opened", "completed"] attr_readonly :user_id def editable? status == "opened" end end
  37. 37. Model class Task < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :user has_many :comments validates_presence_of :user, :text validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => ["opened", "completed"] attr_readonly :user_id def editable? status == "opened" end end
  38. 38. Controller class TasksController < ApplicationController def index @tasks = Tasks.where(:status => "opened") end def show @task = Task.find(params[:id]) end def create @task = current_user.tasks.build(params[:task]) if @task.save redirect_to tasks_path else render :partial => "new" end end end
  39. 39. Controller class TasksController < ApplicationController def index @tasks = Tasks.where(:status => "opened") end def show @task = Task.find(params[:id]) end def create @task = current_user.tasks.build(params[:task]) if @task.save redirect_to tasks_path else render :partial => "new" end end end
  40. 40. Controller class TasksController < ApplicationController def index @tasks = Tasks.where(:status => "opened") end def show @task = Task.find(params[:id]) end def create @task = current_user.tasks.build(params[:task]) if @task.save redirect_to tasks_path else render :partial => "new" end end end
  41. 41. Controller class TasksController < ApplicationController def index @tasks = Tasks.where(:status => "opened") end def show @task = Task.find(params[:id]) end def create @task = current_user.tasks.build(params[:task]) if @task.save redirect_to tasks_path else render :partial => "new" end end end
  42. 42. View <%= form_for task do |form| %> <%= render 'shared/error_messages', :target => form.object %> <p> <%= form.label :text %> <%= form.text_area :text %> </p> <p> <%= form.label :status %> <%= form.select :status, Task.statuses %> </p> <div class="buttons"> <%= form.submit %> | <% link_to "Cancel", task_path %> </div> <% end %>
  43. 43. Test Driven Development
  44. 44. Test Driven Development 1 Добавя се тест ... за несъществуващ код
  45. 45. Test Driven Development 1 Добавя се тест ... за несъществуващ код 2 Пише се код ... колкото само тестът да мине
  46. 46. Test Driven Development 1 Добавя се тест ... за несъществуващ код 2 Пише се код ... колкото само тестът да мине 3 Правят се подобрения ... подобрява се качеството на кода
  47. 47. Test Driven Development 1 Добавя се тест ... за несъществуващ код 2 Пише се код ... колкото само тестът да мине 3 Правят се подобрения ... подобрява се качеството на кода
  48. 48. describe Task do it { should belong_to(:user) } it { should have_many(:notes) } it { should validate_presence_of(:user) } it { should validate_presence_of(:text) } describe "#editable?" do it "returns true if task status is 'opened'" do Task.new(:status => "opened").should be_editable end it "returns false if task status is 'rejected'" do Task.new(:status => "rejected").should_not be_editable end it "returns false if task status is 'completed" do Task.new(:status => "completed").should_not be_editable end end end
  49. 49. Тесване на Controller describe TasksController do describe "GET 'show'" do before { Task.should_recive(:find).with("1").and_return task } before { get :show, :id => "1" } it { should assign_to(:task).with(task) } it { should render_temlate("show") } end end
  50. 50. Тестване на View describe "tasks/show.html.erb" do before do assign :task, mock_model(Task, { :id => 1, :text => "task text" }) render end it "renders task text" do rendered.should contain("task text") end it "renders link for editing task" do rendered.should have_selector('a[href="/tasks/1/edit"]') end end
  51. 51. Благодаря за вниманието @rstankov

Editor's Notes

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  • Ruby &amp;#x435; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;, &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;-&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;. &amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x441;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; Smalltalk, Perl, Lisp &amp;#x438; Python.\n\n
  • &amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x435; framework &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x431; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;. &amp;#x427;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x431; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;.\n\n
  • &amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x42E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x41C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x201E;&amp;#x41C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x201C;. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437; 1995 &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;. &amp;#xA0;&amp;#x41C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435; &amp;#xA0;&amp;#x201E;&amp;#x41E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x449;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x201D;\n\n
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  • &amp;#x421;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; Ruby &amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;. &amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x447;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;.\nRuby &amp;#x435; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;-&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;: &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43F; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;, &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;.\n\n&amp;#x41D;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x445;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;: \n&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;\n&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; - &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B; 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  • &amp;#x420;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; David Heinemeier Hansson &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; 37 Signals. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x435; Rails &amp;#x435; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; Basecamp. &amp;#x412; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; Rails &amp;#x441;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x434; 1500 &amp;#x447;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;.\n\n
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&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x441; sql &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437; ActiveRecord &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x201D;\nView - &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x444;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x441;. &amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x435; HTML &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x201D;.\nController - &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x201D;.\n&amp;#xA0;\n\n
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&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;.\n&amp;#x41D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;, &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438;.\n\n&amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438; 3 &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x446;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; 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  • Taskar e &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437; &amp;#xA0;&amp;#x422;est Driven Development &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x432; 3 &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438;:\n&amp;#x41F;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;, &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; 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&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;.\n&amp;#x41D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;, &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438;.\n\n&amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438; 3 &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x446;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x435; 100% &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x449;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;--&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x44A;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x43D;. &amp;#xA0;&amp;#x422;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; 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