GEOG101 Chapter 7 Lecture


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GEOG101 Chapter 7 Lecture

  1. 1. Overview <ul><li>Components of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of People and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Subsystems of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Change </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Other Aspects of Diversity </li></ul>
  2. 2. Components of Culture <ul><li>Culture is learned, not biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through imitation, instruction, example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is not homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Culture trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single distinguishing feature of a culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of culture traits that are functionally interrelated </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Components of Culture <ul><li>Culture system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared, identifying traits uniting two or more culture complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portion of the earth’s surface in which common cultural characteristics prevail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture realm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Interaction of People and Environment <ul><li>Cultural ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the relationship between a culture group and the natural environment it occupies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environments as controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental determinism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physical environment molds human behavior and conditions cultural development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment offers a set of opportunities and limitations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Interaction of People and Environment <ul><li>Human Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The earth’s surface as modified by human action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between technological advancement and impact on the environment </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Subsystems of Culture <ul><li>Technological subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material objects and techniques people use to carry out their productive activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically advanced countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many people employed in manufacturing or services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High per capita incomes, levels of education and nutrition, life expectancies, medical services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and political power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically less-advanced countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High percentage of people engaged in farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower GNI and per capita incomes, life expectancies, literacy rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Subsystems of Culture <ul><li>Sociological subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common patterns of interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define the social organizations of a culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social institutions are closely related to the technological subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas, beliefs, knowledge and means of their communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness of all aspects of culture </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Culture Change <ul><li>Cultures are always in a state of flux </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Innovation <ul><li>Comes from within the social group </li></ul><ul><li>Premodern societies typically are not innovative or receptive to change </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurred independently in several areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected every aspect of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture hearth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of innovation from which key culture elements diffused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation is common in modern societies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Spatial Diffusion <ul><li>Outward spread of a phenomenon from its point of origin to other areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People move to a new area and take culture with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about an innovation spreads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receiver culture may selectively adopt some goods or ideas and reject others </li></ul><ul><li>Syncretism is a major feature of culture change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion of old and new culture elements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Acculturation <ul><li>Culture group or individual undergoes major modification by adopting many characteristics of another, usually dominant, culture group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May occur in a conquered or colonized region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population relocations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amalgamation theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiethnic societies become a merger of the culture traits of their member groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging into a composite culture and becoming culturally homogenized </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural Diversity <ul><li>Prominent differentiating culture traits of societies and regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Language <ul><li>Most important medium by which culture is transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>6000-7000 languages spoken in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many languages are disappearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of languages thought to have descended from a common ancestral tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Indo-European languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken by about ½ the world’s peoples </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Language Spread and Change <ul><li>Language spreads through dispersion of speakers or acquisition of speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution and spread of English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>≈ 400 million native speakers ≈ 600 million use it as a second language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official language of 60 countries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Standard and Variant Languages <ul><li>Standard language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents norms of syntax, vocabulary, pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional or socioeconomic variation of a language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pidgin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary language derived from other languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified grammatical structure and reduced vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native tongue developed from a pidgin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lingua franca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by people whose native tongues are incomprehensible </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Language and Culture <ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>A common language fosters unity </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism or multilingualism complicates national linguistic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Toponyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record of past and present cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Religion <ul><li>Value system that involves formal or informal worship and faith in the sacred and divine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joins adherents into a moral community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May affect all facets of a culture </li></ul>
  18. 18. Classification of Religions <ul><li>Universalizing religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim applicability to all and seek conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity, Islam, Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified with a particular ethnic group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism, Hinduism, Shinto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tribal (traditional) religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic religions specific to small, preindustrial cultures having close ties to nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secularism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An increasing part of many modern societies </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Principal Religions <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism laid foundation for Christianity and Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged 3000-3500 years ago in the Near East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descent from Israel, the Torah, Jewish traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Israel was a fulfillment of Zionism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus believed to be the messiah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of Western Church and Eastern Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic vs. Protestant cultural landscape </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Principal Religions <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohammed revered as the prophet of Allah (God) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observance of “five pillars” and surrender to Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread quickly outward from source region of Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division between Sunnis and Shi’ites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest major religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No founding event or initial prophet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Hindu is one born into a caste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member of a complex social, economic, religious community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of the eternal transmigration of souls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Principal Religions <ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded 6 th century B.C. in northern India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral philosophy taught by Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment and salvation lie in “four noble truths” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread to other parts of Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various schools of thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amalgamated with other belief systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>East Asian ethnic religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taoism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese Shinto </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Ethnicity <ul><li>Usually refers to the ancestry of people who share some common characteristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language, religion, national origin, unique customs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling that one’s own ethnic group is superior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial segregation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong and sustaining trait of ethnic identity </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Gender and Culture <ul><li>Socially created distinctions between femininity and masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relationships and role assignments differ among societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by economic development, religion, customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General egalitarianism in hunting and gathering cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture altered the structure of gender roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate role of women changed only in the later 20 th century in more-developed countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed impact of economic globalization </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Aspects of Diversity <ul><li>Culture is the sum total of the way of life of a society </li></ul><ul><li>Many other elements of culture, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul>